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2019年10月14日 18:32:51来源:中国爱问

  • I’ll start with one of my favorite thoughts, by Alex Haley in his essay “The Shadowland of Dreams”:我想用我最喜欢的一个人的想法作为开头,这段话来自亚历克斯o哈里的文章《梦想的阴暗之面》(Shadowland of Dreams):Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there’s a big difference between “being a writer” and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hours alone at the typewriter. “You’ve got to want to write,” I say to them, “not want to be a writer.”“许多年轻人对我说他们想当一名作家。我经常给予他们鼓励,同时也告诫他们‘当一名作家’与写作完全是两码事。大多数怀抱作家梦的年轻人其实只为追名逐利,殊不知那打字机前的写作过程是如此漫长而孤独。‘你要有写作的欲望。’我告诉他们,‘而不是只想着当一名作家。’”The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune, there are thousands more whose longing is never requited. Even those who succeed often know long periods of neglect and poverty. I did.“其实,写作是一项需要孤军奋战,报酬甚微的工作。受到幸运之神眷顾、一举成名的作家仅是少数,更多的人壮志难酬。即便最成功的作家也会经历一段默默无闻和生活窘困的时期。我便是其中一位。”When the startup economy booms, like it did in 1999 and like it is again in 2014, many people suddenly discover they want to “be an entrepreneur.” Newly-minted MBAs who otherwise would have joined Goldman Sachs or McKinsey instead head west to San Francisco. Big company lifers from Oracle or HP abruptly jump ship, not wanting to “miss out” on the next gold rush.1999年和2014年,我们经历过两次创业潮,许多人突然发现他们“想做一名创业者”。刚毕业的MBA学生本可以加入高盛或麦肯锡,但他们却选择前往旧金山。甲骨文或惠普等大公司里的元老突然跳槽,原因是他们不希望与下一次淘金热“失之交臂”。Too often, these folks quickly find a like-minded co-founder who also wants to join the “startup scene”, brainstorm a few ideas, pick one that seems plausible, hack up a product, then buy a wheelbarrow they can use to take their money to the bank when the acquisition offers start to roll in.这些人往往很快就能找到志同道合的人,他们都怀揣创业梦想,一番头脑风暴之后产生一些想法,从中选出看起来合理的创意,据此设计一款产品,然后买一辆手推车,静等着收购要约蜂拥而至的时候,将大把的钱运到。They almost never need that wheelbarrow. Starting a company is as Alex Haley described writing: the best companies are usually not started by people who want to “be an entrepreneur.” They are started by people who are knowledgable and passionate about a specific problem, are driven to solve it, and then get busy building a company to bring it to life. They rarely go to tech conferences, can’t be found at launch parties, and they certainly don’t have a quick acquisition as their primary goal.但许多人的希望都会落空。创业就像亚历克斯o哈里描述的写作一样:由一心想“成为创业者”的人创立的公司往往做不到最好。最好的创业者通常对某个具体问题有见地并充满,有解决这个问题的动力,他们会全身心投入到公司建设,只想着让其发展壮大。他们很少会参加技术会议,公司成立派对上也看不到他们的身影,迅速被收购也不是他们的主要目标。In contrast, those who want to get rich by “being an entrepreneur” often come up with ideas that don’t really reflect any proprietary insight or interest. They’ll launch an undifferentiated e-commerce site with few barriers to entry, or they’ll a Gartner report about a new enterprise market predicted to be worth billions, and they’ll jump into it with a me-too product. When they hit the inevitable bumps in the road, they may not have the drive to power over them, or they may not have the proprietary insight to outsmart competitors.恰恰相反,那些希望“成为创业者”而一夜暴富的人,所提出的想法没有真正反映出独有的洞察力或兴趣。他们成立的电子商务网站大同小异,几乎没有准入门槛,或者他们在高德纳公司的报告中读到,一个新的市场预计会达到数十亿的规模,然后便拿一款山寨产品一头扎进去。他们一定会遭遇无力越过的障碍,或者没有独到的洞察力去打败竞争对手。