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Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼特Montessori management蒙特梭利管理The backlash against running firms like progressive schools has begun反对公司管理像学校改革的运动已经开始THE INTERNSHIP, a film about two middle-aged no-hopers who land work experience at Google, is a dire offering even by the standards of Hollywood summer comedies.《挨踢实习生》是一部关于两个有工作经验没有希望转正的中年人在谷歌的故事,即使是按好莱坞夏天喜剧的标准,这也是一部顶级作品。But it does get one thing right: that it is rather absurd for a technology firm to provide slides for staff to play on, and to let them wear silly propeller-hats.但有一件事情是对的:一家科技公司为员工提供幻灯片演讲是相当荒谬的,而且让他们戴上傻螺旋桨一样的帽子。Google is not alone in its juvenile tastes.在对青年人的口味上谷歌不是唯一一家。Box, a Silicon Valley company, has installed swings in its headquarters.硅谷的Box公司在其总部安装秋千。Red Bull, an energy-drinks firm, has a reception desk in the shape of a giant skateboard in its London office.能量饮料公司红牛在其伦敦办公室内有一个巨大的滑板样的接待桌。Businesses of all types have moved towards sitting workers in groups in open-plan rooms, just like at nursery school.各类企业都在逐渐为员工提供开放式办公室,就像托儿所。Time was when firms modelled themselves on the armed forces, with officers and chains of command.企业在模仿军队的指挥官和指挥链。Now many model themselves on learning-through-play Montessori schools.现在有很多通过在实践中学习蒙台梭利学校的模式。Montessori management has plenty of supporters in the higher reaches of business.蒙台梭利的管理拥有很多公司高层的持。The bosses of Google, Amazon and Wikipedia were all educated in Montessori schools.谷歌,亚马逊和维基百科的老板都在蒙特梭利学校接受过教育。So was Will Wright, a -game pioneer.视频游戏先锋威尔·赖特也是这样。Messrs Page and Brin credit their Montessori education with their enthusiasm for thinking differently.佩奇和布林把他们对不同思维方式的热情归于他们在蒙台梭利接受的教育。Mr Bezos thanks it for his enthusiasm for experimentation—for planting seeds and going down blind alleys as he puts it.Bezos先生感谢蒙台梭利是因为他对实验的热情,正如他所说的播种和减少弯路。Mr Wright says SimCity comes right out of Montessori.赖特先生说模拟城市正是出自蒙特梭利。The nostrums of some management gurus sound remarkably like those of the progressive educationalists of the 1960s.一些管理大师的秘方听起来非常像那些20世纪60年代的教育改革者。For example Gary Hamel, of London Business School, and Jeffrey Pfeffer, of Stanford Business School, praise companies that dismantle hierarchies and encourage experimentation.例如伦敦商学院的加里·哈默尔和斯坦福大学商学院的杰弗里·普费弗,称赞公司消除等级和鼓励试验。It is not just rich-world businesses that are buying into this philosophy:不只是富有的世界级企业相信这一理念:HCL Technologies, an Indian software company, invites workers to write assessments of their bosses—and publishes them.印度软件公司HCL邀请工人对老板进行评价并进行公开。But it would be wrong to conclude that the success of Google and Amazon vindicates Montessori management.但是仅用谷歌和亚马逊的成功就持蒙特梭利管理的推断或许是错误的。Both companies have pragmatically mixed progressive ideas with more traditional ones such as encouraging internal competition and measuring performance.这两家公司都追求实用主义,混合了务实进取的理念,如传统的鼓励内部竞争和绩效量化。Mr Bezos is also an enthusiastic employer of ex-military personnel.贝索斯先生也是一位喜欢雇佣前军事人员的雇主。As in education, where traditionalists have staged a counter-revolution against the progressives, some academics are now questioning Montessori managements basic assumptions—particularly its faith in free-flowing creativity, endless collaboration and all things open-plan.在教育界,保守者上演了一场反改革的运动,现在一些学者质疑蒙特梭利管理的基本假设,特别是其对自由流动的创造力,无限的协作和完全开放的信念。For example, Morten Hansen of the University of California, Berkeley studied 182 teams who were trying to win a contract on behalf of a professional-services firm.