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来源:乐视助手    发布时间:2019年06月17日 04:54:42    编辑:admin         

The bitter feud that has pitted two of France’s most storied luxury names against each other for years has finally come to end.法国两大著名奢侈公司之间持续多年的争端终于结束。LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton, the world’s largest luxury conglomerate with brands ranging from jeweler Bulgari to handbag maker Fendi, agreed on Wednesday to give up most of the controversial 23% stake in Hermès it had quietly built up since 2007 and not buy any new shares in its smaller rival for five years.世界上最大的奢侈品集团路威酩轩(LVMH)旗下拥有众多知名品牌,包括宝格丽(Bulgari)珠宝和芬迪(Fendi)手袋等。自2007年以来,LVMH秘密收购了竞争对手爱马仕(Hermès)23%的股份,此举备受争议。从规模上来说LVMH略占上风。本周三,它同意放弃所持的大部分爱马仕股份,并于未来5年内不再收购。The deal, proposed by the Commercial Court of Paris and agreed to late Tuesday by both luxe groups, all but eliminates the prospect of a takeover of the 177 year-old Hermès, famed for its ,000 Birkin handbags, and one of the few remaining stand-alone French luxury companies.该协议由巴黎商业法庭(Commercial Court of Paris)提出,两家奢侈品集团于周二晚些时候达成同意,基本上中止了LVMH收购爱马仕的可能性。爱马仕是如今为数不多的几家法国独立奢侈品公司之一,它拥有177年的历史,以上万美元的柏金包(Birkin)而闻名。Under terms of the agreement, LVMH, controlled by French billionaire Bernard Arnault, will distribute all of its of Hermès shares to its shareholders, while LVMH’s largest shareholder, Christian Dior, will in turn distribute the Hermès shares to its own shareholders. Groupe Arnault, the businessman’s family holding company and a major LVMH investor, will still hold around 8.5% of Hermès shares.根据协议条款,由法国亿万富翁伯纳德o阿诺特控制的LVMH将向其股东分派所持的爱马仕股份,而LVMH集团最大的股东迪奥(Christian Dior),将转手把这些爱马仕股份分派给自己的股东。伯纳德o阿诺特的家族控股公司阿尔诺集团(Groupe Arnault)也是LVMH的主要投资者,该集团仍将持有约8.5%的爱马仕股份。In a statement, the companies’ executives expressed “their satisfaction that relations between the two groups, representatives of France’s savoir-faire, have now been restored.”两大集团的高管在一份公告中表示,对这两家极具代表性的法国公司之间的关系得以恢复感到很满意。The deal ends years of legal wrangling between the two. In 2010, LVMH shocked Hermès, and its controlling family, when it disclosed it had built up a 17% in its smaller rival by means of equity swaps rather than buying shares outright, allowing LVMH to do so in stealth mode. LVMH, an acquisitive company which has bought up some 60 brands in the last 20 years, had long maintained it came in peace and had not intention of taking over Hermès, a claim that was met with skepticism by Hermès patriarch Bertrand Puech, furious at having the company’s arch-rival be it top outside investor.该协议结束了两者之间持续多年的法律纠纷。2010年,LVMH披露其通过股权互换而非直接购买股票的方式积累了爱马仕17%的股份(股权互换可以使LVMH以隐蔽的方式积累股权),此消息一出,爱马仕及其控股家族非常震惊。LVMH历来喜欢收购,在过去20年中已经收购了60个品牌,LVMH称其抱着友好态度,并无全盘收购爱马仕的意图。而爱马仕的东主伯特兰o皮尤彻对这种说法持怀疑态度,公司的主要竞争对手居然成为其最大的外部投资者,这让他非常恼火。Last year, the French stock market regulator, Autorité des marchés financiers, fined LVMH for failing to properly disclose it was buying a stake in Hermès.去年,法国券监管机构金融市场(AMF)对LVMH处以罚款,原因是未能恰当披露收购爱马仕股份的情况。LVMH stands to make a capital gain of around 3 billion euros on its Hermès holdings, Bloomberg reported, citing an unnamed source. The distribution of Hermes shares will be completed by Dec. 20, 2014, the companies said.据彭资讯(Bloomberg)援引未具名消息人士的话报道,LVMH在爱马仕中的股份将为其带来约30亿欧元的资本收益。这两家公司表示,爱马仕股份的分派将于2014年12月20日之前完成。 /201409/326810。

1. Embellished Headband缀饰发带Anna Sui Style 安娜苏styleChannel 1970s glam, and spice up even the simplest party dress by parting pin-straight hair down the middle and wearing a shimmery, lacy headband to a festive event在参加节日活动时,采用1970年代的独特风情,垂发至腰间,通过佩戴发光的蕾丝发带为即使最简单朴素的礼裙增添无限魅力。 /201312/268637。