The best entrepreneurs work on ideas that grow out of their personal experiences and aptitudes. Their ideas often are counter-intuitive and don’t seem likely to work at first. I highly recommend this essay by Paul Graham: How to Get Startup Ideas. One of Paul’s best thoughts is:最优秀的创业者,其创业灵感都源自个人的经历和天资。他们的想法往往有违直觉,最初看来似乎不可能实现。建议大家一定要读读保罗o格雷厄姆的经典之作——《如何获得创业灵感》。他最好的一个看法就是:The verb you want to be using with respect to startup ideas is not “think up” but “notice.” At YC we call ideas that grow naturally out of the founders’ own experiences “organic” startup ideas. The most successful startups almost all begin this way.”“创业的点子是被‘发现’的,而不是被‘发明’的。在 YC创业营,我们会把从创始人自身经历当中自然产生的灵感叫做‘内生的’创业灵感。最成功的创业公司几乎都是这样发展起来的。”Now, many of these “organic” founders also want to get rich, as do their investors and the employees who join them, but they also expect to spend years toiling away with lots of setbacks and trial and error. They know that if they get rich it will be because they are working on an idea where they have an edge in terms of knowledge and enthusiasm, not because they have joined a lucrative profession called “being an entrepreneur.”现在,许多内生型创始人也希望获得财富,他们的投资者和员工同样想获得回报,但他们也会用数年时间应付可能遇到的挫折,进行反复尝试。他们知道自己能够获得财富,这是因为他们在知识与热情方面具有优势,而不是因为从事了一种有利可图的职业——“创业者”。All that being said, I would never discourage someone who truly is interested in startups from pursuing one – I’d certainly rather have them here in Silicon Valley rather than send them back to Wall Street. Startup life can provide a career full of accelerated learning, great camaraderie and teamwork, and it will at least leave you with some great stories. If you really want to enter the startup world, and not only for a quick acquisition, you could try:尽管如此,对于真正有兴趣创业的人,我从来不会泼冷水——而且我宁愿他们来到硅谷,而不是回到华尔街。在创业过程中,你会加速学习,收获深厚的友谊和团队精神,你至少能积累一些了不起的经历。如果你真的希望创业,而不是单纯为了迅速被收购,你可以做以下尝试:o Get awesome at something. Become a great engineer. Designer. Product manager. Marketer. Sales rep. Growth hacker. It is hard to start or join a great company if you aren’t great at a job that most startups need done.o 在某件事上做到极好。成为一名伟大的工程师、设计师、产品经理、营销专家、销售代表或所谓的增长黑客(Growth hacker)。如果大多数初创公司都需要的工作,你做不到出类拔萃的话,不论是创业还是加入一家出色的公司都很难。o Go deep in an industry. Many of the best companies are started by founds with proprietary knowledge in a specific field, like ad technology, insurance, supply chain management, information security, or many others.o 深入研究一个行业。许多最好的公司最初都掌握了某个特定领域的专有知识,如广告技术、保险、供应链管理、信息安全等。o Join a great startup. If you don’t have an idea where you have proprietary knowledge or passion, follow founders who do. Join the team early, contribute however you can, learn as much as you can, and it may lead to your founding your own company in the future as you get exposed to more people and ideas.o 加入一家出色的初创公司。如果你还不知道自己在哪方面拥有专项知识或,那就追随一位已经确立自身专长的公司创始人。尽早加入团队,做出尽可能多的贡献,不断学习,等你接触到更多的人和想法的时候,你未来或许便能创立自己的公司。Good luck!祝你好运! /201502/361275。
  • The Compass指南针The compass is considered to be one of the four great inventions of anaent China.指南针是中国古代“四大发明”之一。Before the compass was invented, people depended upon the position of the sun and stars to tell them the direction when at sea, which only worked when it wasn’t cloudy. The invention of compass solved the problem.在指南针发明以前,人们在茫茫大海上航行,只能靠太阳和星星的位置辨认方向,如果遇上阴雨天,就会迷失方向。而中国人发明的指南针则帮助人们解决了这个难题。