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成都妇女儿童中心医院治疗妇科怎么样邛崃市中医院怎么样好吗Science and technology科学技术Investigating the asteroids小行星探测Dawns early light;黎明;号初试锋芒A mission to the asteroid belt will visit leftovers from the solar systems formation小行星带探测任务将造访太阳系形成时期的衍生物Dimly seen through the mists of the deep透过深层迷雾隐约可见LAST week all eyes were on the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida, as NASAs space shuttle blasted off on its final mission.上周,佛罗里达州肯尼迪航天中心成为全球目光的焦点,美国宇航局航天飞机呼啸升空,展开航天任务的收官之旅。Meanwhile, hundreds of millions of kilometres away, another NASA spacecraft was approaching its destination.与此同时,在数百万公里以外,另一艘美国宇航局的航天器正向目标进发。If all goes to plan, then on July 16th Dawn, the largest robotic probe ever launched by Americas space agency,如果一切按计划进行,美国宇航局有史以来发射的最大的机器人探测器将与7月16日进入灶神星轨道飞行。will drop into orbit around Vesta, the second-largest member of the asteroid belt.灶神星是小行星带中体积居第二位的成员。Though a mission to the asteroids may lack the glamour of sending probes to Mars and the moons of Saturn,尽管小行星探测任务不如将探测器送入火星和土星那样令人瞩目,these tiny planetlets have long fascinated astronomers, for they offer a window on the earliest years of the solar system.但这些微小星体一直令天文学家们着迷,因为它们能为我们揭开太阳系形成初期之谜。When the sun formed, some 4.5 billion years ago, it was surrounded by a disk of gas and dust.约45亿年前,太阳形成之时曾被大量的气体和尘埃盘包围。During the next few million years, lumps of that disk stuck together to form the familiar eight planets of the modern solar system.在后续的几百万年间,这些盘状物质块相互结合形成了现代为人熟知的太阳系八大行星。Some lumps, however, were left over. And a lot of them are concentrated in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter,但还是有些物质块被遗留下来。它们大部分集中于火星和木星轨道之间的小行星带内,where the combined gravities of Jupiter and Saturn seem to have gathered them from other parts of the solar system.木星和土星的组合引力似乎将它们集聚起来并与太阳系的其它部分分离。There, they have crashed repeatedly into one another to form fragments of various sizes.在那里,它们之间的反复碰撞形成了各种尺寸的碎片。Small asteroids are often little more than piles of dust and chondrules, the spherical pebbles of rock that formed from dust which melted in the heat of the young sun.体积较小的小行星只不过是一些尘埃和陨石球粒的堆积物,其中这些圆状岩石形成于太阳早期高热量下融熔的尘埃。Larger bodies such as Vesta, though, are more interesting.但是象灶神星这样的较大天体更能引起人们的兴趣。Vestas size and density make it massive enough for its gravity to keep it roughly spherical, like a proper planet.与真正行星相仿,灶神星的尺寸和密度使其具备足够的引力保持基本的球体形状。Another thing that makes Vesta planetlike is that it is split into distinct layers.灶神星与行星的另一个相似点是它也分裂成不同的层。The evidence suggests it has a nickel-iron core like the Earths, overlain by a rocky mantle.有据表明它的地核也象地球一样由镍、铁元素组成,表面由岩石地幔覆盖。Part of that evidence comes from its density and part from hundreds of chunks of rock, in the form of meteorites,该据的一部分来源于灶神星的密度,另一部分来源于数以百计以陨石形状存在的大块岩石,that have been examined by Earth-bound scientists.地球科学家们已对这些岩石进行过研究。These rocks are believed to be the result of an asteroidal prang that happened many millions of years ago and left a crater 460km across, which dominates Vestas southern hemisphere.这些岩石据说是几百万年前的小行星碰撞的结果,并在灶神星的南半球形成了一个跨度为460公里的陨石坑。The reason they are thought to come from Vesta is that the asteroid has an unusual and characteristic spectrum.