As the feline turns 40 she’s more powerful than ever. But how did she become a brand worth bn?Hello Kitty诞生40周年之际,越发风靡世界。它如何成为价值70亿美元的品牌?After Japan, Singapore was the first to suffer an outbreak. The infection? Hello Kitty mania. In 2000, a shortage of toys displaying the beloved cat at one of the city’s McDonald’s restaurants led to the unleashing of darker, violent instincts when a riot ensued. Seven people were injured and three taken to hospital for treatment. That was just the beginning.Hello Kitty最早流行于日本,随后在新加坡掀起热潮,出现大批Hello Kitty迷。2000年,因新加坡某家麦当劳餐厅Hello Kitty玩具供应不足,人群发生暴乱,造成7人受伤、3人入院,人性黑暗暴力面展露无遗。然而,这仅仅是开端。Now, what is left of our species, children and adults alike, have succumbed, making ‘Kitty chan’, as she is better known in Japan, one of the most recognisable graphics on Earth. Hello Kitty turns 40 this autumn, and we can now see that she was the Trojan Horse that led to the global domination of Japanese ‘cute culture’. From Marrakech to Honolulu, the ubiquitous red-ribboned cat now stands top-tier in any toy display. Googling Mickey Mouse reaps about 23 million results. Search Hello Kitty, however, and you’ll find the kitten, which is basically just a narrative-free, trademarked drawing, garners 10 million more.如今,这只风靡日本的小猫咪( Kitty chan)已成为世界最著名动画人物之一Hello Kitty,深受成年人与儿童喜爱。2014年秋季,Hello Kitty将迎来40岁生日。它已成为日本“可爱文化”( cute culture)风靡世界的“特洛伊木马”。从马拉喀什(Marrakech)到火奴鲁鲁(Honolulu),这只头戴红色蝴蝶结的小猫在各种玩具展览中广受欢迎。假如你谷歌搜索“米奇老鼠”,将有230万个搜索结果;但如果搜索“Hello Kitty”,你将得到100万个搜索结果,尽管它只是个不会说话,商业图标以及有1000多万用户的游戏。Kitty-shaped guitars and even Hello Kitty tombstones abound. The famous feline, originally drawn by designer Yuko Shimizu to appeal to kindergarten children, has been adopted as a style icon by the likes of Lady Gaga. Remarkably, such world-domination has been achieved with little advertising; relying instead on word-of-mouth. Now Hello Kitty appears on over 50, 000 products that are sold in more than 70 countries, and is a brand worth bn. The company that holds the copyright, Sanrio, makes around 9m in annual revenue off the cat alone. So, why have we all become such pushovers for the feline?Hello Kitty形状的吉他,甚至Hello Kitty的墓碑都随处可见。设计师清水侑子(Yuko Shimizu)起初为吸引幼儿园小朋友而画出的Hello Kitty如今已成为Lady Gaga追捧的时尚标志。值得注意的是,Hello Kitty风靡世界的秘诀不在于广告宣传,而是口口相传。目前世界上有70多个国家出售5万多种Hello Kitty相关产品,Hello Kitty商标价值已达70亿美元。拥有Hello Kitty版权的三丽鸥会社(Sanrio)单凭Hello Kitty年收入已达7.59亿美元。Hello Kitty到底是如何俘获消费者芳心的?“Kitty#39;s appeal is that she#39;s an emotional blank slate. As one of her designers told me: ‘Kitty feels like you do, ’” explains Roland Nozomu Kelts, the author of Japanamerica: How Japanese Pop Culture Has Invaded the US. “We project upon that mouth-less, expressionless kitten, making her the perfectly interactive toy or doll or marketing tool in an age where interactivity is not only desired, it#39;s expected.”“Hello Kitty的吸引力在于它是一块情绪诉求的白板。”正如其设计者之一所说:“Hello Kitty表达的是你的情绪。”日美著作家罗兰#8226;佐佐木望#8226;凯尔特斯(Roland Nozomu Kelts)解释日本流行文化如何风靡美国时说道:“我们计划推出一只没有嘴巴、面无表情的小猫咪,在互动不仅是唯一需求的时代,使其成为互动完美的玩具、玩偶或营销工具。”Cat fancy喜爱猫咪“Hello Kitty represents the deep desire among all people, regardless of nationality or race, to feel joy and happiness, without having to qualify it at any deep intellectual level, ” Sanrio’s public relations manager Kazuo Tohmatsu tells B Culture. “Hello Kitty doesn#39;t judge. She let#39;s you feel how you feel without forcing you to question why.”“Hello Kitty代表所有人群渴望感受乐趣和幸福的深层需求,不分国籍种族,不限智力水平。”三丽鸥会社公关部经理等松和夫(Kazuo Tohmatsu)如是说道。“Hello Kitty不会评头论足,它让你感受当下,而非强迫你去追问原因。”Sanrio made its fortune licensing the character to a slew of other businesses that produce merchandise. “Hello Kitty#39;s many easily-accessible products make it easy to incorporate her into our daily lives and experience the ‘cute culture’ that her brand represents in different ways, ” says Michelle Nguyen, who licenses the character for her Chubby Bunny Accessories. That’s why Forbes magazine has called Hello Kitty one of the best-selling licensed entertainment products ever.通过授权企业大量生产Hello Kitty相关商品,三丽鸥会社收益颇丰。“便于购买的Hello Kitty产品让它轻易融入我们日常生活,人们时常能感受到Hello Kitty商标以不同方式呈现的‘可爱文化’。”米歇尔#8226;阮(Michelle Nguyen)说道。她的胖兔子配件公司(Chubby Bunny Accessories)已获得Hello Kitty授权。这便是《福布斯》杂志将Hello Kitty评为史上最畅销授权产品的原因。