Over 2,000 years ago, inthe Warring States Period, Chi-nese ancestors invented the earli-est compass-Si Nan, also known as the South Pointer. Si Nan was composed of two parts:a spoon and a tray. The spoon was cut from an intact piece of natural loadstone, with its handle as the South Pole and s round,smooth bottom as the center ofgravity. The tray, on the other hand, was made of bronze, and at the center, there was a round, smooth groove, carvedwith checks and words indicating the 24 directions. When the spoon was put into the groove, it would rotate flexibly. When the spoon stopped, its handle would point to the south.This instrument was the predecessor of the magnetic compass.早在2000多年前的战国时期,我们祖先就发明了最早的指南针——司南。司南由一把“勺子”和一个“地盘”两部分组成。司南勺由整块磁石制成。它的磁南极那一头琢成长柄,圆圆的底部是它的重心,琢得非常光滑。地盘是个铜质的方盘,中央有个光滑的圆槽,四周刻着格线和表示24个方位的文字。司南勺放迸了地盘就能灵活地转动,在它静止下来的时候,磁石的指极性使长柄总是指向南方。这种仪器就是指南针的前身。However, since was easy for natural loadstone ( magnetic iron oxide) tolose its magnetism, Si Nan could not be widely used. During the Northern Song Dy-nashjt, artificial magnetization was discovered, gMng rise to the Pointing-to-the-South Fish, which was made from a piece of thin iron sheet cut into the shape of a fish, magnetized in a geomagnetic field, and put into water, floating and lying norlh-to-south.However, due to its weak magnetic field, Pointing-to-the-South Fish was not of much pradical value. On the basis of the Pointing-to-the-South Fish,people replaced the thin iron sheet with a magnetized steel needle, gMng rise to the earliest artifiaally magnetic compass.由于天然磁石因打击受热容易失磁,磁性较弱,因而司南不能广泛流传。到宋朝时,有人发现了人造磁铁,进而发明了指南鱼。人们把经过磁化的薄片做成鱼的形状,将其放入水中即能浮在水面并指示正南北方向。后来,人们将指南鱼再加以改进,把带磁的薄片改成带磁的钢针,创造了人造磁体指南针。The compass was soon employed in navigation. The earliest record on using the compass in navigation was in Zhu Yu’s Pin,g Zhou, Ke Tan ( written belween 1119~ 1125 ) ,which recorded Zhu Yu’s experiences in Guangzhou ( South China’s Guangdong Province) , where navigation was highly developed.Zhu also wrote a-bout some of the experienced sailors, The sailors know how to pinpoint the ship’s position; they watch the stars a night and the sun in the day, and when is cloudy, they use the compass.This might be the earliest record on the use of the compass in the world’s navigational his.ory.Initiated by the Chinese people, this newigational instrument was a grand innovation in ncrvigation technology.指南针发明后很快就应用于航海。世界上最早记载指南针应用于航海导航的文献是北宋宣和年间(1119~1125)朱或所著《萍洲可谈》。该书记录了他在广州时的见闻,还记载了申国海船上很有经验的水手:“舟师识地理,夜则观星,昼则观日,阴晦则观指南针。”这是全世界航海史上使用指南针的最早记载。我国人民首创的这种仪器导航方法,是航海技术的重大革新。Soon after, Arabian sea boats also employed the navigation device, and went on to introduce it to the European countries. As Friedrich Engels, pointed out in his book Natural Dialectics,“The magnetic needle arrived in Europe via the Arabs in around 1180.”The stcrtemenf shows the Europeans applied the compass in ncrviga-tion 80 years after the Chinese.中国使用指南针导航不久,就被阿拉伯海船采用,并经阿拉伯人把这一伟大发明传到欧洲。恩格斯在《自然辩法》中指出,“磁针从阿拉伯人传至欧洲人手中在1180年左右”。中国人首先将指南针应用于航海比欧洲人至少早80年。