楼主:中国新闻 时间:2019年10月18日 16:46:24 点击:0 回复:0
Breaking through the city gates, the Ladakhis overcame Guges resistance and took control of the lower part of the citadel.进入城门后拉达克击退古格王朝的抵抗拿下了札布让的底城。But as they chased the retreating soldiers and citizens of Guge up to passage ways and tunnels to its summit, the Ladakhis found themselves sitting ducks.当他们沿着通道及暗道追击溃败的古格王朝士兵及人民时,拉达克人发现自己成为笼中兔。As they snaked towards the summit these passage ways narrowed.他们蜿蜒朝着山顶前进时通道变得狭窄。The Ladakhis had to pass through them almost single file, making them easy targets for Guges forces.拉达克只能单排前进成为古格士兵的囊中物。After taking heavy losses, the Ladakhis retreated to the lower ramparts to regroup.在遭受重挫后拉达克人退回札布让的底部。It became clear to the Ladakhis that a front assault on the citadel would be impossible.拉达克清楚知道要正面攻击碉堡不可能。Instead, they chose to sit and wait.他们选择静观其变。By surrounding the citadel, the Ladakhis were confident they had blocked all avenues of escape and fresh supplies, especially water.拉达克包围札布让围堵所有出入通道企图让古格王朝得不到任何粮食及水补充。How long could Khri bKra shis Grags pa lde and his people hold out in this dry environment?赤扎西扎巴德及他的人民在这样干燥的环境下可以撑多久?But unknown to the Ladakhis, Guge might have had a trickle to up its sleeve.拉达克人不知道古格王朝还留有两手。Deep beneath the citadel are the network of caves that John Bellezza and Tsering Gyalpo found to be most unusual.约翰·贝勒查及和嘉波才让发现札布让地底下有着众多不寻常的洞窟。These were originally thought to be a royal winter retreat.这些洞窟原被认为是皇室度冬之地。To escape the bitter cold of winter, scholars believed the royals family would have come here to keep warm.学者相信皇室来这里取暖躲避严冬。But as John and Tsering explore further, they find evidence that suggests that these caves may have had some other purposes.但当约翰及和嘉波才让进一步调查时他们发现这些洞窟别有用途。 译文属201605/441049Renewables can depress wholesale prices, eg, when the sun creates a midday jolt. This discourages investors in the flexible, gas-powered generation needed to provide backup for windless, cloudy days. “The market dynamics are completely destroyed,” says Peter Terium, boss of RWE, one of the big four. There is talk of paying generators to offer capacity, not supply power. But such payments would add another subsidy distortion to the market.可再生能源会压低批发电价,比如在正午太阳当头时。这也从灵活性上令投资者犹豫不决,因为天然气发电器需要在无风的阴天里提供后备援。“市场动态完全被破坏了”,四大电力公司之一的RWE老总Peter Terium说。也有人讨论,电力公司有偿提供产能,而非电力。但这样的付方式会被市场扭曲理解为政府的另一项补贴。The 20 billion national-grid plan is another macro-project meant to channel micro-level exuberance. It assumes that the biggest need will be to supply northern wind power to southern and western consumers. Yet if so, perhaps renewables should be tempered elsewhere. “We have to synchronise infrastructure and renewables”, by allowing new wind and solar projects only where the grid can take delivery of what they produce, says Stephan Kohler, head of the German Energy Agency. Upgrading the grid, to beyond Germany as well as within it, would reduce waste and the risk of instability.200亿的国家电网计划是另一项用来调节微观层面繁荣发展的宏观项目。该计划认为,当务之急是将北方的风电输送至南部、西部的消费者家中。倘若如此,其他地区的可再生能源理应有所缓解。我们只能批准那些设立在电网覆盖范围内的新风电、太阳能项目,“我们不得不以此来协调基础设施同可再生能源的关系”,德国能源机构主席Stephan Kohler表示。升级德国境内外的电网将会减少资金浪费,降低不稳定的危险。