它们被认为来自灶神星是因为这颗小行星有着不同寻常的特征光谱。It shares this with a number of smaller asteroids whose orbits suggest they were spalled off in the collision, and with about 5% of the meteorites which fall to Earth.一些更小的行星也具有这样的光谱,从它们运行的轨道来看,它们是灶神星在碰撞中的脱落物,拥有的陨石数量约是落到地球表面陨石数量的5%。Such meteorites look like igneous rocks from Earth—hence the belief that Vesta has a mantle.这种陨石与地球上的火成岩相似—因此可以相信灶神星上有地幔存在。The rockets blue glare火箭的蓝色眩光After spending a year in orbit around Vesta, Dawn will perform a trick rare in space travel—it will reignite its engines and head off to orbit another body.在绕行灶神星轨道一年后,黎明号将施展航天探索中少有的绝技——它将重新点燃发动机向另一个天体的轨道进发。Ceres, at about 960km in diameter, is the largest asteroid. Dawn is due to arrive there in 2015.谷神星直径大约为960公里,是小行星带里体积最大的成员。黎明号将于2015年到达谷神星。Ceres, too, is spherical and probably divided into core and mantle, though the mantle seems to be wetter than that of Vesta.谷神星也是球状天体,它可能也被划分成地核和地幔,但它的地幔似乎比灶神星的地幔更富含水质。Indeed, Ceres may have ice caps and a thin atmosphere.实际上,谷神星可能有冰层覆盖而且大气稀薄。But it has been luckier than Vesta—and almost every other asteroid—in avoiding collisions, and has thus not yielded a huge crop of meteorites for Earth-bound scientists to examine.但在避免碰撞方面,它比灶神星要幸运得多—几乎比其它任何小行星也都幸运,因此它没有产生可供地球科学家研究的大量陨石。Dawn is able to perform the trick of moving from one asteroid to another thanks to its ion-rocket engines, pioneered on an earlier NASA mission called Deep Space One.由于有了离子火箭发动机,黎明号能够施展自己的绝技从一个小行星飞行到另一个小行星。Unlike conventional rockets, which use high-energy chemical reactions to force a stream of hot gas out of the engine,这种发动机始创于美国宇航局早期的太空一号任务。与传统火箭不同,离子火箭发动机利用电场对飞船底部燃料中的带电粒子进行加速,ion rockets employ electric fields to accelerate charged particles of fuel out of the back of the spacecraft.而传统火箭是采用高能量化学反应将热气流排出发动机。Ion engines give a pretty feeble kick.离子发动机产生的振动极其微弱。Dawns produce 92 millinewtons of thrust, something like a fiftieth of the amount in a smallish firework rocket.黎明号产生的推进力仅为0.092牛顿,是小型烟花火箭推进力的五十分之一。The exhaust velocity, though, is enormous—more than ten times that of a chemical rocket—and this makes ion propulsion extremely efficient.但其排气速度却异常惊人,大约为化学燃料火箭的十倍—这使得离子推进器的效率非常高。Though an ion engine could never lift a spacecraft out of Earths gravity well,尽管离子发动机不能使航天飞机很好地摆脱地球引力,once that craft is in deep space the futuristic-looking blue glow of its exhaust can take it to parts that chemical engines find much harder to reach.但航天器一旦进入太空深处,尾部喷射出的极具超现实光的蓝色辉光可以将它带到化学燃料发动机难以到达的地方。Dawn started off with 450kg of propellant, and even at maximum throttle its engines use only a quarter of a kilo a day.黎明号初始装载了450公斤推进剂,即使在全速行进的情况下,其发动机每天消耗的燃料也仅为0.25公斤。The arrival of Dawn at Vesta also marks another significant achievement.黎明号到达灶神星也将标志着太空探索取得了另一项重大成就。If the craft does manage to go into orbit it will mean that working man-made satellites are circling and scrutinising eight bodies in the solar system:如果它能够成功进入轨道,那将意味着在轨人造卫星已经能够对太阳系的八个天体:the sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, the moon, Mars and Saturn, as well as Vesta.太阳、水星、金星、地球、月球、火星、土星和灶神星—进行绕行和探查。