The famous saentist Shen Kuo (the author of Dream Creek Notes ) of the Northern Song Dynasty discovered the existence of magnetic declination( the angu-lar devicrtion of a compass needle from true north) , after performing many saentffic expenments.He pointed out correctly that the magnetic poles of the earth were not in uniformity with the geographic poles. The use of marine compass and the theory of magnetic declincrtion combined played a most important role in the tong-distance sea voyages. For the first time in history, humans were able to navigate freely un-der any kind of weather conditions.Hence many new sea routes were opened to traffic, promoting the exchange of culture and trade among the people of the world.Words fail to describe the compass importance to navigcrtion.北宋著名科学家沈括(《梦溪笔谈》著者),在制作和应用指南针的科学实践中发现了磁偏角的存在。他精辟地指出,这是因为地球上的磁极不正好在南北两极的缘故。指南针及磁偏角理论在远洋航行中发挥了巨大的作用,人类第一次得到了在茫茫大海中航行的自由,从此开辟了许多新的航线,促进了各国人民之间的文化交流与贸易往来。指南针对航海事业的重要意义怎么说也不为过。Joseph Needham, a famous historian, once said to Chinese students:“In the realm of navigation, your ancestors were much more advanced than our ances-tors. Far before Europe, the Chinese aly harnessed the wind power, with the coordination of fore (front)and aft ( rear) sails to navigate in any direction of the wind they encountered.Perhaps for this reason, in the history of navigation, China never used the galleys, which were rowed along by slaves as in anaent Greece or Rome.”西方著名历史学家李约瑟曾对其中国学生说:“你们的祖先在航海方面远比我们的祖先来得先进。中国远在欧洲之前懂得用前、后帆的系统御风而行,或许就是这个原因,在中国航海史上从未用过多桨奴隶船。”The invention of the compass had epochal influence on navigation, opening up a new chapter in the history of world navigation. With its help, Admiral Zheng He made seven voyages across seas to Southeast Asia and around Indian Ocean in the early Ming Dynasty (1368 ~ 1644) , Christopher Columbus discovered the New Word, and Ferdinand Magellan sailed round the world.指南针的发明,给航海事业带来了划时代的影响,世界航运史也由此翻开了新的一页。明朝初期郑和率领船队七下西洋,15世纪哥伦布发现新大陆和麦哲伦环绕地球航行等壮举,都是指南针用于航海事业的结果。 /201512/410738。
  • In January, British actor Eddie Redmayne made headlines around the world as he became the latest in a growing band of smartphone refuseniks.今年1月,英国演员埃迪雷德梅因(Eddie Redmayne)成为全球头条新闻,因为他加入了人数越来越多的智能手机拒绝者的行列。“It was a reaction against being glued permanently to my iPhone during waking hours,” he explained, turning instead to an old-fashioned “dumb phone” handset that could only make and take calls.他解释说:“这是对于在清醒时刻与我的iPhone永远粘在一起的反应。”他转而使用只能接打电话的老式“傻瓜手机”。He is not alone. There is a small but busy market for phones that are simple and cheap at a time when smartphones are becoming ever more complex and expensive.他并非唯一这么做的人。在智能手机变得越来越复杂和昂贵之际,简单而廉价的手机拥有一个规模不大但颇为忙碌的市场。Feature phones — handsets with some basic functions such as playing music and accessing the internet — are gradually being replaced by low cost smartphones, according to Francisco Jeronimo, research director for European mobile devices at IDC, the research group. But there is still a significant demand for older-style phones.研究机构IDC的欧洲移动设备研究总监弗朗西斯科瀠坧尼莫(Francisco Jeronimo)表示,功能手机(具备一些基本功能的手机,例如播放音乐和上网)正逐渐被低价智能手机取代。但更老式的手机仍有可观需求。Strategy Analytics, a research group, estimates that 44m basic phones were sold in 2015, accounting for 2 per cent of the global market.研究机构Strategy Analytics估计,2015年基础手机销量为4400万部,占全球手机市场的2%。Some phonemakers, such as Sony and LG, have aly turned their back on the market. But others like Microsoft and Samsung are still producing devices every year aimed at the feature market.一些手机制造商(例如索尼(Sony)和LG)已放弃这块市场。但微软(Microsoft)和三星(Samsung)等其他厂商仍年年推出瞄准功能手机市场的设备。