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时间:2019年08月20日 00:25:10

China's population中国人口The most surprising demographic crisis出乎意料的人口危机A new census raises questions about the future of China’s one-child policy新的人口普查结果对中国独生子女政策的未来提出了质疑DOES China have enough people? The question might seem absurd. The country has long been famous both for having the world’s largest population and for having taken draconian measures to restrain its growth. Though many people, Chinese and outsiders alike, have looked aghast at the brutal and coercive excesses of the one-child policy, there has also often been a grudging acknowledgment that China needed to do something to keep its vast numbers in check.中国人够多吗?这个问题够傻的。这个国家一直以来都因为它居于世界首位的庞大人口以及为了控制人口增长而实行的严格政策而享有盛名。尽管许多中国人以及外国人对这项独生子女政策的不讲理以及高压手段瞠目结舌,最终他们还是勉强承认中国需要这项政策来控制庞大的人口。But new census figures bolster claims made in the past few years that China is suffering from a demographic problem of a different sort: too low a birth rate. The latest numbers, released on April 28th and based on the nationwide census conducted last year, show a total population for mainland China of 1.34 billion. They also reveal a steep decline in the average annual population growth rate, down to 0.57% in 2000-10, half the rate of 1.07% in the previous decade. The data imply that the total fertility rate, which is the number of children a woman of child-bearing age can expect to have, on average, during her lifetime, may now be just 1.4, far below the “replacement rate” of 2.1, which eventually leads to the population stabilising.但是新的全国人口普查数据却实了过去几年关于中国面临一个截然不同的人口危机的断言,即中国的人口出生率过低。刚于4月28日发布的数据(根据去年进行的全国人口普查结果)显示,中国大陆拥有13亿4千万人口。而年均人口增长率的巨幅下降也跃然纸上:中国年均人口增长率在2000到2010这个10年的区间中下降到了0.57%, 是1990-2000这10年的一半。这份数据显示总生育率,也就是一位龄女性在其一生将平均会有1.4个孩子,远远低于2.1的人口更替水平,而人口更替水平是维持人口稳定的标准。Slower growth is matched by a dramatic ageing of the population. People above the age of 60 now represent 13.3% of the total, up from 10.3% in 2000 (see chart). In the same period, those under the age of 14 declined from 23% to 17%. A continuation of these trends will place ever greater burdens on the working young who must support their elderly kin, as well as on government-run pension and health-care systems. China’s great “demographic dividend” (a rising share of working-age adults) is almost over.In addition to skewing the country’s age distribution, the one-child policy has probably exacerbated its dire gender imbalance. Many more baby boys are born in China than baby girls. China is not unique in this; other countries, notably India, have encountered similar problems without coercive population controls. But Chinese officials do not dispute that the one-child policy has played a role. China’s strong cultural imperative for male offspring has led many families to do whatever they must to ensure that their one permissible child is a son. In the earliest days of the one-child policy, this sometimes meant female infanticide. As ultrasound technology sp, sex-selective abortions became widesp.独生子女政策带来的不仅仅是人口年龄分布倾斜,还很可能加剧了中国严重的性别比例失调。在中国,男婴比女婴更多。而在这一点上中国并不孤单;其他国家,尤其是印度,也遇到了类似的问题,然而印度并没有强制性控制人口。但是中国官员不容争辩的强调独生子女政策有重要作用。中国重视男性子嗣的深远文化传统令千万家庭想尽一切办法保这唯一孩子是个男孩。而超声波技术的普及也使得具有性别歧视意味的堕胎更加普遍。201105/136226