例如,加州大学伯克利分校的莫滕·汉森研究了试图赢得代表一个专业务公司的合同的182个团队。He found that the more time they spent consulting others, the less likely they were to win a deal.他发现,他们越是花更多的时间咨询别人就越不太可能赢得这笔交易。This shows, he says, that collaboration has costs as well as benefits.他说这说明合作有效益也有成本。These need to be weighed against each other, instead of simply assuming that the more teamwork the better.这些都需要对各方面进行权衡,而不是简单地假设团队合作越多结果就越好。Mark de Rond, a Cambridge academic who once rowed for the university, argues that the most successful teams are marked by internal competition and clashing egos as well as Kum Bay Yah-style togetherness.曾为剑桥大学赛艇的学者马克·德·ROND认为最成功的球队是存住内部竞争和冲突以及自我风格的统一性。A focus on interpersonal harmony can actually hurt team performance, he suggests.他说把重点放在人际和谐上会对球队的表现不利。Jake Breeden, a management thinker at Duke Corporate Education, worries that too much reliance on teamwork can create a culture of learned helplessness in which managers are terrified to take decisions without yet another round of consultations.杜克大学企业教育管理思想家杰克·布里登担心在管理者害怕在征求他人意见之前做出决定的团队里过于依赖团队合作会创造一种后天性无助的文化。Excessive collaboration can lead to the very opposite of creativity:过多的合作可能会走向创造力的反面:groupthink, conformity and mediocrity.群体思维,整合和平庸。It is especially damaging at the top of an organisation. BlackBerry, a smartphone-maker, believed that having two CEOs with complementary skills would produce the best of both worlds:这对组织的顶部害处特别大。智能手机制造商黑莓相信两位具有互补技能的CEOs 会有最好的产出:Jim Balsillie was a professional manager and Mike Lazaridis was a technician.吉姆·贝尔斯利是一名职业经理人,迈克·拉扎里迪斯是技术员。The company soon discovered the truth of Napoleons dictum that one bad general is worth two good ones.该公司很快就发现了拿破仑的名言:一个不好的将军好于两个好将军的真理。According to one survey around 70% of all offices in America have gone open-plan.据一项调查显示,美国约70%的办公室已经是开放式的。Yet evidence is mounting that this is a bad idea.然而越来越多的据显示这是一个坏主意。Over the past five years Gensler, a design firm, has asked more than 90,000 people in 155 companies in ten industries what they think of this way of working.设计公司 Gensler,在过去的五年里调查十大行业155家公司的90,000人怎么评价这种工作方式。It has found an astonishing amount of antipathy.发现绝大多数人对此反感。Workers say that open-plan offices make it more difficult to concentrate, because the hubbub of human and electronic noise is so distracting.他们说开放式办公室使他们更难以集中精神,因为其他人的喧闹和电子噪音是如此令人分心。What they really value is the ability to focus on their jobs with as few distractions as possible.他们看重的是尽可能少分心把注意力放在工作上。Ironically, going open-plan defeats another of Montessori managements main objectives:具有讽刺意味的是,开放式的方式击败了另一个对蒙特梭利管理的主要目标:workers say it prevents them from collaborating, because they cannot talk without disturbing others or inviting an audience.工作人员说这会阻碍他们合作,因为他们不邀请别人或者想不打扰别人时就没法进行讨论。Other studies show that people who work in open-plan offices are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure, stress and airborne infections such as flu.其他研究表明,在开放式办公室工作的人更容易患高血压,压力更大大,更易被传染,如流感。Time for some discipline—and separate offices是时候进行惩罚了-和单独的办公室It was the unthinking and indiscriminate application of child-centred education techniques, with little attention paid to outcomes, that eventually brought about a backlash.以儿童为中心的教育技术没头没脑的和不分青红皂白的应用,而且很少重视结果,最终带来了反弹。The more thoughtful critics did not wish to turn the clock back entirely and return to rote learning and tyrannical teachers; they simply said that structure and order have their place too.