Many smartphone users bemoan having to buy devices that are easily broken, require daily recharging and which will be superseded by a new, better version within a year. Even basic smartphones offer computing power that not many people need.很多智能手机用户抱怨称,他们不得不购买很容易被摔坏、需要每天充电,以及不到一年就被新的更高版本取代的手机。就连入门型号的智能手机也提供并非很多人需要的计算能力。Some users buy phones with limited or no internet connections in a conscious attempt to decouple from the modern digital world. Light Phone founder Joe Hollier falls into this camp. The 25-year-old former skater has developed a credit card-sized phone without a data connection and no extra functions other than to make calls. He describes a feeling of huge relief when the ability to check emails or status updates is removed.一些用户为了有意识地试图与现代数字世界隔绝,而购买上网功能有限或者没有上网功能的手机。Light Phone创始人乔攠利耶(Joe Hollier)就是其中的一员。这位25岁的前滑板运动员开发了一款信用卡大小的手机,除接打电话外,没有数据连接或其他额外功能。他形容,移除查看邮件或更新状态功能带来一种巨大的放松感觉。Analysts say that there is a growing number of “second phoneys” who use an expensive smartphone or “phablet” during the day, but turn to cheaper, pocket-sized devices when they go out in the evening.分析师们表示,越来越多的人使用两部手机:白天使用昂贵智能手机或平板手机,晚上外出时则换成较为廉价的袖珍手机。The Light Phone functions as a compnion device to a smartphone but Mr Hollier hopes it will also encourage people to unplug from the modern internet world.Light Phone就像是智能手机的伴侣,但奥利耶希望它还会鼓励人们时不时暂别现代互联网世界。There are also practical reasons why some are turning their backs on smartphones. The short battery life of devices is a source of constant complaint and many travellers are still attracted to the reliability and long battery life of older phones.一些人放弃智能手机也有实际的原因。手机电池续航时间短是人们抱怨连连的一个原因,同时很多旅行者仍喜欢老式手机的可靠性和超长待机时间。This market is still being served by Microsoft, which now owns the Nokia brand. The US group last year launched the Nokia 215, for example, a simple, robust device that has a standby battery life of 29 days. The Nokia 515 has a massive 38 days standby time.微软仍在务于这块市场,该公司现在拥有诺基亚(Nokia)品牌。去年,微软推出诺基亚215,这是一款简单而坚固的手机,电池待机时间达到29天。诺基亚515的电池待机时间则长达38天。The phone has a simple layer of apps and basic data connectivity, but the main attraction is the price tag. As Microsoft boasts: “Exceptional battery life and impressive durability are standard features. When you own a Nokia, you own a phone that’s built to last.”这款手机的应用软件简单,仅具备基本的数据连接,但主要吸引力在于其30美元的价格。正如微软所夸耀的那样:“出色的电池待机时间以及令人印象深刻的耐用性是标准配备。如果你有一部诺基亚,你就拥有了一部可以天长地久的手机。”Dumb phones have more specific uses, however, for example being given to children for calling home. They are simple, robust and cheap if lost.然而,非智能手机还具备一些比较特定的用途,例如,给孩子用来打电话给家里。它们简单、结实,如果丢失也不贵。Likewise, there are simple phones for the elderly, such as those made by Doro, which prioritise large buttons and the amplification of volume rather than how quickly they can access the internet.同样,还有一些专为老年人设计的简单手机,例如Doro生产的手机,该公司的手机优先考虑大按键和音量放大,而不是接入互联网的速度有多快。Mr Jeronimo says that such products are becoming a niche opportunity for companies. Doro has grown to become the third-largest feature phonemaker in western Europe after Microsoft and Samsung, he adds.IDC的杰罗尼莫表示,这类产品正成为一些公司占据一席之地的机遇。他补充称,Doro已成长为西欧第三大功能手机制造商,仅次于微软和三星。Feature phones are also more popular in developing markets because of the combination of low prices and long battery life.此外,由于价格低和电池待机时间长,功能手机在发展中国家更受欢迎。