So successful has Kitty been that she was chosen to be a Japanese diplomatic envoy, the official tourism ambassador to China and Hong Kong, in 2008. All part of Japan’s drive to bolster its soft power globally through a state-backed campaign dubbed Cool Japan. Promoting manga, anime cartoons and other aspects of Japanese pop culture, it’s an initiative that came about when Japan’s perennially uncool bureaucrats had a vision that cultural exports could help plug the economic gap created by the near collapse of Japan Inc in the 1990s.由于Hello Kitty广受欢迎, 2008年,它成为日本外交使节,驻中国大陆与香港的日本官方旅游大使。日本以“酷日本”(Cool Japan)为驱动力,持其文化软实力在国际社会发展。日本刻板的官员意识到,文化输出有助于缩小20世纪90年代日本企业衰落引起的经济差距,因此积极主动推广漫画、动漫卡通和其他方面日本流行文化。Out went promoting wabi sabi and tea ceremonies. In came the country’s pop culture as flagships of Japanese enterprise. Older, less cute merchandise, would only remind the Japanese of their hubris and their bubble economy that burst, taking macho hi-tech Japan with it. Since the ‘90s many in the nation have wanted their culture to get in touch with its feminine side, hence the new love of all things kawaii (rhymes with Hawaii and means cute). Cute is also an important social lubricant in cities where many desperately seek a comfort blanket, a buffer against exceedingly tough urban lifestyles. Japanese companies now take special care in projecting their kawaii image, says Yasuko Nakamura, president of Tokyo-based marketing company Boom Planning: “Japanese products are made to be kawaii so that they are liked by women. In Japan, women hold the spending power. Even for things that women don#39;t purchase themselves, such as a car, they have a strong say in the final decision.”侘寂之美(wabi sabi)和茶道已经过时,日本流行文化才是当今日本企业称霸世界的秘诀。老式土气的商品只会让日本人回想起骄傲自大的国民性格、惨遭破灭的泡沫经济和男性主导高新技术。20世纪90年代以来,许多日本人希望本国文化能够展现其女性化一面,因此涌现“卡哇伊”(与英文“夏威夷”韵脚相同,意为“可爱”)新风尚。可爱文化成为渴望在城市社会生活中寻找温暖的人们的润滑剂;同时,可爱文化更有助于缓冲节奏快而艰难的城市生活方式。如今,日本企业特别注意开发小巧可爱的卡通形象。日本东京营销公司繁荣计划(Boom Planning)总裁中村宁子(Yasuko Nakamura)说道:“为吸引女性消费者,日本产品制作小巧可爱。日本女性拥有消费能力,即便如轿车等非女性自己购买的东西,她们对最终决定都拥有强烈发言权。”To rule the world风靡世界But why has Hello Kitty made such a foothold in Europe and the ed States? Perhaps it is because the western democracies in the past decade have encountered problems similar to those Japan has faced since the 90s: deflation, more work for less pay, an ageing demographic and an unhealthy obsession with youth. Even the once hard-bitten British are falling for Hello Kitty and Osaka-based musician and cultural commentator Nick Currie thinks he knows why. “Hello Kitty symbolises some essential Japanese virtues: agreeableness, harmony, commerce, cuteness, nature, fertility, affluence and the avoidance of aggression, ” he says. “She [also] represents the irresistible idiocy of consumer culture, hardwired to our neurological system. We shop with almost the same reflexes that make us stretch out to stroke a big-eyed, fluffy kitten.” That may be a universal impulse.然而,Hello Kitty为何能在欧洲和美国取得如此稳固的地位?也许正是因为西方民主国家在过去十年中遭遇了与日本90年代以来相似的问题:通货紧缩、工作多薪资低、人口老龄化和青少年颓靡。即便是一度强硬的英国国民也为Hello Kitty倾心,驻大阪音乐家、文化员尼克#8226;克里(Nick Currie)分析其中原因。“Hello Kitty象征着几项日本基本美德:亲善、和谐、商业、可爱、自然、多子、富足和避免侵略。”他说道。“同时,Hello Kitty也代表盲目冲动的消费文化,人们与生俱来就有这种冲动。几乎出于相同的反射作用,我们购物时都会去拿有着大眼睛、毛茸茸的Hello Kitty。”这也许是普遍的冲动消费。But the West, and certain minorities in Japan, are not all about the ascendance of commerce. Pockets of resistance to Kitty tyranny do exist, while savvier cartoon characters from Japan are now poised to possibly eclipse the reign of this most babyish of icons.但在部分西方国家和少数日本人眼中,Hello Kitty并不那么“可爱”。出现过抵制Kitty时尚袋子。另一方面,来自日本形象精明的卡通人物正瞄准稚气十足的Hello Kitty,准备抢夺其风头。Kitty Hell is one of a number of web sites that aims to thwart the ubiquitous feline. The blogger puts up examples of his Japanese wife’s – and others’obsession with the mouthless one . He posts items such as Kitty-shaped face tattoos and suggests, tongue-in-cheek, that “Sanrio has invented a Hello Kitty virus that makes people do things like this.”“凯蒂地狱”(Kitty Hell)是众多抵制无处不在的Hello Kitty的网站之一。主列举他的日本妻子及其他人痴迷Hello Kitty的例子。他发布诸如Hello Kitty形状面部纹身的照片,半开玩笑道:“三丽鸥发明了一种名为Hello Kitty的病毒,感染者都会干这种傻事。”