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2020年01月18日 16:46:29

US inequality is at its highest point for nearly a century. Those at the top – no matter how you slice it – are enjoying a larger share of the national pie; the number below the poverty level is growing. The gap between those with the median income and those at the top is growing, too. The US used to think of itself as a middle-class country – but this is no longer true.美国的不平等程度正处于近一个世纪以来的最高点。不管你如何解读,收入最高的人群正享用着更大的一块蛋糕;位于贫困线以下的人群正在扩大。中值收入和最高收入人群之间的差距也在拉大。美国曾经认为自己是一个中产阶级国家,但情况已不再是这样了。Economists have justified such disparities by citing ;marginal productivity theory;, which explains higher incomes through greater societal contributions. But those who have really transformed our society, by providing the knowledge that underpins the advances in technology, earn a relative pittance. Just think of the inventors of the laser, the Turing machine or the discoverers of DNA. The innovation of those on Wall Street, while well compensated, brought the global economy to the brink of ruin; and these financial entrepreneurs walked off with mega-incomes.经济学家们引用;边际生产率理论;(marginal productivity theory)为此类差异提供理由,该理论用更大的社会贡献来解释更高的收入。但那些提供推动技术进步的知识、从而真正改变我们的社会的人,得到的报酬相对微薄。想想激光、图灵机的发明人,或者DNA的发现者吧。华尔街高薪人士的创新把全球经济推向毁灭的边缘,可这些金融企业家们照样揣着巨额收入一走了事。One might feel better about inequality if there were a grain of truth in trickle-down economics. But the median income of Americans today is lower than it was a decade and a half ago; and the median income of a full-time male worker is lower than it was more than four decades ago. Meanwhile, those at the top have never had it so good.如果滴漏(trickle-down)经济学有一点点道理的话,人们对于不平等的心态或许会好一点。但美国人如今的收入中值不及15年以前;全职男性员工的收入中值低于40多年前。与此同时,那些收入最高的人群从未像现在这样富有。Some argue that increased inequality is an inevitable byproduct of the market. False: several countries are reducing inequality while maintaining economic growth.一些人辩称,不平等程度加剧是市场不可避免的副产品。错:有好几个国家在降低不平等程度的同时保持了经济增长。Markets are shaped by the rules of the game. Our political system has written rules that benefit the rich at the expense of others. Financial regulations allow predatory lending and abusive credit-card practices that transfer money from the bottom to the top. So do bankruptcy laws that provide priority for derivatives. The rules of globalisation – where capital is freely mobile but workers are not– enhance an aly large asymmetry of bargaining: businesses threaten to leave the country unless workers make strong concessions.市场是用游戏规则塑造而成的。我们的政治体制制定了造福于富人、而让其他人付出代价的规则。金融监管听任掠夺性的放贷和欺骗性的信用卡业务实践泛滥,从而让金钱从底层向顶层转移。为衍生品提供优先权的破产法也是如此。全球化的规则(资金可以自由流动,但员工不可以)加剧了本已巨大的议价不对称性:企业威胁,除非员工做出巨大让步,否则将离开所在国家。Textbooks teach us that we can have a more egalitarian society only if we give up growth or efficiency. However, closer analysis shows that we are paying a high price for inequality: it contributes to social, economic and political instability, and to lower growth. Western countries with the healthiest economies (for example those in Scandinavia) are also the countries with the highest degree of equality.教科书告诉我们,只有放弃增长或效率,我们才能拥有一个更平等的社会。然而,更仔细的分析显示,我们正为不平等付出巨大代价:它加剧了社会、经济和政治的不稳定,也加剧了增长放缓。拥有最健康经济的西方国家(例如斯堪的纳维亚半岛国家)也是平等程度最高的国家。