“Using a smartphone in some countries in Africa, for instance, is not an option for many users, as it would require to charge it on a daily basis,” says Mr Jeronimo.杰罗尼莫表示:“例如,在非洲一些国家,对很多用户来说,使用智能手机并非可行选择,因为它需要每天充电。”“On the other hand using a smartphone means little for users who cannot connect to a 3G network, either because they are not available or because the connectivity is extremely expensive.”“另一方面,使用智能手机对那些无法接入3G网络的用户而言几乎无用,这要么是因为3G网络不可用,要么是接入价格极其高昂。”And, for those that find even basic phones are too much, there is a solution: the NoPhone Zero. It claims to be the least advanced phone ever created, has no buttons or components and is just a plastic rectangle. It is a joke, but one that says much about our modern anxiety about technology.对于那些认为连基础手机都显过分的人而言,这里有一个解决方案:5美元的NoPhone Zero(见右上图)。这款手机自称是目前最低级的手机,它没有按键和零部件,只是一块长方形塑料。它是个搞笑产品,但它在很大程度上揭示了现代社会的科技焦虑。 /201602/428519。
  • 7.Disposable Contact Lenses7.一次性隐形眼镜Contact lenses have been around for decades, and they#39;ve changed quite a bit since the early days of hard plastic lenses. The 1970s saw the rise of soft lenses made from hydrogel. It#39;s no secret why soft lenses quickly became popular: They were more air permeable than the older lenses and more comfortable to boot. Since then, both hard and soft contact lenses have seen improved permeability, and can be worn for longer periods of time.隐形眼镜的存在已经有几十年了。从早期的硬塑料镜片开始,新型的隐形眼镜已经改善了很多。二十世纪七十年代,由水凝胶制成的软性隐形眼镜开始崛起。软性隐形眼镜随之变得风靡全球。它们比旧的镜片更具透气性,且更方便佩戴。从那以后,硬性和软性隐形眼镜的透气性都有所提高,而且可以长时间地持续佩戴。In 1987, contact lenses became an even more convenient substitute for wearing glasses. That#39;s the year disposable contact lenses hit the consumer market. Disposable lenses are soft contact lenses meant to be worn for a short period of time. Before disposable lenses, owning contacts was a bit like owning glasses. You wore the same pair every day and had to clean and care for them regularly. That meant losing a lens was a costly mistake.1987年,隐形眼镜代替眼镜,成为更方便的替代品。那一年,年抛隐形眼镜抢占了消费者市场。一次性隐形眼镜是软性隐形眼镜,这意味着此类隐形眼镜只能短时间佩戴。在一次性隐形眼镜出现之前,拥有隐形眼镜和拥有眼镜就是一码子事,因为你每天戴同一副镜片,也很难保可以定期去清洗和护理,就无形中增加了丢失镜片所要承受的损失。With disposable lenses, that problem vanished. Since 1987, these contacts have become the go-to solution for in-eye vision correction. They#39;re available in daily, weekly, and monthly forms.有了一次性隐形眼镜,这样的问题就完全不存在了。1987年起,这些隐形眼镜成为内眼矫正视力的首选解决方案。隐形眼镜还多了日抛、周抛、月抛等多种选择。6.The Space Shuttle6.航天飞机After the lunar missions in the late #39;60s and early #39;70s, the people at NASA dedicated themselves to developing a new type of vehicle that could venture into space and return home safely. The culmination of their research and development was the Space Shuttle. The engineers and mechanics designed it to be more than just a transportation vehicle -- the Space Shuttle would become an orbiting scientific laboratory capable of hosting numerous experiments designed to increase our understanding of the universe. The Space Shuttles also played an important role in deploying and maintaining equipment in space, including satellites and the International Space Station.在60年代末期70年代早期的月球任务完成之后,美国国家航空和宇宙航行局(NASA)就致力于开发一种新的交通工具,使得飞行器能够进入太空也能安全回国着陆。他们研发的最高成就就是航天飞机。工程师和机修工想要把航天飞机设计成可绕轨道运行的科学实验室,且能够承载大量帮助人们加深对宇宙理解的实验项目,而不仅仅只是一个交通运输工具。航天飞机在配置和维修包括卫星和国际空间站等在内的太空设备上也发挥着很大作用。