But the vision is contested. Expansion of the grid has been thwarted by bureaucrats’ inertia, politicians’ foot dragging and activism by those who hate transmission masts as much as they do nuclear power. Even upgrades to existing lines can mobilise opposition, as in Quickborn, south of Niebull. Hard-core decentralists deny that power must be transmitted over long distances. “You can put the grid development plan directly in the bin,” says Matthias Willenbacher of Juwi, a big builder of solar and wind projects. Bavaria’s aspirations encourage such hopes. When the federal government tried to speed up cuts in the feed-in tariff for solar power, several states put up a fight, forcing a partial retreat. The renewables lobby, like the industrial one, demands stable investment conditions. Solar power will be competitive without subsidies by 2020, the solar lobby insists.但这种想法颇具争议。对于扩张电网,懒惰的官员阻扰之,政客们拒绝合作,激进主义者们厌恶核能,却也同样憎恨输电杆。即便是升级现有电路也会引起抗议,就如南尼必尔的quickborm发生的那样。顽固不化的分散主义者对电力必须长途传输的说法予以否认。大型太阳能、风能项目建造商Juwi的Matthias Willenbacher 说,“你可以直接把电网发展计划扔垃圾箱里”。巴伐利亚州“自给自足”的愿望鼓励了这种希望。当联邦政府试图加速降低太阳能发电的强制入网价格时,一些州挺身而出反抗之,最终迫使政府作出部分退让。和工业游说团一样,可再生能源游说团需要稳定的投资环境。太阳能游说团坚称,截至2020年底,即便是没有政府补贴,太阳能发电也会颇具竞争力。Germany is groping for a mix of top-down direction-setting and bottom-up buy-in for its Energiewende to work. The federal government may limit foes of transmission projects to one court challenge. But consultation with citizens is vital, reckons Mr Matthiessen. TenneT, which operates the grid in Schleswig-Holstein, wants to extend the wind park idea to the transmission network, offering stakes in a line along the west coast. But Mr Bockholt, Niebull’s mayor, sounds a warning: Schleswig-Holstein’s plans to harvest its wealth of wind will soon “reach the limits of what is tolerable”.为保能源转型能起作用,德国正在探索一条自上而下发布号令与自下而上逐级买进的混合路子。联邦政府有权向法庭对转换项目的妨碍者提出异议。但Matthiessen先生认为,同市民商量才是最重要的。运行席勒斯威格-霍尔斯坦州电网的TenneT公司,想将风力电场的理念延伸为电力传输系统,就在向市民出手西海岸沿岸一条电路线的股权。但是尼必尔市市长Bockholt先生对此发出警告:席勒斯威格-霍尔斯州的丰富电力收获计划将很快“达到可承受的极限。”It is hard to think of a messier and more wasteful way of shifting from fossil and nuclear fuel to renewable energy than the one Germany has blundered into. The price will be high, the risks are large and some effects will be the opposite of what was intended. Greenhouse-gas emissions are likely to be higher than they would have been for quite a while to come. But that does not mean the entire enterprise will fail. Politicians cannot reinvent the Energiewende on the run, but they can stay a step ahead of the risks and push back against the costs—and they are beginning to do so. In the end Germany itself is likely to be transformed.在将矿物燃料、核燃料向可再生能源转换上,德国已经误打误撞的走出了自己的路子,很难再想出一个比德国的更棘手、更耗资的方式。转型价格将高居不下,转型风险巨大、而有些地方也可能事与愿违。在未来很长一段时间内,温室气体排放量极有可能比预期中要高。但是这并不意味着能源转型这项事业将崩溃瓦解。能源转型计划已付诸实行,政客们虽无力改造,却能像德国人正开始做的那样,预测风险,并压缩开。最终可能发生转变的或许是德国自身。 翻译:王葭苇译文属译生译世 /201607/453718The bulk of her heavy body presses down on all her vital organs.身体的绝大部分重量都压在所有重要器官上。Shes beautifully adapted to a life at sea, but ill-equipped to move about on land.海龟在海里游刃有余,可到陆地上就显得捉襟见肘了。Her progress is slow and probably painful.她爬得很慢而且极可能很痛苦。Its quite common for 5,000 turtles to emerge in one summer evening, but tonight is anything but ordinary.一个夏天的夜晚,有5000只海龟一齐出现是件很寻常的事情,但今晚却非比寻常。26,000 turtles are coming up the island from all sides, a world record.26000只海龟正同时从四面八方涌向小岛。这是一项世界纪录。Its going to be a long night.今晚将会是个漫漫长夜。These green turtles are only one of their many visitors to the reef.这些绿海龟只是大堡礁众多访客中的一员。Another ocean voyager is heard before its seen.另一位海洋来访者则是未见其人先闻其声。201507/386554