The US grew far faster in the decades after the second world war, when inequality was lower, than it did after 1980, since when the gains have gone disproportionately to the top. There is growing evidence looking across countries over time that suggests a link between equality, growth and stability.在二战后不平等程度较低的那几十年里,美国经济的增速远远快于1980年以后。1980年后,经济增长所带来的好处超出比例地流向收入最高人群。从各个国家的长期数据来看,越来越多的据表明,平等、增长和稳定之间似乎存在着一定联系。There is good news in this: by reducing rent-seeking – finding ways of getting a larger share of the pie, rather than making the pie larger – and the distortions that give rise to so much of America#39;s inequality we can achieve a fairer society and a better-performing economy. Laws that tax speculators at less than half the rate of those who work for a living or make the innovations that are transforming our society, say something about our values; but they also distort our economy, encouraging young people to move into gambling rather than into more productive areas. Since so much of the income at the top is derived from rent seeking, higher taxes at the top would discourage rent-seeking.从好的方面来看:通过减少;寻租;(设法分得更大一块蛋糕,而不是把蛋糕做得更大),减少给美国带来这么多不平等的扭曲机制,我们可以让美国社会更加公平,也让美国经济运转得更好。针对投机者的税率,尚不及挣钱谋生者和创新者适用税率的一半,这样的法律在某种程度上体现了我们的价值观,但也扭曲了我们的经济,鼓励年轻人投机,而不是投入生产活动。因为顶层有这么多收入来自;寻租;,因此对收入最高人群征更高的税会抑制;寻租;。America used to be thought of as the land of opportunity. Today, a child#39;s life chances are more dependent on the income of his or her parents than in Europe, or any other of the advanced industrial countries for which there are data. The US worked hard to create the American dream of opportunity. But today, that dream is a myth.过去,人们觉得美国遍地是机会。可在如今的美国,一个孩子在人生机遇方面依赖父母收入的程度,超过欧洲或有数据记录的其他任何发达工业国家。昔日的美国努力创造机会均等的;美国梦;。但如今,;美国梦;只是个神话。We can once again become a land of opportunity but it will not happen on its own, and it will not happen with a politics that focuses on cutting public education and other programmes to enhance opportunities for the bottom and middle, while cutting taxes for those at the very top. President Barack Obama#39;s support for these investments, as well as the ;Buffett rule; that asks those at the top to pay at least as much in tax as a share of their income as those who are less fortunate, are moves in the right direction. Republican candidate Mitt Romney#39;s suggestion that we cut back on public employees is worrisome; as is his silence on whether capital gains on speculation should be taxed at a lower rate than income derived from hard work.美国能够再次变成一个遍地是机会的地方,但这种变化不会自动发生。只要我们还在实行这样的政策——削减公共教育和有助于增加中下层发展机会的其他项目、同时削减收入最高人群适用的税率——这种变化就不会发生。美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)持公共教育等投资,并持;巴菲特规则;(要求针对收入最高人群的所得税税率至少达到普通人的水平),这些举措的方向都是正确的。共和党总统候选人米特#8226;罗姆尼(Mitt Romney)提出要裁减公务员,同时在另一个问题上(投机产生的资本利得适用税率是否应低于辛勤工作所得)保持沉默,这些都令人担忧。The country will have to make a choice: if it continues as it has in recent decades, the lack of opportunity will mean a more divided society, marked by lower growth and higher social, political and economic instability. Or it can recognise that the economy has lost its balance. The gilded age led to the progressive era, the excesses of the Roaring Twenties led to the Depression, which in turn led to the New Deal. Each time, the country saw the extremes to which it was going and pulled back. The question is, will it do so once again?美国将不得不面临一个抉择:如果继续走近几十年的老路,机会的匮乏将意味着社会分化更加严重,经济增长率降低,社会、政治和经济更加不稳定。抑或,美国可以意识到:经济已失衡。黄金时代之后迎来进步时代,咆哮的二十年代(Roaring Twenties)的过分行为引发大萧条(Depression),而大萧条又引出罗斯福新政(New Deal)。每次发现自己正走向极端之后,这个国家都把自己拉回了正常轨道。问题是,这一次还会这样吗? /201206/188678哈尔滨市医科大学附属第二医院治疗宫颈糜烂多少钱双城区人工授精多少钱哈尔滨哪个女子医院好

