西安市中心医院看胃病多少钱度社区

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月24日 19:52:02
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What should western politicians be most worried about: growth, inequality, the environment, education? To judge from today’s discourse, the answer seems to be none of the above. Instead, in the past month, both Barack Obama, US president, and David Cameron, UK prime minister, have made big speeches on immigration. At the weekend Swiss voters rejected a proposal virtually to end the flow of incomers to their country. But anti-immigration parties have made strong gains in a variety of other European nations, including Sweden and Italy, in the past year.西方政界人士最应该担忧的是什么?增长、不平等、环境还是教育?从当前流行话题来判断,似乎不在其中。相反,一个多月来,美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)和英国首相戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)都就移民问题发表了重要讲话。日前,瑞士选民否决了一项几乎不再接纳新移民的提案。但在过去一年中,反移民政党在其他多个欧洲国家——包括瑞典和意大利——取得了重大进展。Immigration is now clearly at the very centre of political debate in the west. But, in the past couple of weeks, the European and US debates have branched off in different directions.眼下,移民问题显然是西方政治辩论的核心。但在过去几周内,欧洲和美国在这一问题上的辩论走向出现了分化。Two weeks ago Mr Obama announced plans to shield millions of illegal immigrants from potential deportation. For all the bitter divisions his proposals stirred up, the likelihood is that they will ultimately help to push the American debate in a more liberal direction.不久前,奥巴马宣布了将使数百万非法移民免于被驱逐的计划。尽管他提议采取的措施激起了很大争议,最终却可能有助于推动美国移民辩论朝着自由主义的方向演变。In Europe, by contrast, the rise of populist anti-immigration parties, such as Britain’s UK Independence party and France’s National Front, is still driving the debate to the right.相比之下,英国独立党(UKIP)和法国国民阵线(National Front)等欧洲民粹主义反移民政党的崛起正将移民辩论推向更右倾的方向。Mr Cameron announced plans to restrict welfare benefits for legal migrants from the rest of the EU and to force those who fail to find a job to leave the country. Across the Channel, meanwhile, Nicolas Sarkozy, the former (and possibly future) president of France, has called for the repeal of the Schengen rules that have dismantled frontier controls within the EU.卡梅伦最近宣布的计划将限制来自欧盟其他国家的合法移民的福利,并强制那些没有找到工作的移民离境。与此同时,在英吉利海峡的另一边,法国前总统(或许以后还会再度担任总统)尼古拉#8226;萨科齐(Nicolas Sarkozy)呼吁废止在欧盟境内取消边境管控的申根协定。Despite the differences in rhetoric, the immigration numbers across the rich world are strikingly similar. Estimates by the OECD of the foreign-born population in its member states in 2011 was 11-13 per cent for the US, the UK, Germany and France. Switzerland, with a foreign-born population of 27.3 per cent, is a real outlier – which might account for the special vehemence of the debate there.尽管论调不同,发达国家的移民数据却惊人地相似。据经合组织(OECD)估测,2011年在其成员国中,美国、英国、德国和法国的外国出生人口比例均在11%到13%之间。而瑞士的这一比例达27.3%,是发达国家中真正的异数,或许这也解释了为何瑞士的移民辩论格外激烈。Rich countries are clearly a magnet for migrants from poorer nations and the pull is growing stronger. According to the OECD, the flow of global migration doubled between 2000 and 2010, compared to the preceding decade.对来自较贫穷国家的移民来说,富裕国家显然就像一块磁石,而且吸引力还在不断增强。根据经合组织的数据,2000年到2010年间,全球移民的流动规模比上个十年翻了一番。Globalisation has made both travel and communication much easier. The comparative wealth of western Europe or North America is broadcast across the world. Established immigrant communities in developed nations can help newcomers and provide legal routes into the country. And, where there is no legal route, there are always people- smugglers and the black economy.全球化使旅行和通讯更加便利。西欧和北美的相对富裕在世界各地可谓家喻户晓。发达国家成熟的移民社区能帮助新来的移民,并提供进入该国的合法途径。而且,就算没有合法途径,也总会有蛇头和黑市经济。Immigrants often do jobs that locals are unwilling or unable to perform. But they are also routinely blamed for holding down wages and for putting pressure on public services and housing. With levels of inequality rising in the west, it is not hard for populist politicians to argue that limousine liberals are benefiting from cheap, immigrant labour– while evading the social consequences.移民常常从事本地人不愿或不能从事的工作。但人们也时常指责移民拉低了薪资水平,增大了公共务和住房的压力。随着西方的不平等程度持续上升,民粹主义政治人士也就可以很方便地宣称,坐豪车的自由派人士从廉价的移民劳动力中获益——同时还能不引起社会后果。