深思熟虑的批评不希望时光完全倒流到死记硬背和教师强横的时代,他们只是说结构和顺序也有自己的位置。The same seems to be happening now in business.现在在商业领域似乎也有同样的情况。Mr Breeden argues, sensibly, that managers should treat collaboration and creativity as techniques rather than dogmas.布里登辩解说,很明显管理者应该把协作和创造力当做技巧而非教条。Diane Hoskins of Gensler speculates that her companys findings about open-plan offices are so striking that they may mark the beginning of a new era in workplace organisation.公司Gensler的黛安·霍斯金斯推测,她们公司的开放办公室表现是如此引人注目,标志着办公室组织方式的一个新时代。When workers start being moved back into separate booths, and the office slide is replaced with a noticeboard bearing a list of staff instructions, you will know that the counter-revolution is well under way.当工人开始被搬回到单独的办公间,办公室不知不觉替换的一个列着员工说明的布告板,你就会知道,反改革的工作正在顺利进行。 /201309/257659

Business this week 一周商业要闻Sep 28th 2013 |From the print editionAfter admitting in August that it was considering its options, BlackBerry announced that it had agreed to a .7 billion buy-out from a consortium headed by its biggest shareholder. (The deal is not final; the board may explore alternative bids.) The company’s announcement came after it reported a 0m write-down because of poor sales of its latest touchscreen phone. Once so addictive it was dubbed “CrackBerry”, BlackBerry’s share of the global smartphone market has fallen to less than 3%, from 11% in 2011.在八月份承认其正在考虑其选择之后,黑莓宣布同意以其最大股东为首的财团47亿美元的收购。(交易还没最终确定,董事会可能会选择其他出价。)由于最新款的触屏手机销量不佳导致其产生了9.6亿美元的减记,此后黑莓宣布了出售的消息。曾经一度如此流行并冠名为“CrackBerry”的黑莓全球智能手机市场的份额从2011年的11%下降到了如今的不到3%。Anger mounted in Finland, Nokia’s home country, about the euro 19m (m) pay-off that Stephen Elop will receive when he takes up his new job at Microsoft. Microsoft is buying Nokia’s once-proud handset division, which saw its business slip further under Mr Elop’s tenure as chief executive. According to a Finnish newspaper, he refused a request to hand back some of the money because he is battling a divorce from his wife.诺基亚的祖国芬兰最近很生气,因为史蒂夫埃洛普在微软任职新工作之后将从诺基亚获得1900万欧元(2500万美元)的辞退金。微软正在收购诺基亚曾经辉煌的手机部门,埃洛普任职首席执行官时该部门的业务进一步下滑。据一份芬兰报纸报道,他拒绝交回部分辞退金的要求,因为他正在跟其妻子离婚。Gold dust金粉Once again proving the naysayers wrong, Apple sold 9m of its new iPhone 5C and 5S models in their first weekend on the market, doubling its previous launch record for an iPhone. The figure was boosted by including sales from China for the first time, where the new gold-coloured iPhone was particularly popular.再次明了唱衰者的错误。苹果iPhone5S和iPhone5C在上市一周的销量达到了900万,是上代iPhone上市首周销售记录的两倍。数字大幅上升,其中原因包括首次在中国发行,中国市场香槟金的iPhone尤其受欢迎。Alibaba, China’s biggest e-commerce firm, failed to reach an agreement with the Hong Kong stock exchange about how it will structure its board after an IPO, and is now likely to list in New York, according to reports. Alibaba’s valuation is expected to be at least billion when it makes its stockmarket debut next year.中国最大的电商阿里巴巴在于港交所关于首次公开招股后如何构建其董事会未能达成协议,据报道,现在有可能选择在纽约上市。明年上市时,阿里巴巴的估值预计会达到600亿美元。Applied Materials, which is based in Silicon Valley, agreed to merge with Tokyo Electron in a deal that shakes up the business of supplying equipment to the semiconductor industry. The combined pair will account for a quarter of the market. Shareholders in Applied Materials will own 68% of the new entity, which is valued at billion. That makes it one of the biggest foreign takeovers of a Japanese company.总部位于硅谷的应用材料公司同意来自东京电子的合并,这将会使得半导体工业设备供应业务产生巨大变动。合并之后这两家的份额将会占到四分之一。