“All I really do is point out the absurdity of the fans and all the products, ” the anonymous blogger tells the B.“我做的是指出疯狂粉丝和所有产品的的荒唐可笑。”该匿名主说道。Meanwhile, the genius Japan has demonstrated for creating likeable characters has spawned another Pan-Asian hit in the form of a chat service called Line. Much of the app’s popularity rides on one area where Japan has an unassailable lead – the design and playful use of emoji (Japanese emoticons). On the Line app they have grown into fully delineated characters such as the enigmatic Moon.与此同时,通讯应用连我(Line)中可爱卡通形象在泛亚地区走红,充分实日本人头脑之聪明。连我流行的主要基础是拥有日本稳如泰山的优势领域,即设计与使用表情符号(emoji)。在连我应用中,它们已发展成完整的卡通角色,例如神秘的月亮(译者注:神秘的月亮意味着“你永远不知道接下来会发生什么”。)Now the company behind Line is gunning for equal success worldwide – recently the Spanish have also fallen in love with Line’s impish and much more cynical, adult-oriented mascots. Could it be time to say “Hello Line” and “goodbye feline”?目前,连我所属公司正在全球寻求与HelloKitty同等的成功。得益于其面向成年人的奇趣搞怪、愤世嫉俗风格,近日,连我在西班牙走红。是否到了说“你好,连我!”和“再见,小猫!”的时候了? /201409/324939。

Can #39;goal factoring#39; help you keep your New Year#39;s resolution to hit the gym every day in 2014?“目标构想”能帮助你坚持自己的新年决心,在2014年的每一天都去健身房健身吗?#39;Goal factoring, #39; a method of designing better plans, is one of the techniques taught by the Center for Applied Rationality, which hosts three-day workshops that teach attendees how to use science-based approaches to achieve goals. A November workshop in Ossining, N.Y., instructed 23 participants on how thinking about one#39;s future self as a different person can help goal-setting and why building up an #39;emotional library#39; of associations can reduce procrastination.“目标构想”是应用理性学习中心(Center for Applied Rationality,简称“CFAR”)所教授的技巧之一,是一种拟定更合理计划的方法。该中心常举办为期三天的讲习班,教授与会者如何采用有科学依据的方法来实现目标。他们于11月份在纽约州奥西宁(Ossining)举办的讲习班吸引了23名参加者,指导他们把未来的自己想象成一个不同的人可如何帮助制定目标,以及建立“情感(联想)库”为何能减轻拖延。CFAR, a Berkeley, Calif.-based nonprofit, is prominent in the growing #39;rationality movement, #39; which explores the science of optimized decision-making. In recent years, books about decision-making and probability theory -- including #39;Predictably Irrational#39; by Dan Ariely, who writes a regular column for The Wall Street Journal, and #39;Thinking, Fast and Slow#39; by Daniel Kahneman -- have been best-sellers. Websites like Overcoming Bias and Less Wrong serve as communities for those who believe the best way to be effective, whether in changing eating habits or changing the world, is to actively look at the lessons of science and hard data. The movement draws on some of the same research as economists who argue that investors behave irrationally.CFAR是加州伯克利(Berkeley)的一个非营利机构,它在影响正在日益扩大的探讨优化决策制定科学的“理性运动”中地位显著。近些年,有关决策制定及概率论的书籍一直都是畅销书,包括也为《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)定期撰写专栏的丹·阿雷利(Dan Ariely)所写的《可预见的非理性》(Predictably Irrational),以及丹尼尔·卡内曼(Daniel Kahneman)撰写的《思考,快与慢》(Thinking, Fast and Slow)等。诸如Overcoming Bias和Less Wrong这样的网站成为了那些认为变得高效──无论是改变饮食习惯或是改变世界──的最佳方法就是积极参考科学经验和硬数据的人士的活动中心。此外,理性运动还借鉴了那些提出投资者总是不理性地行动的经济学家所借鉴的部分研究。Very smart people often make irrational decisions, says University of Toronto psychologist Keith Stanovich. This leads to, say, physicians choosing less effective medical treatments or governments spending millions on unneeded projects. In 2013, Dr. Stanovich received a million grant from the John Templeton Foundation to develop a rigorous #39;rationality ient#39; test similar to an IQ test. Dr. Stanovich, who sits on CFAR#39;s advisory board, hopes to have such a test y in two years. He hopes the test will encourage people to learn to be more rational.多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的心理学家基思·斯塔诺维奇(Keith Stanovich)称,非常聪明的人常常也会做出不理智的决定。这会导致医生选择了不怎么有效的医疗方案,或者是政府在不必要的工程上花了几百万。2013年,斯塔诺维奇士收到了约翰·坦普尔顿基金会(John Templeton Foundation)提供的100万美元资助,以开发一个类似智商测试的严密的“理性商数”测试。斯塔诺维奇士也是CFAR的顾问之一,他希望在两年后设计出这样的测试,并希望该测试能促动大家学习变得更理性一些。