So far, so similar. But the US and European approaches are diverging. Mr Obama has taken on the anti-immigration lobby, casting them as un-American and inhumane. In Britain and the rest of Europe, however, many governments are still promising to “crack down” on immigration, in some form or another – even if political leaders such as Mr Cameron refrain from challenging the EU’s commitment to free movement of labour.到这里,美国和欧洲的情况还很相似。但美欧的策略正在出现差异。奥巴马与反移民游说团体展开了较量,称他们是反美国精神和不人道的。而在英国和欧洲其他地方,许多政府还许诺以某种形式“打击”移民,尽管卡梅伦等政治领袖仍避免挑战欧盟关于劳动力自由流动的承诺。The difference partly reflects the fact that Mr Obama is a centre-left politician and Mr Cameron is a conservative. The US Democrats also see an electoral advantage in luring the Republicans into taking a hard line on immigration, which will alienate Hispanic voters.这种差异部分源于奥巴马是中左翼的政治人士,而卡梅伦是保守主义者。美国民主党人也发现,诱使共和党人在移民问题上采取强硬态度,会让他们疏远西班牙裔选民,在选举上对民主党有利。In Europe the political calculations point in the opposite direction. Mr Cameron fears losing support to Ukip, which has made opposition to mass immigration its central theme. Other centre-right politicians in the EU, such as Mr Sarkozy, also seem most concerned about the threat from the far right.在欧洲,政治考量则指向了相反的方向。卡梅伦担心选民会转而持以反对大量移民为中心议题的英国独立党。欧盟其他中右翼的政治人士,如萨科齐,似乎也极担忧来自极右翼政治势力的威胁。Behind the politics, however, there is also an emerging difference in philosophy. Mr Cameron, Mr Sarkozy and politicians to their right still stress the language of “control”. Their argument is that voters are unhappy about high levels of immigration and that it is their duty to respond.然而,在政治的背后,美欧之间的理念差异也开始浮现。卡梅伦、萨科齐和比他们更偏右的政治人士依然强调“控制”这种措辞。他们的论点是,既然选民对大量移民不满,他们就有责任做出回应。Mr Obama, though, is taking an approach that sounds more fatalistic. He says he will strengthen border controls but adds that “tracking down, rounding up and deporting millions of people isn’t realistic”.奥巴马采取的策略听起来更顺其自然一些。他表示将加强边境管控,但他也说“追查、围堵和驱逐数百万人是不现实的。”Implicit in the Obama argument is the idea that, in the era of globalisation, rich nations are just going to have to get used to the notion that they will continue to be a magnet for migrants from poorer parts of the world. The alternative is to start turning your country into a fortress or a police state.奥巴马的论点中隐含的意思是,在全球化时代,对来自世界更贫穷地方的移民来说,富国将继续保持磁石一般的吸引力,而富国只能去适应这一点。否则就会把国家变成一个堡垒或者极权国家。There are several reasons why the Obama argument might work in the US. As the president pointed out, America was built by immigrants. It is also a continent-sized country that has plenty of space. And it has an established two-party system that makes it harder for single-issue, anti-immigration parties to gain ground.奥巴马的论点可能在美国行得通有几点原因。正如他指出的,美国是移民建立起来的国家,幅员辽阔,地方很大。而且,两党制在美国建立已久,这使单一议题的反移民政党更难在美国取得进展。But none of those conditions prevail on the other side of the Atlantic. As a result, the populist right is likely to make the running in Europe’s immigration debate for some years to come.而大西洋彼岸的国家都不具备这些条件。因此,在接下来的许多年里,民粹主义右翼势力可能还将主导欧洲的移民辩论。 /201412/347318

There are too many men in China.中国人实在太多了。That’s not the complaint of a love hungry young Chinese bachelor, but rather a statistical fact: by the year 2020, approximately 30 million more men will reach adulthood and enter the mating market than women. That may not make Chinese men happy, but it’s become a huge annual boost to China’s online retailers. How? Back in the early 1990s, Chinese singles created a sort of anti-Valentine’s Day called Singles’ Day, an annual celebration of bachelorhood or bachelorettehood taking place on November 11. (numerically, 11/11, the date of lonely “1s.”)这不是在埋怨年轻中国单身汉对爱情的渴望,它只是一个统计学上的事实:2020年之前,将会成年并进入婚配市场的男性大约比女性多三千万。这个数据大概不会让中国男人感到开心,但是对于中国在线零售商来说,它带来了一年一度的销量剧增。这是怎么发生的呢?时间回溯到上世纪90年代初期,中国的单身人士发明了一种与情人节相反的节日叫做光棍节,一个在每年11月11日(从数字角度来说,11/11,也就是孤独的“1”的集合的日期)对单身和单身生活的庆祝。Singles’ Day has since evolved into a major shopping holiday, similar to Black Friday or Cyber Monday here in the U.S. And just as U.S. corporations like Hallmark adopted Valentine’s Day as an opportunity to boost sales, Chinese online retailers like Alibaba, a massive online marketplace, have embraced the cultural phenomenon that is Singles’ Day.