That gives comfort to those who fear that the end of the shuttle programme might mean a wider loss of interest in the exploration of space.对于那些担忧航天计划终结意味着对太空探索兴趣渐失的人们来说,这将会带来一些安慰。Whether it does—and the new record proves to be the high-water mark of unmanned space exploration.是否黎明号能够完成任务—若完成将表明无人飞船创造了太空探索的最高记录,or whether Dawns arrival proves merely a staging post on the road to greater things, remains to be seen.或者是否黎明号的到达仅是完成了宏伟目标中的一项阶段任务,对此我们都将拭目以待。 /201305/238478宜宾市治疗妇科炎症哪家医院最好的 Making the Dolphins of Shark Bay was a real challenge for the British and Australian film group.制作鲨鱼湾的海豚这部纪录片对英国和澳大利亚的电影人来说是一次真正的挑战。Dolphins are capable of swimming at speeds of over 20m/hr.海豚的游泳速度高达每小时20英里。quick-witted and elusive, the team were up against often a very start.摄制组一开始就要面对迅速多变的海豚。To tell Puck and Samus remarkable story,为了讲述帕克和莎木的故事,director Nick Stren had decided the only to do it, is to use a miniature high-definition camera called Poolcam.导演尼克斯特林格决定用一种方式去做,那就是使用一部微型高清摄像机。Nobody has really ever told the story but found the dolphins before.在这之前,没人讲述过海豚家庭的故事。It was a very ambitious vision, probably one of the biggest challenges Ive never faced.这是我的梦想,也是我遇到过的最大挑战。201407/309553成都做无痛人流疼吗

四川省成都妇女儿童医院有四维彩超吗Science and technology科学技术Launching aircraft发射飞机Proof by induction让电磁感应来验In the future, airliners could be catapulted into the sky by electric motors将来,会用电动机将客机弹射到天空中 READERS of a certain age may remember Fireball XL5, a childrens television programme devised by Gerry Anderson about a spacecraft of that name.某个年龄段的读者可能还记得《雷霆机》这个儿童电视节目,这个节目是由格里安德森制作的,讲的是一艘叫做雷霆机的宇宙飞船的故事。Instead of taking off vertically, as real spacecraft do, Fireball XL5 sat on a rocket-propelled trolley that accelerated it horizontally to launch speed.与现实中的宇宙飞船垂直起飞不同,雷霆机是架在一个由火箭推动的滑车上,水平加速到发射速度。And that, in effect, is what engineers at Airbus, Europes largest civil-aviation company, are proposing in their latest bout of blue-sky thinking.实际上,这是空中客车公司的工程师们在其最近一次天马行空的想法中提出的建议。Apart from the fact that the trolley would be powered by linear-induction motors rather than rockets, they are suggesting that the fantasy of 1962 might become the reality of 2050.滑车由线性感应电动机提供动力,而非火箭,除此之外,他们认为1962年的幻想会在2050年成为现实。Mindful that many passengers are aly nervous about the whole process of getting a plane airborne, the engineers prefer to call their proposal Eco-climb.考虑到飞机离开地面的整个过程中已经够让许多乘客紧张了,工程师更喜欢将他们的提议称为环保型起飞。But the idea is straight out of Fireball.但这一想法是直接来自于雷霆机的。The aircraft to be launched would sit on a platform that ran along a track where the runway would otherwise be.待发射的飞机会架在一个沿轨道滑行的平台上,而这轨道可说是跑道的另一种形式。The platform would accelerate to take-off speed, at which point the plane would lift into the air powered by its own engines.平台会加速到起飞速度,到达这一速度点后,飞机便可以通过自己的引擎升上天空。Taking off in this way would both save fuel and make life more pleasant for those who live near airports.以这种方式起飞既可以节约燃料,又能够让住在机场附近的人过的更舒心些。Aircraft engines are optimised for level flight at cruising speed in the stratosphere.飞机引擎最适合在平流层以巡航速度水平飞行。Using them to accelerate a plane on the ground wastes a lot of fuel.在地面上用它们为飞机加速会浪费很多燃料。An induction-motor-powered platform, by contrast, would be optimised for the job at hand.