应用材料公司的股东将会在新公司中占股68%,价值290亿美元。这将会使得它成为日本公司收购的最大外国公司之一。A bump in the road颠簸的道路The ed Auto Workers’ health-care trust exercised its right as the holder of a 41.5% stake in Chrysler to require the carmaker to file for an IPO. The trust is in dispute with Fiat, Chrysler’s majority owner, about the value of the shares it holds, which Fiat wants to buy in order to own Chrysler outright. The IPO’s prospectus warned that a flotation could see Fiat divorcing itself from Chrysler, which has blossomed since their marriage in . No date was forthcoming as to when the IPO might happen.美国汽车工人医保信托作为克莱斯勒占股41.5%的股东,要求克莱斯勒提交首次公开募股,行使了其作为股东的权力。该信托与克莱斯勒的主要拥有者菲亚特关于其所持股份价值存在争议,菲亚特想将这些股份买回,从而彻底掌管克莱斯勒。这次首次公开募股的招股章程警告菲亚特一次发行股份可能使其与克莱斯勒脱离关系,这从年他们的联姻以来就在酝酿了。首次公开募股的日期还未确定。JPMorgan Chase was rumoured to be nearing an billion mega-settlement that covers all its outstanding legal issues with regulators. On September 19th the bank was fined 0m by American and British authorities for its conduct in the “London whale” trading scandal.传言根大通为其与监管机构未解决的法律问题付了将近110亿美元的巨额偿付费用。9月19日,根大通被英美政府罚款9.2亿美元,原因是其在“伦敦鲸”交易丑闻中的行为。ICAP, a London-based broker, was fined m by America’s Commodity Futures Trading Commission and m by Britain’s Financial Conduct Authority for manipulating the LIBOR benchmark interest rate. America’s Department of Justice brought criminal charges against three former employees at ICAP, only the second group of bankers it has charged over the LIBOR scandal (the first were at UBS).总部位于伦敦的经纪公司ICAP被美国商品期货交易委员会罚款6500万美元,同时被英国金融市场监管局罚款2200万美元,原因是其操纵伦敦同业拆息基准利率。美国司法部对三名ICAP的前雇员提出刑事指控,这是继瑞银之后第二组被指控操纵伦敦同业拆息基准利率的家。The Swedish government sold its remaining 7% stake in Nordea, ending its involvement with the Nordic region’s biggest bank, which was bailed out in the early 1990s. The government is using the proceeds from the sale to repay public debt.瑞典政府出售了其在Nordea最后的7%的股份,结束了其对北欧最大的参与,该在1990年代早期接受政府金援。政府正在利用出售所得款项偿还公共债务。The IMF cut its GDP growth forecast for Russia for the third time this year, partly because of weak investment. It now expects the Russian economy to grow by 1.5% this year and 3% in 2014. That is far below the growth of 5-8% in the years before the financial crisis.国际货币基金组织今年第三次更改其对俄罗斯GDP增长的预期,部分是因为投资的疲软。现在,该组织预计今年俄罗斯经济增长1.5%,2014年会增长3%。这相比金融危机前5-8%的增长下降了很多。New rules came into force in America that allow private firms to advertise publicly for funding from accredited investors. A ban on what is known as general solicitation was passed in the 1930s to protect investors from an abundance of money-raising scams during the Depression. The new rules should help start-ups in their quest for seed money by allowing them to place adverts on anything from the internet to buses.美国允许民营企业做广告吸收合格投资者资金的新规生效。1930年代通过了一般招揽禁令,为了保护投资者免受大萧条时期大量的集资诈骗。新规会有助于创业公司通过在网络和汽车等地方投放广告来筹集资金。Mixed messages混杂的信息Speaking a few days after the Federal Reserve decided not to start tapering its -billion-a-month asset-buying programme, William Dudley, the vice-chairman of the Fed’s policymaking committee, said the economy remained “tepid” and that “no one in markets should have been surprised” by the decision. Mr Dudley still thinks tapering could begin this year, though it “depends on the data”. The Fed’s next meeting is in October在美联储决定不启动每月850亿美元的资产购买计划后不久,美联储决策委员会的副主席威廉达德利表示经济仍然不温不火,市场中没有人对此决定感到惊讶。达德利先生仍然认为此项计划会在今年进行,尽管取决于数据。美联储的下次会议在十月举行。201310/260291

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