自此以后,光棍节就渐渐演变成了一个主要的购物节日,类似于美国的黑色星期五,以及黑色星期五之后的网购星期一(在美国标志着感恩节至圣诞节之间网络购物旺季的开始)。而且正如美国诸如贺曼之类的公司把情人节当做提高销量的好机会,中国诸如阿里巴巴(一个大型的线上市场)之类的在线零售商已经张开双手拥抱了光棍节这个文化现象。And that embrace comes with good reason. China’s Alibaba online marketplace alone reported over billion in sales on Tuesday, skyrocketing past the company’s previous Singles’ Day record of about .9 billion, MarketWatch reports. Those are stunning numbers — by comparison, U.S. consumers spent just .2 billion online during Black Friday last year, according to ComScore, and another .29 billion during Cyber Monday, per Adobe Systems. (Factoring in physical store sales, total Black Friday weekend spending in the U.S. last year was a hair over billion.) Those numbers come just two months after Alibaba went public in a billion U.S.-based public offering, which has since hit the record books as the world’s biggest-ever IPO.这种拥抱不是没有收获的。据市场观察报道(MarketWatch),在星期二,中国的阿里巴巴在线市场单独一家就报告了超过90亿美元的销售额,远远超过了这家公司在上个光棍节约59亿美元的销量,这些都是非常惊人的数据——因为相比较而言,康姆斯科公司(comScore)的数据显示,根据每个奥多比系统的用户,美国的消费者在去年黑色星期五期间的在线消费只有12亿美元,在网购星期一期间,消费了另外的22.9亿美元(加上实体店销售额,去年美国整个黑色星期五周末消费略超过570亿美元)。 而就在两个月前,阿里巴巴首次上市,募集到250亿的美国资本,作为世界最大的独立上市公司打破了点击记录。Singles’ Day is a holiday that speaks to the rapidly growing purchasing power of China’s middle class as well as a culture increasingly focused on the acquisition of material wealth. Accordingly, Singles’ Day has spawned a bevy of outlandish tales that redefine consumerism — one Chinese man, in preparation for Singles’ Day, proposed to his girlfriend in a heart-shaped ring of 99 iPhone 6s that cost about ,000, reports the Nanfang. The woman rejected his proposal.光棍节是一个明了中国中产阶级飞速增长的购买力的节日,也是一种日益在关注物质财富的获得的文化。相应的光棍节也产生了一批奇闻怪谈,重新定义了消费主义——有一个中国男人,为了准备即将到来的光棍节,花费了大约82000美元,用99部苹果6s摆成的心形环向他的女朋友求婚。到女方拒绝了他的求婚。But the Singles’ Day windfall for Chinese retailers like Alibaba is also an accident of China’s one-child policy, instituted in 1979. The policy led many Chinese—who historically have often preferred to have boys—to take advantage of cheap ultrasound technology that has allowed women to determine the sex of their child in early pregnancy, offering them the option to continue or terminate pregnancies based on gender. The resulting gender imbalance has actually led many of China’s surplus men (and some women as well) to view Singles’ Day as a chance to celebrate what they hope could be the last day of singledom—hence much of the expensive buying, which is tied to gift-giving to woo significant others.但是对于如阿里巴巴的中国零售商来说,光棍节的意外之财也是中国在1979年制定的独生子女政策的意外影响。这个政策导致很多中国人——那些由于历史原因经常更倾向于得到儿子的——利用了低级的超声波技术,因而女人得以在怀早期就确定他们的孩子的性别,也有了继续或者终止这次怀的选择。结果造成的男女性别不平衡实际上已经导致很多中国的剩男(有些剩女也是)将光棍节当成一次机会,庆祝希望中的单身的最后一天——因此,要给那个重要的人求爱,这就造成了很多高昂的消费。Alibaba, which acts as a bazaar for online merchants, has taken advantage to a remarkable extent of growing disposable incomes in China. This year, the company posted the largest initial public offering at billion, launching off its rapid growth in China.阿里巴巴作为在线商家的集市,已经把中国不断增长的消费收入利用到了淋漓尽致的程度。今年,这家公司发布了最大的首次公开募股250亿美元,加快了它在中国的飞速发展。 /201411/342613

  

  One year ago this month, Detroit filed for bankruptcy—the largest U.S. city to take such a step. Since then, Wall Street analysts and the media have focused on how other cities have responded—or failed to respond—to their own pension and health care liabilities. Some have recognized the need to engage unions as partners rather than adversaries, but the broader lesson from Detroit goes far beyond how to avoid bankruptcy.一年前的这个月,底特律申请了破产,它是迄今为止美国最大的破产城市。自那时起,华尔街的分析师们和媒体界纷纷关注其他城市是怎样应对自己的养老金和医疗保险债务的。有些城市已经意识到应该把工会当成合作伙伴而不是敌对力量,但这次底特律留给其他城市的教训远远不止是应该如何避免破产。Detroit’s predicament has revealed three truths for how other cities can start and sustain a recovery.对于其他想要开启或保持复苏进程的城市来说,底特律的困境揭示了三个真相。On Monday, Detroit retirees voted to accept pension cuts as the city continued to get its financial house in order. As hard as this process may be is, it’s only the beginning. Detroit has demonstrated that cities have to set a platform for growth. Market trends are in cities’ favor: In 2011, big cities in the nation’s largest metropolitan areas grew faster than their suburbs for the first time in nearly a century. This reversal continued in 2012 and 2013, possibly signaling a true shift in preferences.