Lexington莱克星顿The Ebola alarmists埃拉恐慌者Stoking panic will not help America fight Ebola引发恐慌对美国战胜埃拉无益IN THE crowded field of Ebola alarmists, Rand Paul ofKentuckystands out. Before he was a Republican senator with presidential ambitions, he was an eye doctor. Apparently the Hippocratic oath does not cover panic-mongering: Dr Paul has popped up on talk-radio shows, alleging that when Barack Obama or his scientists say that Ebola is rather hard to catch, they are fibbing. Or, as he puts it, they are downplaying the risk that Ebola might sp acrossAmericafor reasons of “political correctness”. Ebola is “incredibly transmissible”, Dr Paul has asserted, talking of doctors falling sick even after they suited up and took “every precaution”.肯塔基的兰德·保罗(Rand Paul)从一群埃拉恐慌者中挺身而出。他之前是一名眼科医生,如今则是一名有着精选总统雄心的共和党议员。显然,希波克拉底誓言没能抵挡住恐慌的传播。保罗医生出现在了电台谈话节目中,声称奥巴马及其科学家所说的 “埃拉病毒很难传染”的说法是在撒谎。或者正如他所说,他们可能为了“政治正确性”而淡化埃拉可能传遍全美的风险。保罗医生在谈到医生即使穿戴好防护并做了“一切预防措施”后仍然患病时说道,埃拉有着“难以置信的传染性”。No one is denying that Ebola is a huge problem inAfrica, nor that it would be a disaster were it to reach and sp through the slums of say, Mumbai. But rich nations have the resources to contain it if it reaches their shores.Americahas so far seen one case: a Liberian man who died on October 8th. Although a Texan hospital at first missed his symptoms, he was subsequently isolated and is not yet known to have infected anyone else.没人能够否认埃拉在非洲是个巨大的难题,也没人否认,如果埃拉传到贫民区,比如孟买,则必然是场灾难。但是发达国家拥有资源,如果资源能送达非洲海岸,就能够控制事态。美国迄今为止有一例埃拉病例,是一名来自利比里亚的男性,死于10月8日。尽管德克萨斯医院起初误诊,但他随后被隔离,至今尚不清楚他已经传染给了多少人。Also on October 8th, the federal government announced that passengers from West Africawould be screened for Ebola at five American airports. Many politicians are demanding more drastic measures. Dr Paul is one of several to ask why flights from Ebola-stricken African countries to Americacontinue at all. Governor Bobby Jindal of Louisianasays planes must be grounded “to protect our people”. Senator Ted Cruz of Texascontrasts Mr Obamas willingness to let airlines serve West Africa with Julys “highly suspicious” decision by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) to halt American flights into Israelafter a rocket fell near that countrys main airport, just as the government was—Mr Cruz growls—pressing Israelto grant concessions to Hamas. Many candidates have urged Ebola travel bans. Few mention that most routes from Africa to Americarequire transfers in Europe, making it hard to stop them without closing the Atlantic(see article).同样在10月8日,联邦政府宣布,所有从西非来的乘客将在美国五大机场进行埃拉病毒的筛查。多名政客要求出台更加严厉的防范措施。有几名人士质疑,为什么从非洲疫区国家来的航班仍在通航,而保罗就是其中之一。路易斯安那州州长比金达尔(Bobby Jindal)说,飞机必须停飞,以“保护我们民众的安全”。德克萨斯州参议员泰德·科鲁兹(Ted Cruz)将奥巴马让航空公司务西非的意愿,与美国联邦航空局在以色列一重要机场附近遭火箭袭击后于7月作出“高度警戒”,决定停飞一切以色列航班这件事情进行比较,并怒斥道,这就像是美国政府在向以色列施压,让以色列同意向哈马斯作出让步。诸多总统候选人都敦促政府出台埃拉疫区的出行禁令。少有人提及多数从非洲到美国的航班需要在欧洲中转,这使得想要在不封锁大西洋航线的情况下而阻止来自非洲的民众是很难的事。