香坊区儿童医院门诊收费哈尔滨医科大学附属第四医院妇科华Pernod Ricard, the second biggest distiller, is set to report an annual fall in Scotch sales in China after years of growth, suggesting Chinese frugality is undermining one of the UK’s export successes, writes Louise Lucas.在连续数年取得增长后,全球第二大酿酒厂保乐力加(Pernod Ricard)的苏格兰威士忌在华年销售额将首次出现下跌。这似乎表明中国人的节俭正在削弱英国的出口成功之一。Spirits makers have been touting growth in China in particular and Asia in general as western European sales stutter.在西欧销售额遇挫之际,烈酒生产商近年吹嘘在亚洲(尤其是中国)取得增长。Pernod Ricard, the Paris-headquartered maker of Chivas Regal, is holding a conference in Beijing in May. China contributes 14 per cent of sales and a far bigger slice of profits.总部位于巴黎的芝华士(Chivas Regal)生产商保乐力加将于5月份在北京举行会议。中国占保乐力加全球销售额的14%,占全球利润的比例则更高。Yet distillers’ pricey spirits are falling foul of Beijing’s austerity campaign as officials obey orders to cut conspicuous consumption. It is denting sales at high-end restaurants and luxury goods makers and hurting gifting, which makes up 10-15 per cent of Scotch and Cognac sales in China.但随着中国政府发起节俭行动,官员奉命减少炫耀性消费,使得酿酒厂的昂贵烈酒受到影响。这一行动不仅抑制了高档餐馆和奢侈品厂商的销售额,还打击了送礼行为——送礼占中国苏格兰威士忌和干邑(Cognac)销售额的10%至15%。Last week Pernod Ricard said volume sales in China were flat over the Chinese New Year period, when it sold more Cognac but saw Scotch sales fall by double digits in percentage terms year on year.保乐力加上周表示,其在华销售量在中国春节期间表现与去年持平。干邑销售量同比上升,但苏格兰威士忌销售量出现两位数跌幅。The company said the weak performance during this vital period meant a decline was likely for its current financial year, which runs until the end of June.公司称,这一关键时期的疲软表现意味着,它在当前财年(截至今年6月底)的业绩可能出现下滑。“China’s anti-corruption campaign is having an impact and will continue to have an impact for some time,” said Jamie Isenwater, analyst at Deutsche Bank. “These risks are significantly underestimated by the market.”“中国的反腐行动正在发挥影响,并且还将在相当时期内继续发挥影响,”德意志(Deutsche Bank)分析师杰米伊森沃特(Jamie Isenwater)表示,“市场大大低估了这些风险。”Sales at high-end restaurants dropped 35 per cent in Beijing and 20 per cent in Shanghai during the peak banqueting season, according to the Xinhua news agency.新华社报道称,在宴请高峰季节,北京和上海高档餐馆的销售额分别下降35%和20%。While international spirits account for only 1-2 per cent of China sales, the high price tags and galloping growth mean they contribute disproportionately to manufacturers’ profits.尽管洋酒仅占中国酒水销售额的1%至2%,但不菲的价格和迅速的增长意味着它们对生产商的利润具有超高的贡献。Diageo’s Scotch business in China is growing rapidly, though analysts reckon it is yet to turn profitable.帝亚吉欧(Diageo)在中国的苏格兰威士忌业务正在迅速增长,不过分析师估计这一部门尚未实现盈利。The Johnnie Walker maker is investing 1bn over five years to ramp up manufacturing capacity in Scotland, largely to service emerging markets.作为尊尼获加(Johnnie Walker)的生产商,帝亚吉欧将在五年内斥资10亿英镑提高在苏格兰的产能,目的主要是务于新兴市场。 /201303/231746哈尔滨宫颈糜烂治疗医院10 Status Symbols in Modern China当代中国10大地位象征Since the opening and reforms of the late 1970s, China’s economy has boomed, leading to a rise in wealth and a burgeoning middle class. With new money comes status symbols, and modern China has plenty. Here are 10 of the most ostentatious and intriguing.自从七十年代末的改革开放以来,中国的经济蓬勃发展,致使财富增长,中产阶层迅速发展。新兴财富的出现带给当代中国很多的地位象征。以下是10大最炫耀和最耐人寻味的地位象征。1. A Mistress1.