上周一,为了稳定财政状况,底特律的退休人员投票接受了一项旨在削减养老金出的预案。过程自然十分艰难,但它只不过是个开始。底特律的例子已经表明,城市必须设置一个增长的平台。目前市场风向站在城市这一边:2011年,美国东北部都市圈的大城市的经济增长速度首次超过了郊区,这还是近100年来的头一回。2012年和2013年也持续了这种反转的趋势,或许说明美国的城乡发展的确出现了倒转。Still, city governments need to fix the basics to signal to both businesses and residents that it’s time to stay (or come back) and invest. For Detroit, fixing the basics hasn’t been easy: The city’s water and sewerage department recently cut off thousands of residential and commercial customers for non-payment with neither sufficient warning nor resources fully in place to help low-income households handle their debts. A two-week moratorium on shut-offs was announced Monday so that residents could learn more about how to get help, and there have also been many positive steps forward.但是,城市政府仍然需要解决一些基本问题,以向企业和居民发出信号,说明留在城市或搬回城市进行投资的时候已经到了。而对于底特律来说,要解决这些基本问题并非易事:该市的给排水部门最近终止了对数千户居民和商业用户的务,原因是他们没有缴纳费用,但是该部门事先并没有提出充分的警告,也没有投入充分的资源帮助低收入家庭处理他们的债务。不过周一底特律市又宣布对这些人暂时恢复供水两周,以便居民了解如何获得帮助,已经有一些积极的进展。The city government, for example, gave up control of the neglected (but promising) urban park, Belle Isle, turning it over to state management under a 30-year lease. Through a 5 million bond package, the Detroit Public Lighting Authority is tackling one of the most iconic symbols of the city’s troubles, replacing 55,000 broken streetlights with state-of-the-art LED bulbs. Mayor Mike Duggan has a new effort to stop blight before it starts in Detroit’s healthy neighborhoods by forcing owners to fix up vacant homes and has created a new auction site to find buyers for homes that are vacant or tax delinquent, but still attractive.比如底特律市政府放弃了对该市贝尔岛城市公园的控制权,让它由州政府托管30年。另外底特律公共照明局(Detroit Public Lighting Authority)虽然身负1.85亿美元的巨债,但还是勇敢地开始着手应对该市最棘手的麻烦之一——将55,000多个破损的路灯换成最先进的LED灯泡。另外为了不让市内仍然人丁兴旺的社区也陷入荒芜,市长麦克o杜甘想了一些新法子,比如要求房主修缮空房子,并且建立了一个新的拍卖网站,为那些空着的或是存在一些税务问题但仍然有吸引力的房子寻找新买主。Second, Detroit’s recovery shows that cities are networks, not just governments. As Detroit’s government was struggling with fiscal challenges (and the struggles started long before the bankruptcy filing), civic, business and philanthropic actors were committing billions of dollars into downtown and midtown and supporting a smart plan for the city’s physical and economic future. The M1 rail line, which is expected to begin construction later this month, is emblematic of Detroit’s physical and economic transformation. The bulk of the funding is coming not from the federal, state or local governments, but rather a consortium of companies, philanthropies and other anchor institutions.其次,底特律的复苏体现出城市是网络体,而不是靠政府撑起来的。底特律政府一直深陷财政危机(而且早在底特律申请破产之前就已经是这样了),但是市民、企业和慈善机构还是为底特律城区投入了数十亿美元的资金,并且投资持了对该市基础设施建设和经济前景至关重要的“智能计划”。M1轨道交通项目将于本月末开始动工,它正是底特律的基础建设与经济转型的象征,它的大部分资金并非来自联邦政府、州政府或地方政府,而是来自很多企业、慈善家和其它机构的捐赠。Similarly, the task force on Detroit’s new innovation district was convened by Mayor Duggan, and will be led by Nancy Schlichting, CEO of the Henry Ford Health System. It will draw on the talents and resources of private, public and civic actors and institutions. A city government can—and must—fix the basics, but it cannot generate economic growth all by itself. It takes a larger group of committed actors to shape a city’s future.另外,底特律市长杜甘已经专门召集了一个领导小组,研究怎样开发底特律的创新“特区”,这个小组将由亨利福特健康系统公司(Henry Ford Health System)的CEO南茜o施列丁领导。它将聚合私人和公共部门的人才与资源为“特区”务。一个城市的政府可以(并且必须)解决基本问题,但是不可能只靠政府自身带来经济发展。塑造城市的未来需要一大群有志之士。Finally, every metro area has something worth fighting for, rather than fighting over. The Detroit Institute of Arts brought a fractured region together. Back in 2012, suburban voters agreed to tax themselves to support the museum. The dollar amount per household was small, but the symbolic importance was huge, since it showed that suburbanites saw the DIA as a regional, not just city, asset. When it looked like the DIA’s collection would be dismantled to pay the city’s bills, the DIA itself, philanthropies, businesses, and the state of Michigan created what’s termed the “grand bargain” to shore up the city’s pension fund and thereby save the art.