Dr Paul is, to date, alone in suggesting that—in deploying troops toAfricato build field hospitals—Mr Obama may be sending them to a horror-movie death. We all know how diarrhoea sps on cruise ships, he has said: “Can you imagine if a whole shipful of our soldiers catch Ebola?”保罗是迄今为止唯一提出“被奥巴马部署到非洲建立临时医院的军队,可能是被送去面临恐怖电影中的死亡桥段”的人。保罗说,我们都知道腹泻是如何在游轮上进行传播,“你能想象一船人那么多的士兵被染上埃拉的情况吗?”Government doctors are working to calm the public, notably Tom Frieden, head of the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, and Anthony Fauci, boss of the infectious diseases arm of the National Institutes of Health. The pair have spent hours on TV, enduring hosts shouting about “hot zones”, or enquiring whether terrorists might use Ebola. (It would be an “inefficient” bio-weapon, Dr Fauci mildly replied, adding that the viruss evolution in nature is far scarier.) Repeatedly the pair have explained why quarantiningWest Africawould be unwise. It would weaken governments, hobble aid, trap Americans and spur travellers to move in roundabout ways that make them harder to track.政府部门的医生正在安抚群众,特别是疾控中心的领导汤姆·弗里登(Tom Frieden),和美国国立卫生研究院下属传染病机构的领导安东尼·福西(Anthony Fauci)。他们在电视上花了好几个小时的时间忍受主持人对“敏感地区”以及埃拉是否会被恐怖分子利用等的询问。(福西医生淡淡的回答说,埃拉是“低效”的生物武器,并补充道,病毒在自然界中的进化远比这个可怕。)他俩反复的解释为什么隔离西非是不明智的。因为这会削弱政府的控制、阻碍援助的进行、诱骗美国民众并刺激出行者用迂回的方式出行从而使得追踪更加的困难。To be fair, Democrats have also played virus-politics. The first Ebola attack ad ran in August, as Senator Mark Pryor ofArkansasaccused his Republican opponent, Tom Cotton, of voting against a pandemic-prevention bill (neglecting to mention that Mr Cotton later voted for a different version of the same bill). Democrats have linked the Ebola crisis to the sequester, across-the-board federal spending cuts which reduced public-health funds and overseas aid. True, Congress has spent years messing up science funding, but that is not why Ebola exploded inAfrica. Indeed,Americahas poured billions of dollars into pandemic preparedness since the 2005 Asian outbreak of H5N1 avian flu. The country is “dramatically better-prepared than it was”, says Michael Leavitt, George W. Bushs health secretary during the bird flu scare.公平地说,民主党人也玩起了“病毒政治”。第一则有关埃拉的攻击性广告出现于8月,阿肯色州参议员马克·普莱尔(Mark Pryor) 指责其共和党的对手汤姆·科顿(Tom Cotton) 投票反对流行病预防法案(但并没有提及科顿之后投票赞成该法案的另一个版本)。民主党人把埃拉危机与隔离、全面削减联邦开联系在一起,而联邦开的削减将导致公共医疗基金和海外援助的相应缩减。说真的,国会花了数年时间把科研经费搞得一团糟,但这并不是埃拉在非洲爆发的原因。事实上,自从2005年亚洲爆发H5N1型禽流感以来,美国已经在流行病预防上倾注了数十亿美元。小布什时期的卫生部部长迈克尔·莱维特(Michael Leavitt)在禽流感恐慌中时曾说道,美国“比以往任何时候都准备得更加充分”。A new poll by the Pew Research Centre shows how tribalism skews trust. With Mr Obama in the White House, Republicans are much more sceptical than Democrats about the governments ability to prevent a big Ebola outbreak, Pew found. In contrast, in 2005 Republicans were far more confident than Democrats that Mr Bush could control bird flu.皮尤研究中心一项新的民意调查显示了部落意识是如何扭曲信任的。皮尤发现,由于奥巴马在白宫任职,所以共和党人比民主党人更加怀疑政府预防埃拉大爆发的能力。相比之下,在2005年,共和党人在小布什能否够控制禽流感这一问题上则远比民主党人要自信。Yet distrust has also mutated like a virus in recent years.Americas debate on Ebola is, or should be, an argument about the best use of the countrys formidable resources. Namely, is it safer to pursue hermetic isolation from the world; or (counter-intuitively) is it less risky forAmericato fight Ebola with a strategy of controlled openness, leading a global fight to beat the virus at its source, while trusting experts to prevent an American outbreak with painstaking health-checks at airports and hospitals?