For individuals, the odd secret of rationality is its reliance on emotions, proponents say. #39;People are always really surprised at how much time we spend at the workshops talking about our feelings, #39; says CFAR President Julia Galef, who has a statistics degree from Columbia University. #39;Rationality isn#39;t about getting rid of emotions, but analyzing them and taking them into consideration when making decisions, #39; she says.持者称,对于个人而言,理性的奇特秘密在于它对情感的依赖。CFAR主席朱莉娅·加利夫(Julia Galef)指出:“总是有人对自己在讲习班中花了那么多时间谈论自己的感受非常惊讶。理性并不是要你消除情感,而是要分析它们并在做决定时把它们考虑进去。”加利夫拥有哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)的统计学学位。Attendees, who each paid about , 000 to participate in the Ossining workshop (meals and lodging included), learned a technique called #39;pre-hindsight#39; that uses emotional cues to create more foolproof plans. It works like this: Imagine that six months have passed, and you haven#39;t achieved the body of your dreams. How surprised are you? The less surprised you are, the less likely it is you will succeed at your goal. Then think in detail about each reason you wouldn#39;t be surprised if June comes and the number on the scale hasn#39;t budged. Each reason -- whether #39;I don#39;t have time#39; or #39;I don#39;t like running in the mornings#39; -- is a possible cause of failure. Using the surprise level to anticipate these is crucial to creating a plan to address each weak point.参加奥西宁讲习班的人每人需交费约4,000美元(包括食宿),学习的是一项名为“事后认识预测”的技能,即运用情感暗示来制定更万无一失的计划。它是这样起作用的:想象一下六个月已经过去,而你还未实现你的理想身材。你会有多惊讶?你越是不惊讶,你成功实现目标的可能性就越低。接下来,你要仔细想想假如6月份已经到来,但体重秤上的数字还没变化,对此你并不惊讶的每个原因。每一个原因──无论是“我没有时间”还是“我不喜欢在早晨跑步”──都是可能让你失败的原因。利用惊讶程度来预测这些是制定计划以解决每个弱点的关键。Similarly, goal factoring can help determine whether shelling out a month at the YMCA is the best way to get in shape. This involves mapping out the motivations (health, stress relief, weight loss) behind doing something (going to the gym), and questioning whether there is a more effective way to achieve the same things. Goal factoring could lead a person to realize that, given time and interests, an hour on the tmill is unrealistic, but a weekly soccer tournament with friends is doable.同样地,目标构想能帮助你决定每个月在基督教青年会(YMCA)花上40美元是否是保持体型的最佳方法。这包括要列出做某件事情(比如去健身房)背后的动因(为了健康、减压或减肥),然后自问做成同样的事情是否还有更有效的方法。目标构想可让一个人意识到,考虑到时间和兴趣问题,在跑步机上跑一小时是不切实际的,而每周和朋友踢场足球则是可行的。Other lessons include #39;structured procrastination.#39; The idea is that if you#39;re going to procrastinate, you might as well procrastinate by doing something that works toward another goal -- for example, procrastinate on starting a work project by watching a TED talk you#39;ve been meaning to catch or starting a book you#39;ve wanted to .其他技巧包括“结构化拖延”。其理念是假如你想拖延某事,倒不如通过做些有助于实现另一个目标的事情来拖延它。比如说,如果你想延迟开始一个工作项目,你可以去看一段你一直想补上的TED的演讲,或者开始读一本以前想读的书。If it seems like the rationalists are overthinking the decision-making process, consider the audience, Ms. Galef says. Most workshop participants have been software engineers, entrepreneurs, students or scientists. In one session, the instructor asked whether anyone present hadn#39;t written a computer program. No hands went up.加利夫说,如果你觉得理性主义者似乎对决策制定过程思虑过度了,想想讲习班的那些人吧。参加讲习班的人大多数曾是软件工程师、企业家、学生和科学家。在某节课上,讲师问在座的人是否有没有写过电脑程序的。没有一个人举手。Can rationality exercises actually teach us to act more rational day to day?理性训练真能教会我们一天比一天更理性地行动吗?Psychologist Dr. Kahneman, who won a Nobel Prize in economics for research into decision-making in 2002, says it is very difficult to overcome our split-second irrational reactions. #39;Much of it is automatic, #39; he says. #39;Preferences come to mind and emotions arise, and we#39;re not aware that we#39;re making [decisions and assumptions] and therefore cannot control them.#39;凭借对决策制定的研究在2002年获得诺贝尔经济学奖的心理学家卡内曼士指出,我们会很难克我们自己在一瞬间的非理性反应。他说:“多数是自然出现的,你偏爱的东西会出现在你的脑海中,情绪会随之产生,而且我们也意识不到我们正在做出决定和假设,所以我们无法控制它们。”Organizations can generally make gains by adopting rational procedures enforced from the top, but Dr. Kahneman is skeptical of how much individuals can change.机构团体一般都能够从采纳自上而下执行的理性程序中受益,但卡内曼士对个人能改变多少持怀疑态度。