最后,每个大城市都有一些值得奋斗而不是争斗的东西。底特律艺术馆(Detroit Institute of Arts)就把这样一个破碎的区域聚合在了一起。2012年,底特律郊区的投票者同意向他们征税来维持这座艺术馆。虽然平摊在每家的钱很少,但它的象征意义却很重大,因为它表明底特律的郊区居民也将这座艺术馆视为整个地区的资产,而不仅仅是城里人的资产。就在底特律艺术馆的收藏品几乎要拿出来拍卖给城市还债的时候,底特律艺术馆以及慈善机构、各大企业和密歇根州政府发起了“大谈判”活动来持该市的养老基金,由此也拯救了艺术馆自己。Even with its extraordinary challenges, there is a new spirit, a new civic and political culture that’s unlike what we’ve seen in the city before.面对异乎寻常的挑战,底特律展示了一种新的精神,一种新的民间和政治文化,这是我们以前从未在这座城市看到过的。Detroit’s experience has taught the country how a challenged cities can be creative and resilient. A year ago pundits warned darkly that there would be a cascade of municipal bankruptcies. But America’s cities proved the doubters wrong: Bankruptcy is not contagious, but revival may well be.底特律的经验告诉我们,一座困难重重的城市,也可以非常有创意和韧性。一年前,权威人士曾警告我们,底特律破产后,还将出现一股地方政府的“破产潮”。但美国各大城市的表现却明了他们的判断是错误的:破产并不是传染病,但是复苏却可能会传染。Bruce Katz is a vice president at the Brookings Institution and co-director of the Metropolitan Policy Program. Follow him @bruce_katz.Jennifer Bradley is a fellow at the Metropolitan Policy Program. Follow her @JBradley_DC. Both are co-authors of The Metropolitan Revolution.本文作者布鲁斯o凯茨是布鲁金斯学会的副总裁,也是都市政策项目(Metropolitan Policy Program)的共同主任。另一名作者詹妮佛o布拉德利是都市政策项目的研究员。他二人也是《都市革命》(The Metropolitan Revolution)一书的作者。 /201407/315743。

  

  It was only two days ago that a Chinese government regulator chastised the Alibaba Group, the e-commerce giant, for failing to curb the sale of fake goods on its sites.仅仅两天之前,一家中国政府监管机构还在批评电商巨头阿里巴巴集团未能遏制其网站的售假行为。Now the two appear to have made up in a hurry.现在,双方似乎匆匆忙忙地进行了和解。The regulator, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, said on Friday that its leader, Zhang Mao, had met with Alibaba’s executive chairman, Jack Ma, to discuss cooperating to fight counterfeiting and protect consumers.国家工商行政管理总局周五表示,总局局长张茅会见了阿里巴巴董事局主席马云,讨论了合作打击假货和保护消费者的问题。The agency made its criticism of Alibaba in a report released on Wednesday. But it is now backing away from the findings of that report, calling it a recounting of a July meeting between the two sides and not an official document with legal weight.工商总局在周三发布的一篇报告中批评了阿里巴巴。但现在的立场却与报告的结论背道而驰,称这份报告是双方7月的一次会议的会议记录,而非具有法律效力的正式文件。It is a surprisingly quick turn of events for both Alibaba and the Chinese agency, given the public criticism that the S.A.I.C. delivered to one of its country’s most important Internet players.对于阿里巴巴和工商总局而言,这个转折都快得令人惊讶,毕竟此前工商总局是对这家中国最重要的互联网公司进行了公开指责。The Chinese government stayed quiet about the proliferation of fake goods on Alibaba’s marketplaces for several months, particularly in the period leading to the company’s billion stock market debut last fall.数月以来,中国政府一直对在阿里巴巴网站上泛滥的假货保持沉默,尤其是在公司去年秋天价值250亿美元(约合1540亿元人民币)的IPO前夕。That was despite longstanding accusations of sales of counterfeit goods — fake wine, knockoff handbags and falsely branded electronics — on Alibaba’s platforms. Only in 2012 did the ed States trade representative remove the company’s Taobao online marketplace from a “notorious markets” list of counterfeit goods sellers.而有关阿里巴巴的平台销售假货——假酒、假名牌包和仿冒电子产品——的指责从来都有。美国贸易代理商直到2012年才从销售假货的“恶名市场”名单中去掉了阿里巴巴的淘宝网。Alibaba has publicly criticized the phenomenon as a “cancer” and moved to crack down on it. The company said that it spent about 0 million on anticounterfeiting efforts in 2013 and 2014.阿里巴巴曾公开批判这种现象是“毒瘤”,并采取了打击假货的行动。公司称在2013年和2014年花费了大概1.6亿美元用于打假。Yet the S.A.I.C. moved forward with a prominent, and harshly worded, paper this week. In it, the regulator bluntly described a host of what it said were failures to halt the sales of counterfeit goods on marketplaces like Taobao and Tmall.com.但是,工商总局本周还是发布了一份引人注意的、措辞严厉的报告。工商总局在报告中直白地表示,公司未能在淘宝网和天猫上制止售假行为,而且这种情况十分普遍。That failure to halt the sales of fakes has led Alibaba to face “its biggest credibility crisis since it was founded,” the report said.由于未能采取措施制止售假行为,阿里巴巴“使自身面临成立以来的最大诚信危机”。That move brought a strong response from Alibaba, which acknowledged that it had more to do to halt counterfeit sales, but also contended that its regulator had been less than objective.