相比之下,由感应电动机提供动力的平台最适合手头的这个工作,It could launch the plane at higher speed, letting it climb faster.它能以更快的速度发射飞机,让飞机爬升更快,That would save fuel, too.还能节约燃料,It would also mean fewer people on the ground suffered aircraft noise.还意味着地面上要经受飞机噪音的人更少了。And it could do all this from a track that was a third shorter than a conventional runway.所有这些在一条比传统跑道短三分之一的轨道上即可完成。Altogether, according to Airbuss back-of-the-envelope calculations, Eco-climb would reduce fuel consumption by 3% on a typical 900km flight, even with existing aircraft designs.总而言之,很据空中客车的粗略计算,按一次典型的900公里的飞行算,即使按照现在的飞机设计,环保型起飞也能将其油耗减少3%。But it would also allow for the design of lighter aircraft, with smaller engines, which would cut fuel consumption, noise and emissions further.而且它还为设计引擎更小,重量更轻的飞机留下了空间,可以进一步降低油耗,噪声及排放。Nor is the idea complete fantasy. General Atomics, an American military contractor, has aly built and tested a linear-induction-motor-based system of this sort at an airbase at Lakehurst, New Jersey.这个想法并不完全是幻想。通用原子公司是一家美军的承包商,其已经在一座位于新泽西州莱克赫斯特的空军基地建造了一个这类基于线性感应电动机的系统,并进行了测试。The General Atomics system is now being scaled up to be fitted on a new generation of aircraft carriers for the American navy.目前通用原子正在对该系统进行放大,以便能装备到美国海军的新一代航空母舰上。A launcher powered by a linear-induction motor has several advantages over the steam-driven catapults used on existing aircraft carriers, according to General Atomics.据通用原子公司称,与现在航空母舰上使用的蒸汽动力弹射器相比,由线性感应电动机提供动力的发射台有多个优点。Whereas a steam catapult lets rip with a constant force, the speed and power of a linear motor can be controlled to provide smooth acceleration.恒定的力使蒸汽弹射器难以控制;而线性电动机的速度和力量都可以控制,可带来平缓的加速,That extends the life of an aircraft by subjecting it to less stress.因为承受的压力更小,所以能够延长飞机的寿命,It also makes for a more comfortable take off.并且能让起飞时更舒一些。And the launch shuttle can brake quickly once the plane has lifted off by reversing the current running through the motor.飞机一旦起飞,通过反转电动机中的电流,发射装置能够快速制动,然后返回原位准备下一次发射。What works in a military context might not, of course, be appropriate for civil aviation—one reason why nobody has considered equipping airports with steam catapults.当然,在军事中使用的技术不一定适合民用航空,这也是为什么没人会考虑在机场配备蒸汽弹射器的一个原因。But the smooth operation of a linear motor means the take-off force could be kept within the 2.5g typically felt in a modern airliner dashing along a runway.但是线性电动机的平缓运行意味着起飞的力会在2.5倍重力加速度之内,与一架现代的客机沿着跑道加速时的感觉一样。Passengers need not be subjected to Top Gun levels of acceleration.乘客们不需要去承受《壮志凌云》那种级别的加速度。It might be possible to use linear motors for landings, too.将线性电动机用于着陆也是有可能的。Carrier-style arrester wires would cause too much damage and would hardly be comfortable for passengers.航母式的拦截索会是飞机产生很多损伤,而且乘客也不会舒。But if an incoming aircraft landed on a moving platform equipped with a linear motor, the current in the motor could then be reversed to slow it down.但如果一架准备降落的飞机在一个装有线性电动机的移动平台上着陆,电动机中的电流会反转,使飞机减速。That might mean planes could do without landing gear, saving still more weight. Even Mr Anderson didnt think of that one.这或许意味着飞机没有起落架也行,能让飞机再轻一些。Fireball XL5 landed vertically, on retro-rockets.安德森先生都没有想到这种方法,雷霆机是靠制动火箭垂直着陆的。 /201401/272960宜宾人民医院官网 温江区妇幼保健院女子妇科听说不错,有谁去过没?