McCain Offers New Economic Plan美总统候选人承诺帮助中产阶级  Republican presidential candidate John McCain has unveiled a new economic plan. 美国共和党总统候选人约翰.麦凯恩公布了一项新的经济计划。Senator John McCain announced a series of steps he would take if elected that are intended to help middle-class Americans cope with the ongoing financial crisis. 参议员麦凯恩宣布了一系列措施,如果他能够当选,他将帮助美国的中产阶级应付目前的财政危机。McCain said he would eliminate taxes on unemployment benefits and would have the government take additional steps to protect against bank failures.  麦凯恩说,他将取消对失业福利的税收,同时政府将采取更多的步骤,以防止倒闭。"On my orders, the Department of the Treasury will guarantee 100 percent of all savings accounts for a period of six months," McCain said. "This will calm the understandable fears of widesp bank failure, while also restoring rational judgment to the choices of the market."  麦凯恩说:“根据我的命令,财政部将在六个月内百分之百地担保所有储蓄账户,这将能够平静对倒闭的普遍担心,同时也能够对市场的选择恢复理性的判断。”Behind in public-opinion polls with three weeks to go until election day, McCain is trying to find ways to address voter concerns about the economy, the number-one issue in the campaign. 由于离美投票还有三个星期的时间,而麦凯恩在民意调查中落后,他正努力寻找办法来解决选民关注的经济问题,这已经成为这次选举的头号议题。In his latest speeches, McCain has backed off from some of the personal attacks aimed at Senator Obama. 麦凯恩在最新讲话中不再对参议员奥巴马进行人身攻击。Instead, McCain recalls his experience as a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War and urges voters to fight for their beliefs.  麦凯恩转而回顾他在越南战争中曾经当过战俘的经历,并敦促选民应该为他们的信仰而奋斗。"I know what fear feels like," McCain said. "It's a thief in the night who robs your strength. I know what hopelessness feels like. It is an enemy who defeats your will. I felt those things once before. I will never let them in again. I'm an American and I choose to fight!"  麦凯恩说:“我知道恐惧的感觉。那种感觉就像窃贼在夜间剥夺了你的力量。我知道无望的感觉,就像你的敌人摧垮了你的意志。我以前曾经有过一次那样的感觉,我永远不会让他们再来。我是一个美国人,我选择战斗!”McCain's focus on the economy came one day after Senator Obama outlined his own plan to help Middle America. 就在麦凯恩把重点放在经济问题上的前一天,参议员奥巴马概述了他自己的帮助美国中产阶级的计划。Obama would also suspend taxes on unemployment benefits and would place a 90-day moratorium on home foreclosures. 奥巴马也将暂停对失业福利征税,并对由于付不出分期贷款而导致房屋被拍卖的家庭实行为期90天的宽限。Obama also said he would provide tax breaks for businesses to create new jobs.  奥巴马还表示,他将提供税收优惠,以鼓励企业创造新的就业机会。"It is a plan that begins with one word that is on everybody's mind, and it's easy to spell. J-O-B-S, jobs! Senator McCain may be worried about losing an election, but I am worried about you losing your jobs," Obama said. "I am worried about you losing your homes. I am worried about you losing your life savings."  奥巴马说:“这是一个计划,这个计划以一个单词开始,并在每一个人的头脑里,这个单词也很容易拼写,那就是J-O-B-S, 就业机会!参议员麦凯恩可能担心在这次总统大选中失败,但我担心的是你会不会失去你的工作。我担心的是你会不会失去你的房屋,我担心的是你会不会失去你一生的积蓄。”Obama took the day off to prepare for the third and final presidential debate on Wednesday. The economy will be the focus of the debate, which will be held at Hofstra University in New York. 奥巴马休假一天,准备第三次也是最后一次总统候选人辩论。美国经济将是这次辩论的重点,辩论将于星期三在美国纽约州的霍夫斯特拉大学举行。The debate may present one of the last opportunities to change the trajectory of the presidential race. 这次辩论可能是改变总统竞选势头的最后机会之一。Recent national polls give Obama a lead of between six and 10 points over McCain. 最新的全国民意调查结果显示奥巴马领先麦凯恩6至10个百分点。In addition, polling by Quinnipiac University in Connecticut shows Obama pulling away from McCain in key battleground states including Colorado, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan.  此外,奎尼匹克大学在康涅狄克所做的民调显示,奥巴马正在赢得双方争夺的关键的州,包括科罗拉多州、威斯康星州、明尼苏达州和密西根州。Polling experts say historically it can be difficult for candidates trailing this late in a presidential campaign to come from behind and win on Election Day.But Gallup pollster Frank Newport told MSN television that Senator McCain could take encouragement from the 1980 election race between President Jimmy Carter, a Democrat, and Republican challenger Ronald Reagan. "Another example, however, is in 1980 when our polling showed Jimmy Carter, the incumbent, ahead by as much as six points just a week or two before the election," Newport said. "Then they had a debate, the dust settled, and Reagan won the popular vote by 10 points." Recent polls also show that voters regard the economy as the top issue in the campaign by a large margin over other topics such as national security, the war in Iraq, and health care.200810/52849