然而,近年来,不信任也像病毒一样发生了突变。美国对埃拉的争论是,或者说应该是一场关于如何最好的利用国家强大资源的争论。也就是说,是追求与世界的完全隔离更加安全?还是说(与我们的直觉相反)运用控制下的开放战略,利用它的资源来领导全球的埃拉战争,并信任专家能够通过在机场和医院辛苦的健康检查来阻止埃拉在美国爆发的这种方式,对美国而言风险更小?That sort of argument will always expose philosophical differences. Reasonable people will often disagree: some instinctively put their faith in security, others in openness. It is good to ask hard questions about official competence—agents of state authority often make mistakes. And there is nothing new about a crisis stoking partisan flames: in 2005 the far left accused Mr Bush of failing to respond properly to Hurricane Katrina because he supposedly did not care about black residents ofNew Orleans.这种争论总会暴露出不同观点间的哲学差异。明智的人常常不会同意一些人把他们自己的信仰放入安全地带,却让其他人的信仰处于危险之中。对政府能力提出刁钻问题是件好事。因为政府作为国家权威代理者经常犯错。加剧党派对峙火焰的危机并不是什么新鲜事,2005年,极左派指责布什没能对卡特里娜飓风做出恰当的回应是或是因为他不关心新奥尔良的黑人居民。Conspiracy theories go viral阴谋论不胫而走But the arrival of a nasty virus fromAfricahas revealed something else. Ambitious politicians are no longer merely attacking the other party, or the president. The starting point for Ebola alarmists is an assumption that behind policy disagreements, conspiracies lurk, with technocrats in on the plot. Dr Paul appears to believe that officials are knowingly lying when they downplay the risk of a pandemic. Mr Cruz breezily suggests that the FAA helped to bullyIsrael.Louisianas governor complains that the government, in arguing that flight bans do more harm than good, wants Americans to heed what he sniffily calls “the experts”.但这种源自非洲让人厌烦的病毒的到来也反映出一些其他的东西。有野心的政客不再只是攻击另一党派或是总统。埃拉恐慌者的出发点是对背后政治差异、技术官僚密谋阴谋的假设。保罗似乎认为,官员在淡化疫情风险时故意撒谎。科鲁兹则轻描淡写的建议美国联邦航空局(FAA)去恐吓以色列。路易斯安那州州长抱怨认为飞行禁令弊大于利的政府,想让美国民众去听从那些被他呲之以鼻称为“砖家”的人的说法。Some leaders are more responsible. The Republican governor ofTexas, Rick Perry, has tried to keep people calm. Few countries are better equipped thanAmericato keep the public safe, he has assured Texans. He is right. It should not need saying.一些领导则更有责任感。德克萨斯州的共和党州长里科·佩里(Rick Perry)试图安抚民众。他向德克萨斯的民众保,没有哪个国家拥有像美国这么好的、能够保障公共安全的设备。他是对的。这根本不必说出来。人尽皆知。译者:萧毛毛 校对:靳方方 译文属译生译世 /201410/336049

听力参考文本(文本与音频不全一致,敬请谅解):October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month.Each and every year, more than 230,000 American women will hear the words, “You have breast cancer.”Of those, some 100,000 will undergo mastectomy and breast reconstruction.When your worlds been turned upside down by a breast cancer diagnosis, it can be hard to grasp what options are there for you.Pat Anstetts new book provides answers, presented through the stories of women who have been handed that breast cancer diagnosis and then followed many different paths in treatment and reconstruction.The book is Breast Cancer Surgery and Reconstruction: Whats Right for You.Anstett sat down with us today to talk about the book and some of the options women have after being diagnosed with breast cancer.In addition to the book, Anstett has put together an extensive website collecting womens stories and photographs. You can find that here.201610/471002

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