情妇To anyone familiar with China’s seamier side, the concept of high-powered men taking mistresses will come as no surprise. When a guy’s material needs have been satisfied, an extramarital affair serves to fulfil his carnal requirements as well. Rather than simply meeting up for trysts with his ernai, a man must provide his mistress with an apartment, car and designer wardrobe. Like it or not, sleaze is here to stay, and even high-ranking officials are in on the act. Disgraced railway minister Liu Zhijun was discovered to have 18 mistresses, and ex-vice mayor of Hangzhou, “Plenty” Xu, had a similar harem when he was executed for embezzlement in July.对于任何熟悉中国丑陋一面的人来说,有权势的人包养情妇观念不足为奇。男人的物质需求得到满足后,就通过婚外情来满足他的性欲。他们不只是与“二奶”幽会,而是必须为情妇提供公寓、汽车和名贵饰。不管你是否愿意,腐败扎根于这些人中,甚至高级别的官员也在其列。无耻的铁道部部长刘志军被发现有18个情妇,杭州市前副市长“许三多”在7月份因贪污公款而被“双规”时,被发现他有一群类似“后宫”的女人。2. A Luxury Car2.豪车Every wealthy Chinese person worth his or her salt counts fancy wheels among the trappings of their material success. German cars are among the most popular when it comes to sedans, with Audi and BMW occupying the top spots in the market. Before a middle class guy can even consider wooing a lady, he must first ensure that he has a decent vehicle. And if he wants to take a mistress? Well, that’s another car he needs to budget for.每个称得上是有钱的中国富人在炫耀他们的物质财富时都要考虑到名车。德国车在轿车中最受青睐,其中奥迪和宝马在市场拔得头筹。一位中产阶层的男士在考虑追求一位女士之前,他必须先要确保有一辆体面的轿车。那么如果他想要包养一个情妇呢?那就要预算另一辆车了。3. A Pilot License3.飞行驾照A car is one thing, but the highest rollers like to go even higher. There are now 1,600 official pilot license holders in China (and doubtlessly plenty more that are unofficial…), and low altitude air spaces have been opened in Hainan, Guangdong and Heilongjiang for them to take their jets for a spin. Getting a license doesn’t come cheap, with courses costing as much as 80,000 RMB. Ownership of private jets is still limited in China, with just 100 registered, but the trend is growing. Celebs like Fan Bing Bing and Chen Daoming have gotten in on the action, each buying a jet of their own.有车是一回事,而更高的玩家有更高层次的追求。目前中国有1600人持有正式的飞行驾照(毫无疑问还有更多的人持有非正式的飞行许可……),海南、广东和黑龙江为这些飞机开设了低空飞行。获取飞行驾照并不便宜,课程费高达8万人民币。拥有私人飞机在中国还是有限的,目前仅注册了100架,不过有增长的势头。像范冰冰和陈道明这样的名人已经采取了行动,他们每人都购置了飞机。4. A Tibetan Mastiff4.藏獒Among pedigree dogs, the Tibetan Mastiff is neither the friendliest nor the most attractive, but it is currently the most prized canine in China. Dogs of this breed fetch ridiculous sums; in 2009 a Xi’an couple shelled out over 300,000 RMB for theirs, and show dogs at the annual China Tibetan Mastiff Expo boast names like God, Prince and Warren Buffet (seriously). Pets were banned under Mao for promoting bourgeois attitudes, but ownership of small animals like crickets and birds never really went away. Having the money and space to keep a big dog like a Tibetan Mastiff is a clear sign that you’re doing well for yourself financially.在纯种中,藏獒既不是最友好的,也不是最漂亮的,但它却是目前中国最贵的犬。这个品种的犬价格贵得荒唐,2009年西安的一对夫妇为他们的花了30万元人民币。而且一年一度的中国藏獒览会展示并炫耀它们的名字,如上帝、王子和沃伦·巴菲特(很当真)。宠物在毛泽东时代被作为宣传资产阶级思想而遭禁止,但养一些诸如蟋蟀和鸟之类的小动物却从不被禁止。花钱豢养一条像藏獒之类的大并为它们安置居处可以清楚地表明一个人的经济状况非常好。5. Apple Products5.苹果产品To gauge China’s love of iPhones, iPads and Macbooks, you only have to look at the queues outside Apple stores whenever a new device is launched. Desperate consumers were crushed in the fever to get their hands on the iPad two in Beijing in May this year, and a boy even sold his kidney to afford one. Apple products appeal to the wealthy urban youth thanks to their sleek design, cult following, and reassuringly high prices. The fact that they are made on production lines in Guangdong does little to tarnish their appeal.