Dr. Stanovich is more optimistic. It is true that automatic biases can#39;t be removed, he says, but people can train themselves to slow down and question these biases, and learn other mechanisms -- even something as simple as deliberately thinking of the effect of the opposite decision -- that may counteract such biases.斯塔诺维奇士则更为乐观。他说,自然而然的偏见确实不能消除,但人们可以训练自己减缓和质疑这些偏见,并学会其他也许能抵消这些偏见的机制──甚至是像审慎考虑相反决定的后果这样简单的事情。Max Tegmark, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says he #39;aly had a high level of rationalism#39; but found the CFAR workshop useful.麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)物理学家马克斯·泰格马克(Max Tegmark)说他“已经具备很高的理性程度”,不过还是发现CFAR的讲习班很有用。#39;I had this huge to-do list with over a thousand things on it, and I found I wasn#39;t looking at it very often because whenever I did, I just got this depressing feeling of being overwhelmed by my failure to accomplish stuff, #39; says Dr. Tegmark. After the March workshop in Berkeley, Calif., the 46-year-old developed an improved system for tackling emails by writing a program that responds to routine emails with automated messages. He also got better at staying on track with long-term projects. #39;I learned that if I want Max to do something in December, I should think about December Max as a different person, #39; he says. Instead of just putting a reminder to do something in a few months, he#39;ll plan ahead and send email reminders and incentives for his #39;future self.#39;泰格马克士说:“我制定了一份庞大的任务清单,单子上列了1000多件事情,我发现我并不会经常看它,因为每当我去看它时,我就会因为受不了自己做不成那些事情而产生一种沮丧的感觉。”在3月份于加州伯克利参加了讲习班后,46岁的泰格马克写了一个以自动生成的信息回复日常邮件的程序,由此开发了一个跟踪邮件的升级系统。他在坚持长期项目方面也做得更好了。他说:“我了解到如果我要马克斯在12月份做些事情,我应该把12月的马克斯想象成一个不同的人。”他不只是记上要在几个月后做某件事的提醒,而是提前计划,给“未来的自己”发送邮件提醒和激励。Another March attendee, Estonian computer programmer and Skype co-founder Jaan Tallinn, says the workshop helped him improve his fitness plan. After analyzing his actions, Mr. Tallinn, 41, realized that he was avoiding exercise mostly because his routine was too long. He designed a shorter routine with different exercises that he finds it easier to stick to. (Mr. Tallinn is an investor in the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, which is affiliated with CFAR.)爱沙尼亚电脑程序员、Skype的联合创始人扬·塔林(Jaan Tallinn)也在3月份参加了讲习班。他说讲习班帮助他改进了他的健身计划。在分析了自己的行动后,41岁的塔林意识到他逃避健身主要是因为他的那个日常计划太长了,于是他拟定了一个他认为更容易坚持的包含不同锻炼项目的较短期的计划。(塔林为隶属于CFAR的机器智能研究所(Machine Intelligence Research Institute)的投资者。)That individuals -- as well as markets and corporations -- don#39;t always behave rationally is a tenet of behavioral economics.个人──连同市场及企业──并不总是理性行事是行为经济学的一大信条。Scholars of behavioral economics, including Dr. Kahneman, have attempted to tease out the factors behind individuals#39; and investors#39; shifting risk tolerances and decisions.包括卡内曼士在内,行为经济学的学者曾尝试理出个人及投资者的风险容忍度和决策不断变化背后的因素。Behavioral economics, which has gained ground among academic economists over the past several decades, departs from traditional notions by assuming that individuals don#39;t always behave rationally and act in their own best interests. Thus we have market bubbles in which investors inflate stocks or homes way above their rational value.过去数十年来,行为经济学在学院派经济学家中得到了发展,它与传统观念不同,认为个人的行为并不总是理性的,并且总是按照自己的最大利益行事。因此,我们会看到市场泡沫,投资者将股票或房产的价格抬高到远远高于它们合理价值的水平。 /201401/274236。

About a month ago Sharon Gilbert was hit with a runny nose, sore throat and a cough. The whole snotty works. 大约在一个月前,莎伦·吉尔伯特(Sharon Gilbert)出现了流涕、咽喉疼痛、咳嗽等一系列令人烦恼的症状。A few weeks later she thought she had recovered. Then her husband Derek got sick, and bam. #39;Suddenly I started getting all the symptoms [again] and it was worse,#39; said Ms. Gilbert, a 61-year-old writer in Charleston, Ill. 几个星期后,她觉得自己已经康复了。可是,接下来她的丈夫德里克(Derek)又病了,而且猛地一下,“突然间我开始(再次)出现所有的症状,而且这次更严重了,”吉尔伯特说道。今年61岁的她是伊利诺伊州查尔斯顿(Charleston)的一名作家。In the winter that seems to have no end in many parts of the country, people like Ms. Gilbert have been plagued with the seemingly everlasting cold. 在美国众多冬季似乎没有尽头的地区,像吉尔伯特这样的人一直受到似乎永不休止的感冒的折磨。