The first Space Shuttle launch was the Columbia on April 12, 1981. The mission lasted a little more than two days. The Columbia returned home safely and gave NASA valuable information about the design of the shuttle. A few tiles had broken off during the launch sequence, which informed NASA that engineers would need to make adjustments to head off future problems with other launches.航天飞机的首次发射是1981 年4月12日的“哥伦比亚”号。这个任务持续了两天多。“哥伦比亚”号的安全着陆,给美国国航局带来了在航天飞机制造方面的诸多宝贵信息。在启动序列期间,有几个瓦片掉落,这让美国国航局意识到,工程师必须得做一些调整来应对以后发射中可能会出现的问题。Since Columbia#39;s launch, there#39;ve been more than 130 Space Shuttle missions, and the program has inspired hundreds of children to study science and dream of space exploration.自“哥伦比亚”号发射以来,已经完美执行了130多起航天飞机发射任务,与此同时,这一项目也激励了无数梦想着太空探险的孩子学习科学的热情。5.IBM and Macintosh Personal Computers5.美国国际商用机器公司(IBM)和苹果个人电脑A computing revolution began in the 1970s. Early computers were massive machines -- some so large that they#39;d take up an entire floor of a building. Yet these machines had less processing power than a typical smartphone might boast today. As the era of miniaturization approached, computers shrunk. And hobbyists began to explore a world previously reserved for academic, government and research institutions. The personal computer became reality.19世纪70年代,世界范围内开始了一场电脑革命。早期的电脑都是十分庞大的机器——有些大到足足占据了一整层楼。并且,这些机器加工处理的能力比现如今的智能机还要低。随着微型化时代的到来,电脑的形态也开始缩小了。那些电脑爱好者开始探讨先前政府部门以及科研机构等遗留下来的学术问题。自此,个人电脑日渐在大众中普及。IBM#39;s 5150 Personal Computer launched in 1981. It contained an Intel 8088 processor and ran on version 1.0 of the PC-DOS operating system. The computer supported the Microsoft BASIC programming language. For much of the 1980s, IBM was synonymous with personal computers. You might say you own an IBM the same way you#39;d talk about owning a Windows PC nowadays. In fact, the old IBM PC is an ancestor to the Windows-based computers used by millions of people today.1981年,IBM-5150号个人电脑首次亮相。它配备英特尔8088处理器,并延续了第一版的个人计算机磁盘操作系统 ——(PC—DOS)操作系统。这台电脑持微软的基本编程语言。19世纪80年代的很长一段时间里,IBM就是个人电脑的代名词。可能你有一台“IBM”就相当于你现在说你有一台微软电脑。实际上,以前的IBM个人电脑就是现在无数人所使用的微软系统电脑的鼻祖。In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh computer. It was the first personal computer to feature a graphics-based user interface. Other computers required users to type in commands to launch applications. The Macintosh used icons to represent programs and a strange device called a mouse. Though neither the mouse nor the graphic user interface were new ideas, they hadn#39;t been part of the mass consumer market until the Macintosh hit store shelves.1984年,苹果推出了Macintosh电脑。它是首台设有基于图形用户界面的个人电脑。而其他计算机则需要用户输入命令以启动应用程序。苹果电脑利用图标来表示程序并配有一个称之为“鼠标”的陌生装置。尽管鼠标和图形用户界面都不是什么新想法,但直到苹果个人电脑出现在商店的货架上之后,才真正的占领了大众消费市场。4.Compact Discs4.激光唱片Music collectors in the early 1980s had limited choices. Audiophiles claimed that the only sound worth hearing was stored on vinyl albums. But these records take up a lot of space and can be damaged easily. Cassettes and 8-track tapes took up less space, but the magnetic storage format degraded over time. Companies like Sony and Philips swooped in to create an alternative: the compact disc.上世纪80年代的音乐收藏者们在音乐上的选择很受限。发烧友称,唯一值得细细品味的音乐都储存在黑胶唱片里。但是这些记录介质占用太多存储内存,很容易损坏。而盒带和八轨磁带则不会占用太多存储内存,可其磁记忆体的格式却会随着时间流逝逐渐劣化。于是,索尼和飞利浦等这样的公司便趁虚而入,创造出另一款替代品——激光唱片。