要衡量中国人对iPhone、iPad和Macbook有多么喜爱,你只需看一看每当苹果有新产品推出时专卖店外排队的长龙了。今年5月在北京,不顾一切的消费者拥挤着以求买到iPad 2,甚至有个男孩子为了买到一个而卖掉自己的肾。苹果产品时尚的设计、狂热的追捧和令人安心的高价吸引着富有的城市青年,而这些实际上在广东生产出来的苹果产品丝毫没有降低它们的吸引力。6. Pale Skin6.白肤Contrary to Western women’s fondness for suntanned skin (presumably to imply that they are wealthy enough to take expensive holidays to warmer climes), Chinese ladies prefer the pale and interesting look (presumably to prove that they don’t work outside in a manual job). Beauty products tend to contain “whitening” ingredients, and Western brands operating in China almost always add a special line to their product range, like L’Oreal’s White Perfect. Women hide from the summer sun under decorative parasols, and the pastiest of complexions are prized as the most attractive.西方女性喜欢古铜色皮肤(大概是暗示她们有足够的财富去休假以享受温暖的气候),与此相反,中国女性喜欢白色和引人注目的外表(大概是表明她们不从事体力劳动)。美容产品往往含有“美白”的成分,而且在中国经营的西方品牌几乎总是在其产品中加入一种特殊系列,比如欧莱雅的白色完美。夏日里女性打着阳伞躲避日晒,苍白色的肤色最受青睐。7. Fine Wine7.美酒China’s domestic wine industry might not be up to much yet, but it is expected to flourish. Until then, wealthy Chinese feed their grape habit with expensive imported wines. These days it’s common to see wine bars with a clientele of mainly locals, as the Chinese palate develops a taste for Cab Sav and Chardonnay. Wine’s growing popularity is partly due to its associations with the sophistication of France and Italy, and partly due to the fact that imported stuff is so darn expensive.中国的国产葡萄酒行业还不是很发达,不过预计会蓬勃发展。而在此之前,中国富人用昂贵的进口酒来满足他们饮用葡萄酒的嗜好。近来葡萄酒吧里常常可以看到中国人,他们品尝着“解百纳”和“霞多丽”。葡萄酒的日益普及,部分原因是由于法国和意大利精湛的酿酒工艺,还有一层原因是因为这些进口酒惊人的昂贵。8. Luxury Furniture8.豪华家具Recently, luxury furniture company Da Vinci was found to be peddling goods that were Made in China instead of Made in Italy. However, the scandal has done little to douse China’s wealthy from lusting after plush sofas from the likes of Versace Home, Fendi Casa and Kenzo Maison. Having the y cash to kit out your home like Donatella’s boudoir is a sign of great fortune and profligacy.近来,豪华家具公司达·芬奇被曝出售的家具为中国制造而非意大利生产。然而,这桩丑闻丝毫不影响中国的有钱人追求豪华沙发的欲望,从范思哲家居系列、芬奇家居到Kenzo Maison品牌皆是他们的喜爱。用现钱像多娜泰拉·范思哲的闺房那般装备你的家表明你很富有和奢华。9. Golf9.高尔夫China is catching up with the West when it comes to golf, the sport of the idle rich, or middle class dudes trying to up their guanxi with colleagues and clients. There are now around 600 golf courses in China, up from just a hundred or so at the turn of the millennium. A round on the fairway is seen as proof of your mettle.中国在高尔夫上正在迎头赶上西方,高尔夫是有钱人的一项休闲运动,中产阶层人士用它来与同事及客户拉关系。中国有大约有600个高尔夫球场,而在2000年前后仅有100个左右。打一场高尔夫球被视为明你的勇气和耐力。10. A Designer “Murse”10.名牌钱包Finally, the one thing no rich Chinese guy should be without: a man purse (a.k.a. “murse”) from a recognized brand. Gucci, Burberry and Louis Vuitton all fit the bill, with slightly less kudos for mid-range names like Coach. A guy needs somewhere to stash his cash and his iPhone, and the murse is the ideal accessory. Aspirational and functional.最后,有钱的中国男性必备的一个物件:知名品牌的钱包。古琦、柏利和路易威登受到青睐,中等品牌的蔻驰稍逊之。钱包是男人存放现金和iPhone的理想物件。它既实用又时尚。 /201210/205389哈尔滨专业做人流医院

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