此举引起了阿里巴巴的强烈反应。阿里巴巴承认,公司还应该采取更多行动来打击假货,但同时也辩称工商总局不够客观。Officials associated with Taobao in particular accused Liu Hongliang, an official at the agency, of using inappropriate procedures in the investigation, and said Taobao would file a formal complaint.与淘宝有关的官员特别指责了工商总局官员刘红亮,称其在调查期间程序失当,并表示淘宝将正式提起投诉。The S.A.I.C.’s blunt tone disappeared in the Friday statement. The agency described Alibaba as “steadfast and resolute” in fighting the sale of counterfeit goods, though it maintained that e-commerce platforms in China still needed to improve their self-policing.在周五的声明中,工商总局直截了当的语气消失了。它表示阿里巴巴在打击售假方面表现得“坚决而果断”,尽管它也声称,中国的电商平台仍然需要改进自我监管。Both sides pledged to work more closely on matters like creating new regulatory mechanisms.双方都承诺会在创建新的管理机制方面开展更紧密的合作。“Both sides believe that the regulators and online platforms share the common interest to promote the healthy development of the online commerce industry and creating an online shopping environment where consumers feel safe and satisfied,” the regulator said, according to an English-language translation of its statement.工商总局称,“双方认为,促进电商产业健康发展、营造消费者放心满意的网购环境,是网监部门与电商平台的共同意愿。”In a post on its corporate blog, Alibaba said it planned to hire 300 people to form an anticounterfeiting task force to bolster its policing staff.阿里巴巴在企业客中表示,公司计划招募300人成立打假团队,以强化监管人员的力量。A representative for Alibaba said in a statement: “The most recent S.A.I.C. posting speaks for itself. We feel vindicated.”一名阿里巴巴代表在声明中称:“工商总局最新公布的信息说明了一切,明了我们的清白。” /201502/358200

  Readers respond to a Sunday Review article, “Leaving Only Footsteps? Think Again.”本文是对《户外运动打破了大自然的宁静》(2015年2月17日)一文的回应。To the Editor:致编辑:“Leaving Only Footsteps? Think Again,” by Christopher Solomon (Sunday Review, Feb. 15), is a reminder that we humans affect the natural world even when we think that we don’t. But two caveats.克里斯托弗·所罗门的《户外运动打破了大自然的宁静》提醒我们:人类在自身没有察觉的情况下也仍可能对自然界产生影响。不过有两点需要说明。First, even if a hiker or a skier frightens wildlife more than a passing snow machine, the machine probably still has more effect. Why? Because motor vehicles travel many times farther on an average trip, and thus affect much more habitat compared with those traveling under their own power.首先,即便一位徒步者或滑雪者给野生动物带来的惊吓多过一辆行驶的雪地托车,托车也仍可能产生更多的影响。为什么呢?托车的平均单次活动距离比人多出许多倍。因此,相比于那些仅凭自身力量的人,托车会影响更多的动物栖息地。Second, conservationists have rightly focused on the damage caused by mines and logging in the backcountry not only because such projects directly destroy habitat, but also because they inevitably require new roads. For example, a recently proposed coal mine expansion on national forest in Colorado would require six miles of new road in roadless habitat that is home to black bear, elk and lynx. Such roads not only slice and dice habitat, but they also extend human effects, including recreational travel of all kinds, while also creating vectors for invasive species and more frequent wildfires.其次,环保主义者集中关注边远地区开矿和伐木活动造成的破坏,这是合理的。因为这些项目不仅对动物栖息地造成直接破坏,还无法避免地要求修建新的公路。例如,最近一项在科罗拉多国家森林内增开煤矿的计划,要求在原本无路的区域开辟6英里(约9.66千米)的新路。该区域正是黑熊、麋鹿和山猫的栖息地。这样的新路不仅将动物的生存区域分割成小块,还扩大了人类活动的影响,比如各种休闲旅游活动,同时为入侵物种提供了载体,增加了森林野火的发生机率。TED ZUKOSKI泰德·祖科斯基(TED ZUKOSKI)Boulder, Colo.美国科罗拉多州尔德The writer is an environmental lawyer for Earthjustice, Rocky Mountain office.作者是“地球正义”(Earthjustice)落基山脉分部的环境事务律师。To the Editor:致编辑:Christopher Solomon describes the results of Kimberly Heinemeyer’s survey of different types of “recreation” on the increasing avoidance of humans by wildlife on public land in the ed States in terms of the most benign recreational activities.克里斯托弗·所罗门描述了金伯利·海因梅耶(Kimberly Heinemeyer)关于最温和的休闲活动的研究成果,在美国的公共土地上,各种各样的“休闲活动”导致野生动物对人类的躲避行为持续增加。Working for the National Park Service two years ago as a biological technician, I noted harassment of wildlife in the park, mostly by human noise and mess. But unscrupulous hunters armed with “recreation” permits would wait for wild animals to cross over the National Park border and then blow them away with hunting rifles on National Forest land.两年前,作为一名生物技术人员,我在国家公园(National Park Service)工作。