That#39;s partly because the common cold can last longer than many people think -- up to two weeks for the principal symptoms and perhaps weeks more for a cough that lingers even after the virus has been cleared away. There#39;s also the possibility of secondary infections such as bacterial sinusitis. 一部分原因是,普通感冒的持续时间要比许多人所认为的更长——主要症状会持续长达两周时间,至于在感冒病毒已被清除后仍久不见愈的咳嗽,它可能要再持续几周时间。此外,患上细菌性鼻窦炎之类的继发性感染的可能性也存在。And some patients might get back-to-back colds, doctors say. It isn#39;t likely people will be reinfected with the same virus because the body builds some immunity to it. But people can pick up another of the more than 200 known viruses that can cause the common cold, some of which are worse than others. 医生说,有些患者或许会连续患感冒。人们不大可能会重新感染同一种病毒,因为人体已对它形成了一定的免疫力。然而,能引发普通感冒的已知病毒有200多种(有些病毒比其他更厉害),人们还是会感染上其中一种。#39;When you hear people who have the cold that #39;won#39;t go away,#39; those are typically back-to-back infections of which we see a lot of in the cold weather when people are cohorting together,#39; said Darilyn Moyer, a physician at Temple University Hospital and chairwoman-elect of the American College of Physicians Board of Governors. 天普大学医院(Temple University Hospital)医生、美国医师协会(American College of Physicians)理事会候任主席达尔琳·莫耶(Darilyn Moyer)说:“如果你听到别人得了‘永不见好’的感冒,那通常就是连续性感染,这种情况在人们常窝在一起的寒冷季节较多见。”Influenza may get all the attention, but the common cold is the leading cause of doctor visits, according to the National Institutes of Health. Each year, people in the U.S. get about one billion colds, and 22 million school days are lost to the stubborn viruses. 美国国家卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health,简称“NIH”)称,流感吸引了人们所有的注意力,但普通感冒才是人们就医的首要原因。美国每年约有10亿人次得感冒,学生们因顽固的感冒病毒共停课2,200万天。专家们说,成年人每年平均患两到五次感冒,学龄儿童的感冒次数则多达七到10次。老年人感染病毒的次数往往较少,因为他们已经形成了对多种病毒的免疫力。与儿童生活在一起或者工作中与儿童接触的成年人感冒较多。Experts say adults on average get two to five colds a year; school children can get as many as seven to 10. The elderly tend to get infected less because they#39;ve built up immunity to many viruses. And adults who live or work with young children come down with more colds. 对此我是深有体会。最近一个多月来,我们家似乎就在玩讨厌的感冒传递游戏。我的丈夫得了感冒,又持续咳嗽了几周时间,我们怀疑他又传染给了我们幼小的孩子。最后我也倒下了。Don#39;t I know it. For more than a month now my family seems to be playing a game of pass-the-nasty-cold. My husband had a cold and lingering cough for weeks, which we suspect he gave to our infant. Finally I succumbed. 我们认为我们上幼儿园的孩子是各种病菌的传播者。就在我们大家逐渐康复时,孩子开始上日托了,把某种病毒带回了家,于是我们全都开始了新一轮明显与第一次不同的感冒。We blamed the purveyor of all germs, our kindergartner. Just as we were all recovering, the infant started day care and brought home a virus and we#39;re all on round two of apparently a different cold. 专家指出,病菌携带者——在我们家则是我们上幼儿园的孩子——有可能会将病菌传染给别人,而自己不会出现症状。Experts say it#39;s possible that the carrier of germs -- in this case our kindergartner -- can infect others without having symptoms himself. 威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校(University of Wisconsin-Madison)分子病毒学研究所(Institute of Molecular Virology)的研究员安·帕尔门伯格(Ann Palmenberg)说:“在任何时候,要是我们用棉签擦拭你的鼻子,大概都能发现它里面存在着五种不同的鼻病毒,但是你也并没有生病。”鼻病毒是引发普通感冒最常见的病毒,占成年人感冒诱因的30%至50%,而且它的种类超过了150种。#39;At any given moment if we were to swab you. . .we#39;d probably come up with five different rhinoviruses sitting in your nose but you#39;re not sick,#39; said Ann Palmenberg, a researcher at the Institute of Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Rhinovirus is the most common viral cause of the common cold, accounting for 30% to 50% of adult colds, and there are more than 150 strains of it. 帕尔门伯格士指出,鼻病毒附着在细胞间黏附分子(ICAM)受体上以便进入壁细胞,在该受体张开时,人们才会感染病毒。To get infected, the so-called ICAM receptors, which the rhinovirus attaches to in order to enter the nasal cells, need to be open, Dr. Palmenberg said. 她说:“鼻病毒一直都存在,问题在于你什么时候会变得易受感染。”压力、缺乏睡眠和总体的健康状况等因素会使人们更容易感染。研究人员已发现了鼻病毒的150多种菌株或基因类型,他们相信可能还存在更多。病毒在上呼吸道区体温相对较低的环境(如鼻通道、鼻窦和咽喉)中复制最快。