In the early to mid 1980s, engineers wrote a series of books that set out the standards for the compact-disc format. There were five books in the series, each a different color. The first book, which was red, established the basic standards for audio recording on compact disc. Later books expanded the standards, adding data storage capabilities to the CD and giving birth to the CD-ROM and CD-RW formats.上世纪80年代早期,工程师们编著了一系列丛书,详细规范了激光唱片的格式标准。 该系列丛书共有五本,分别以五种不同颜色来区分。第一本书是红色的,它阐述了激光唱片音频录制的基本标准。后续的几本书均在第一本的基础上扩充了格式标准,在CD上附加数据储存的能力,新创造包含CD-ROM和CD-RW格式的光盘。Not only did this revolutionize the music industry, practically killing off the cassette and vinyl markets, but also the budding computer industry. Early floppy disks had limited storage capacity and could lose data if exposed to magnets. Compact discs stored information in an optical format and could hold far more data than typical magnetic disks. The first compact disc players were expensive, but by the 1990s the format dominated both the music and computer storage markets.激光唱片不仅仅是音乐产业的一场革命,更是消灭了盒式磁带和黑胶唱片的市场。早期的软盘存储能力有限,置于磁场中十分容易丢失数据。而激光唱片以一种视觉上可见的格式保存数据,且其可存储量远超传统的磁体光盘。世界上首台激光唱片播放机非常昂贵,直到上世纪九十年代,这种唱片格式才开始在音乐和计算机存储器市场占据主要地位。审稿:省略珺 校对:CMX /201507/384667。
  • Nobody likes being monitored. But even if you suspected your company is following your activities on the iPhone, would you know where to check?没有人喜欢被监控。但即使你怀疑你的公司正在监控你在iPhone上的操作,你知道该去哪里检查吗?In the next iteration of its smartphone operating system, iOS 9.3, Apple is looking to make this an easier task. According to Reddit user MaGNeTiX, the latest beta of iOS 9.3 has a message telling users their iPhone is being supervised. The message is as prominent as can be, both on the device#39;s lock screen and in the About section.苹果iPhone的下一代操作系统iOS 9.3将会让这件事变得简单。根据Reddit网站上的MaGNeTiX透露,最新的iOS 9.3测试版能够推送消息,告知用户他们的iPhone正被监控中。该消息提示会尽可能的醒目,在设备的锁屏界面和行程上都能显示。;This iPhone is managed by your organisation,; the message on the lock screen says. And in the About screen, you get a little more detail, with a message saying your iPhone#39;s supervisor can monitor your Internet traffic and locate your device.锁屏上的消息是这样显示的:;这台iPhone由您的公司管理。;而在行程界面上,你会看到更多的细节。消息会这样显示:监控你手机的人能够监控你的网络流量、定位你的设备。To be clear: It doesn#39;t look like this feature will let you turn off company supervision or increase your privacy in any way. It#39;s merely there as a warning, providing more transparency to users, some of which might not even be aware their employer is monitoring their iPhone.需要明确的是,这个消息推送功能并不能让你关闭公司的监控或者加强隐私保护。这仅仅是一种警告,向用户透露更多信息。毕竟一些人也许根本没有意识到雇主正在监控他们的iPhone。The news comes amidst a legal battle between Apple and the FBI, which seeks Apple#39;s help in decrypting the iPhone of one of the terrorists responsible for last year#39;s attack in San Bernardino, Calif. More precisely, the FBI wants Apple to create a new version of iOS that would be used specifically on the shooter#39;s iPhone, disabling some of its security features. So far, Apple stood firm in its decision not to yield to the government#39;s demands, claiming it would affect ;everyone who owns an iPhone.;在这些新消息释出之际,苹果公司和FBI正有法律上的纠纷。FBI希望苹果能够帮助破解参与去年圣贝纳迪诺袭击案的恐怖分子的iPhone。更准确地说,FBI希望苹果能够为该射击者的手机特地开发一个新的iOS版本,从而使其中的一些安全功能失效。截止目前为止,苹果坚持不从政府的要求,他们表示如果这么做,会给;每一位拥有iPhone的人;带来负面影响。 /201603/430321。
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