我注意到,公园中野生动物受到的骚扰大多来自人类制造的噪音和混乱。然而,肆无忌惮的猎人携带“休闲”活动的许可,等待野生动物越过国家公园的边界,然后在国家森林的土地上用猎射杀它们。Which type of “recreation” do you think causes more avoidance of human beings?你认为哪一种“休闲活动”引起了生物对人类更多的躲避呢?JUSTIN PHILLIPS贾斯汀·菲尔普斯(JUSTIN PHILLIPS)Olympia, Wash.美国华盛顿州奥林匹亚To the Editor:致编辑:Christopher Solomon may be right in arguing that even something so benign as a mere walk in the woods (no camping, no fires, no trash left behind), something that I occasionally do, can be damaging to wildlife, but he will generate absolutely no support so long as parks and shorelines are open to heli-skiing, Sno-Cat skiing, snowmobiles, mountain bikes, dune buggies and off-road or all-terrain vehicles.克里斯托弗·所罗门或许是正确的,他提出,即便是一些很温和的活动,如林间散步(不露营、不生火、不留下垃圾)这种我本人也偶尔参加的活动,也可能对野生动物造成伤害。但只要公园和沿海地区仍对直升机空降滑雪、雪地履带式滑雪、雪地托车、山地自行车、沙丘车和越野、多地形车开放,所罗门就不会得到任何持。Lumping such a wide range of outdoor activities under the same heading makes no sense. And it will only leave Mr. Solomon alone, a voice crying in the wilderness.把如此多样的户外运动混淆在一起,置于同一标题下,是没有任何意义的,只留下所罗门先生一人在孤独的荒野中大吼。BILL MARSANO比尔·马萨诺(BILL MARSANO)New York美国纽约To the Editor:致编辑:Christopher Solomon’s intriguing, and alarming, article about the adverse effects on wildlife from seemingly benign activities like hiking suggests that we should be prepared to accept restricted access to parks and wildlife areas.克里斯托弗·所罗门的文章引人入胜,引发担忧,它描述了一些看似温和的活动,如徒步等,对野生动物产生的负面影响,这也意味着我们应该准备接受对进入公园和野生保护区的限制了。Unfortunately, we are assaulting our environment in many more ways than wandering forest trails: flooding the oceans with tons of plastic refuse and creating excess greenhouse gases, to name two.不幸的是,我们破坏环境的方式远不止于林间散步,随便举两个例子:向海洋排放上吨的塑料废品和制造超量的温室气体。But Mr. Solomon is correct. Reduced access — particularly when it’s caused by reduced demand — is the answer for the protection of wildlife and the planet.不过所罗门是正确的。限制进入——特别是当需求减少的时候——是保护野生动物和保护地球的良策。Earth resources are fixed but are more than sufficient for a given number of inhabitants. All our environmental concerns can be linked to increasing demands from an expanding population. If there were fewer people, there would be fewer demands for plastic bottles, power plants and, yes, for hiking trails.地球资源是有限的,但对于一定数量的居民来说远远足够。我们所有环境方面的顾虑都可以和人口增长引发的需求增长联系起来。如果人口减少,塑料瓶、发电站,没错,徒步路线的需求也将减少。The arguments against responsible population control are manifold and persuasive. Yet in one generation, many of the environmental fears of the last 50 years could be just memories, and a future of rising sea levels, mega-droughts, and food and water shortages postponed indefinitely.反对人口控制的意见是多种多样、具有说力的。对于一代人而言,过去50年的许多环境担忧恐怕只留存在记忆中,海平面上升、特大旱灾和食物、水资源的短缺也被他们无限地推迟到了遥远的未来。MARK S. BACON马克·S·贝肯(MARK S. BACON)Reno, Nev.美国内华达州里诺To the Editor:致编辑:Footsteps do affect fragile ecosystems. But as custodians of open space eagerly pursue tourism, they pursue development.户外活动确实会影响脆弱的生态系统。户外空间的管理人渴望发展旅游业,其实是在追求经济发展。 In our mid-Hudson town of New Paltz, the Mohonk Preserve, in a longstanding partnership with the for-profit Mohonk Mountain House resort, plans 100-plus car parking, visitor center, boardwalk, bulldozed trails, toilet sheds and outdoor lighting, encouraging visitors from far and near to leap into their fossil-fueled vehicles to swarm in ever greater numbers into the unspoiled.在我们哈德逊河中部城市新帕尔茨,莫康克保护区(Mohonk Preserve)与营利性的莫康克山豪斯酒店(Mohonk Mountain House)有着长期合作关系,他们规划了100多个停车位和游客中心、浮桥、旅游路线、卫生间棚、户外照明,鼓励远近的游客一跃而上跳到他们的化石燃料供能车里,以前所未有的数量涌向未被破坏的土地。Recreation is a profitable and competitive industry, and green access is a resource that can be exploited as ruthlessly as any other, to the detriment of both wild and human habitat. It affects not only the trampled green space but also its buffer, where someone, till now, could stop to help a tortoise cross the highway without setting off half a mile of honking cars.休闲是一个盈利、具有竞争力的产业,而自然是一种可以像任何其他资源一样被残酷掠夺的资源,可以对野生动物和人类的生存空间造成破坏。它不仅影响了被侵入的自然空间,还影响了缓冲区,在那些地方,人们以前还可以停下来让一只龟穿过公路,而不必担心阻断车流,引致半英里的汽车鸣笛。C. A. RODRIGUEZC·A·罗德里格斯(C. A. RODRIGUEZ)New Paltz, N.Y.美国纽约州新帕尔茨To the Editor: 致编辑:Christopher Solomon’s article is sad but not surprising. For animals that live in wilderness, the sound, sight or scent of humans is a threat. The more of us there are, the fewer of them there will be.克里斯托弗·所罗门的文章令人悲伤但并不令人惊讶。对于生活在野外的动物来说,人类的声音、景象和气味都是威胁。我们越多,它们越少。As Mr. Solomon wrote, “A century ago, nature had elbow room.” Perhaps the best solution is to wake up to the fact that a century later, there are simply too many humans for this planet to support.正如所罗门所写:“一个世纪前,大自然还有一些自己的空间。”或许问题最好的解决办法是意识到这样一个事实:一个世纪之后的今天,对于这个星球来说,需要养活的人实在太多了。LAURIE HAMMOND劳瑞·海蒙德(LAURIE HAMMOND)Los Altos, Calif.美国加利福尼亚州洛思阿图斯 /201503/362176