#39;Rhinos are out there all the time, it#39;s just a question of when you are susceptible,#39; she said. Factors such as stress, lack of sleep and people#39;s overall health can make them more likely to get infected. More than 150 strains or genotypes of the rhinovirus have been identified and researchers believe there are probably many more. 其他病毒(如较少见的腺病毒)能在上呼吸道与下呼吸道自我复制并附着在受体上,引发更严重的疾病。Rhinovirus replicates best in the relatively lower body temperatures of the upper respiratory area, such as the nasal passages, sinuses and throat. 包括冠状病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒和肠道病毒在内的其他病毒也被确认会引发感冒症状。NIH的分、美国国家过敏症与传染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)主任安东尼·福西(Anthony Fauci)说:“最令人困惑的事情是,还有20%至30%成年人普通感冒病症的原因未查明。”Other viruses, such as the less-common adenovirus, can replicate and attach to receptors in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, causing a more serious illness. 有些情况下,似乎永不休止的感冒可能是更严重病症的信号。感冒有可能引发鼻窦感染、气管炎或肺炎,而有时候感冒症状又会被误认为是季节性过敏。Other viruses -- including the coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus and enterovirus -- have also been identified as causing cold symptoms. #39;The most confounding thing of all is that we still haven#39;t identified the cause of 20% to 30% of adult common colds,#39; said Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. 医生指出,感冒之后持续的干咳通常是由气管高反应性或气管感染造成的。天普大学医院的莫耶医生说:“你的呼吸系统经历了感染后,基本上你会出现暂时性的哮喘,你的气管反应会非常剧烈,感染和炎症也会很严重。”Sometimes a cold that never seems to end could be a sign of something more serious. A cold may result in a sinus infection, bronchitis or pneumonia. And cold symptoms are at times confused with seasonal allergies. 去年发表于《家庭医学年鉴》(Annals of Family Medicine)的一篇论文对多项不同研究进行了综述,它发现咳嗽平均持续18天左右。该研究还指出,针对近500人的调研发现,大多数调研参与者认为咳嗽症状应该会在一周左右后消失,并相信医生开给他们的抗生素对他们有帮助。(实际上是大大的不可能!)A usually dry cough that lingers after a cold is typically due to bronchial hyperreactivity or tracheal inflammation, doctors say. #39;After you go through an infection in your respiratory system, you can almost have a transient form of asthma where your bronchial tubes are very highly reactive and very irritated and inflamed,#39; said Dr. Moyer, of Temple University Hospital. 有些专家认为,在感染了一种感冒病毒、免疫系统减弱后,你会更容易感染另一种病毒。这是因为当你感冒时你鼻内的上皮衬里会变弱,充当保护屏障的黏膜受损后可能更易于感染另一种病毒。A review of various studies, published last year in the journal Annals of Family Medicine, found that coughs on average last about 18 days. The report also said a survey of nearly 500 people found that most participants expected a cough should disappear in about a week and believed antibiotics from their doctor would help them. (A big no-no!) 但是,另一些专家则持有不同看法。NIH的福西医生说,干扰素之类的蛋白质(在感冒期间分泌以帮助抵抗病毒)可能会提高对感染第二种病毒的抵抗力。Some experts believe having one cold virus and a weakened immune system could make catching another virus easier. Because the epithelial linings in the nose are weakened when you have a cold, the broken down mucus-membrane barrier may be more prone to picking up another virus. 那么,我们能做些什么来防止感冒或缩短感冒时间?几乎每个人都认识一些深信用紫锥菊、锌或吞下大量维生素C有效的人。But others suggest that proteins such as interferons, which are secreted during a cold to help fight the virus, may also boost resistance to getting infected by a second virus, according to Dr. Fauci, of the NIH. 然而,医生指出,没有确凿的据能明这些疗法有效。有些研究指出,运动和冥想可能有助于防止感冒。What can a person do to prevent or shorten a cold? Nearly everyone knows someone who swears by taking echinacea or zinc or downing packs of vitamin C. 好消息是,春天来临了(至少名义上如此),冬季最糟糕的寒冷时节就要结束了。不过,到了夏天,又会有新一批的病毒出现,你也许会发现自己又和讨厌的夏季感冒碰面了。 /201404/288634。

The dog days of summer are here. While soaking up the sunshine is a must, exposing our skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation poses some serious health hazards. This is where sunscreen comes in handy to protect our skin.随着大热天的来临,晒日光浴是必不可少的环节。但我们的皮肤裸地暴露在紫外线下,很容易危害健康。想要保护我们的皮肤,防晒霜就派上了大用场。However, different scenarios call for different types of sunscreen. Here, let’s take a look at the choices available to let you enjoy a vibrant and healthy summer in the sun.不过,不同情况需要的防晒霜也各不相同。下面,就一起去看看有哪些防晒选择,让我们健康有活力地享受夏日阳光! /201407/312488。