Call them twisters or tornadoes. They are nature's most violent storms with swirling winds that can top 300 miles per hour. About 800 twisters sweep through the US every year, more than anywhere else in the world. The hardest-hit area is a swath of the Great Plains from Texas to South Dakota, known as Tornado Alley. Here, warm air flows up from the Gulf of Mexico in the spring and summer and crashes into cold air pushing down from Canada. The meeting produces violent thunderstorms called supercells. Scientists don't completely understand how or when tornados form, but they do know a supercell like this one can produce a twister if the conditions are right. As more moist air flows into a storm, it gets pushed up and twisted by upper level winds. As this rotating column of air gathers force, conditions are right for a collision below. When rain cooled downdrafts hit warm air near the ground, a low hanging revolving cloud forms beneath the cell. A tornado is imminent. Tornadoes don't last long, anywhere from 20 seconds to an hour. But it can take years to recover from the devastation. These storms kill nearly 90 people each year in the US and cause millions of dollars worth of damage. When a tornado is spotted, experts advise going to a basement staying away from any windows or climbing into a first floor bathtub. While most people run for safety when a twister appears, some scientists actually race to need it. These storm chasers hunt down tornadoes, trying to get right in the twister's path. They encounter incredible cloud movement, torrential rain, severe winds and hail, lightening, breathtaking storm structures. When they finally locate a twister, they measure it using special tools. These scientists hope to someday predict exactly when and where tornadoes will strike. Little can prevent the damage caused by tornadoes, but better forecasting could save more lives, giving survivors the chance to rebuild after living through one of the most violent storms on earth. 1. swath/swathe: n. A long thin area of something, especially land 2. Great Plains: n. 美国大平原The Great Plains are the broad expanse of prairie and steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the ed States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and Wyoming, and the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In Canada the term prairie is more common, and the region is known as the Prairie Provinces or simply "the Prairies". 3. Tornado Alley: n.Tornado Alley is a colloquial term most often used in reference to the area of the ed States in which tornadoes are most frequent. Although an official location of the term is not defined, the areas in between the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains are the areas usually associated with it. 4. supercell: n. 超大胞A thunderstorm with a persistent rotating updraft. While rare, it produces the most severe weather such as tornadoes, strong winds, and hail. 5. downdraft: n. A strong downward current of air200811/55174

An online company has begun marketing an "Anti Vuvuzela Filter" that promises to silence the sound of the controversial plastic trumpets that have become the trademark of South Africa's World Cup.The company's web site, antivuvuzelafilter.com, sells an MP3 audio file for 2.95 euros (3.60 dollars) that the company says will cancel the vuvuzela noise for TV viewers by producing a sound wave similar to the horn's that cancels the noise."Just download our specially designed vuvuzela noise cancellation MP3 and play it back on your home stereo system, computer, iPod, iPhone, etc.," the website says."Depending on the circumstances, the resulting soundwave may be so faint as to be inaudible to human ears."But Anthony Sullivan, a physicist at South Africa's Rhodes University, called the idea "a marketing hype and a waste of money.""Noise cancelling depends on specific positions. You're not going to get that cancelling," he said.His advice to those who don't like hearing the vuvuzela?"Mute the TV."Vocabularystereo system: 立体音响系统hype: the use of a lot of publicity and advertising to make people interested in something such as a product 大肆宣传,炒作背单词 — 装英语词汇201006/106503

The Moment Obama's World Changed Newly released images capture the life-changing moments when the Obamas became America's new First Family. Now the President Elect is aly on next step of the journey, and must decide his key appointments. From Washington, Keith Graves reports. A moment of triumph and truth, the moment when Barack Obama watching television with his family and friends, realized he was about to become the most powerful person in the world.These still photographs just released show a man who appears as ever to be cool / under pressure, but these are the moments when the Obama family's life's changed, not just for the next few years, but forever.The trappings of the presidency are aly taking over Barack Obama's life, in his first radio address to the nation today, he once again warned Americans not to expect too much from him, because there is no quick cure for the ailing economy.Tens of millions of families are struggling to figure out how to pay the bills and stay in their homes. Their stories are an urgent reminder that we are facing the greatest economic challenge of our lifetime, and we must act swiftly to resolve them.President-elect Barack Obama's insistence at his first news conference that George W. Bush is still in the driving seat, may have as much to do with pragmatism as protocol, between now and the January 20th when he takes over, things can only get worse.It's not going to be quick, and it's not going to be easy for us to dig ourselves out of the hole that we are in, but America is a strong and resilient country, and i know we will succeed.Even as he was damping down the expectations that he has no miracle cure, the hole got deeper, 240 thousand jobs lost last month, unemployment / at a 14 year high. Industrial giants GM and Ford bleeding cash and talking of going broke, all of which makes his appointment of a treasury secretary crucial, and there're some very heavy hitters on the shortlist.Timothy Gelthner is a highly respected head of the New York Federal Reserve Bank, aly playing a crucial role in tackling the banking crisis. He's calling for the current financial systems to be overhauled. Lawrence Summers could make a comeback, he was treasury secretary during the last two years of Bill Cliton's presidency. He believes in more government regulation in the economy, especially in banking. Paul Volcker is a real Washington insider, and one of Mr.Obama's most trusted economic advisors, he served as chairman of the federal reserve under president Carter a democrat, and president Regan a Republican,and has plans to tackle inflation and high unemployment. The economy then will be Mr. Obama first priority, but other major problems will be in his intray from the moment he walks into the oval office, not the least of which will be foreign affaires. The economy is going to occupy him too much and he will not have any time to devote to / foreign policy issues, which in my mind are just as pressing ....He wants out of Iraq but more engagement in Afganistan, where America/ and her allies including Britain appear to be fighting a losing battle, and the likelier of Iran achieving its nuclear ambitions are problems that demand immediate attention. This weekend Mr. Obama is spending out of the spotlight with his family, he should enjoy it while he can.Keith Graves Sky News,Washington.200811/55742


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