  It#39;s hardly a surprise that Asia and its booming economies will produce thousands more multimillionaires in coming years. The question is, for everyone from luxury brands and real estate agents to private bankers and wannabe rich spouses: Where exactly to find these newly minted rich?亚洲及其繁荣的经济体将在未来几年造就更多的千万富豪,这并不让人感到意外。问题是,无论是对奢侈品牌和房地产经纪人,还是私人家和想要成为有钱人配偶的群体来说,哪里才是这些新晋 石王老五的聚集地呢?Try Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta, Mumbai and any major city in China.到胡志明市、雅加达、孟买和中国的任何一个大城市去碰碰运气吧。The new annual Wealth Report from property agency Knight Frank says there were 167,669 ultra-high-net-worth individuals in the world in 2013. An UHNWI is defined by Knight Frank as someone with million in assets, not including debt and their primary residence. The number is expected to grow by 28% to 215,113 by 2023.房地产机构莱坊(Knight Frank)的最新年度财富报告称,2013年全世界共有超高 值人士(ultra-high net worth individuals)167,669人。超高 值人士指的是金融资产逾3,000万美元者,其中不包括债务和主要居所。到2023年该人群数量预计将增加28%,达到215,113人。Much of the growth will come from Asia. The -million-plus crowd in the region will hit 58,588 by 2023, a rise of 43% from last year. That figure would surpass North America#39;s UHNWI population, which is expected to grow 20% by 2023 to just 52,536.亚洲将成为增长的主力军。2023年,亚洲超高 值人士将达到58,588人,较2013年增加43%。这一数字将超过北美,后者预计到2023年将达52,536人,增加20%。The city expected to see the fastest growth in its headcount of the superrich is Ho Chi Minh City. Knight Frank, whose report delves into the global rich and their real estate preferences, expects the Vietnamese metropolis to increase its wealthy population by 173% to 246. Keep in mind, the extraordinary growth is coming from a low 2013 level when the city had just 90 multimillionaires.预计超级富豪人数增加最快的城市是胡志明市。莱坊的报告深入探究了全球富豪及其对房地产的偏好,预计胡志明市的富裕人口将增加173%,至246人。考虑到2013年该市只有90个千万富翁,预期增速显得非同寻常。Jakarta and Mumbai will also see significant boosts in UHNWIs. Jakarta is projected to have 857 super rich by 2023 (a rise of 148%), while Mumbai will have 1,302 (up 126%).雅加达和孟买的超高 值人士也将大大增加。预计雅加达到2023年将拥有超高 值人士857人(增幅为148%),孟买将有1,302人(增幅为126%)。Though double-digit economic growth in China may be a thing of the past, its economy is still expected to produce an explosion of wealth, Knight Frank said. China#39;s UNHWI population is forecast to increase 80% over the next decade to 14,213, which will place it third among nations, after the U.S. and Japan.莱坊称,在中国,虽然两位数的经济增长态势或已成为过去式,但其经济仍有望产生财富的激增。中国超高 值人士预计将在未来十年增至14,213人,涨幅为80%,中国将一举跻身于世界前三之列,紧随美国和日本之后。Among Chinese cities to have big jumps in multimillionaire numbers: Hangzhou, which is expected to see its wealthy headcount go to 1,002, an increase of 78% from its current level of 563. Shanghai will see its rich population rise 50% to 1,542, while Beijing is expected to be home to 1,872 UHNWIs by 2023, a rise of 42%.在中国的一些城市中,千万富翁的数量已有巨大飞跃:杭州,预计其富豪人数将在当前的563人基础上增加78%,达到1,002人;上海,预计将增加50%达到1,542人;北京,到2023年预计将拥有超高 值人士1,872人 ,增加42%。China#39;s cities won#39;t rival New York or London anytime soon as a magnet for the rich. (London boasts 4,224 UHNWIs and that figure is expected to grow 17% to 4,940 by 2023, for example.) But consider this: Hangzhou, a rising technology hub in China, is forecast to have more multimillionaires than Los Angeles in a decade#39;s time. Perhaps then, we#39;ll be thinking Moganshan instead of Beverly Hills.在吸引富人这方面,近期内中国城市不敌纽约或伦敦(以伦敦为例,目前其超高 值人士数量为4,224人,2023年将达4,940人,涨幅为17%)。不过想想看:在十年之内,杭州作为中国一个正在崛起的技术中心,预计将催生出比洛杉矶更多的千万富翁。也许到那时,我们自然而然想到的是莫干山(Moganshan),而不是比弗利山庄(Beverly Hills)。 /201403/279318

  

  

  

  

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