金堂县私密整形多少钱Hybrid foods混合食物Matches made in heaven—and hell美味佳肴,还是黑暗料理?What do you get if you cross a waffle with a doughnut? Its no joke如果你将华夫饼干与甜甜圈混合会得到什么?这不是开玩笑。NOT all marriages are happy, but Alex Hernandez thinks that the union of a waffle and a doughnut will be. The owner of Waffles Cafe in Chicago starting selling what he calls “wonuts” in April. They are deep-fried waffles, topped with icing and multicoloured sprinkles. Daily sales went from 24 to 600 within two days. Buzzfeed, a website, called the new snack “proof that a benevolent Food God exists”.并不是所有的婚姻都是幸福的,但是亚历克斯·赫尔南德斯认为华夫饼和甜甜圈的组合会很幸福。芝加哥的华夫咖啡馆店主于四月开始售卖他叫做“wonuts”的甜品。它们是油炸的华夫饼,表面加上糖衣和五颜六色的巧克力屑。日销售量在两天之内从24猛增至600。网站Buzzfeed把这种新型小甜品叫做“仁慈食神存在的据”。Hybrid dishes are fashionable. The wonut follows the cronut, a croissant-donut combination that was invented in New York last year and is now being fried and munched in Taiwan, South Korea, Brazil, Britain—and even France, where youd think diners would be fussier.混合菜肴很流行。Wonut是在牛角甜甜圈——纽约于去年发明的一款牛角面包与甜甜圈的搭配组合之后推出的一款新甜品,如今已风靡台湾、南韩、巴西和英国,甚至连对饮食很挑剔的法国都钟情于它。Many countries indulge in culinary mixing, but Americans, who love both novelty and food, are especially keen on it. Burger Kings CroissanWich is a croissant-sandwich mix. Taco Bells quesarito is a beef burrito wrapped in a quesadilla. Jamp;Ds Foods produces Baconnaise, bacon-flavoured mayonnaise that is, oddly, vegetarian and kosher-certified. Carls Jr is testing a bisnut, a cross between a biscuit (in the American sense of the word) and a doughnut. Not everyone is impressed. “Leave it to fast food to think of new and exciting ways to make you have to buy two seats on an airplane. A breakfast-dessert hybrid. Youre barely awake and youre aly getting all your calories for the day,” grumbles Jeff Sorensen of Uproxx, an online magazine.许多国家都喜欢混合烹饪,而美国人这种既喜欢新奇又喜欢食物的人对此尤其钟爱。汉堡王的CroissanWich是羊角面包和三明治的混合。塔可钟的quesarito是外面裹有油炸玉米粉饼的牛肉卷饼。Jamp;D的食品产业生产Baconnaise——培根风味的蛋黄酱,但有趣的是,犹太教和素食主义者都适用。卡乐星正在测试一款bisnut—小饼干和甜甜圈的组合。并不是每个人都会被打动。“在快餐上使用这个点子,想出新的有趣的方法来让你不得不在一架飞机上买两个位子。早餐混合甜点,你还在打着瞌睡,就已经摄入了一天所需的卡路里,” 一家在线杂志Uproxx的杰夫·索伦森抱怨说。Such innovation has a long history. Blacks who migrated north after the Civil War served African-spiced fried chicken with European waffles. In the 1910s, Americans drenched German frankfurters with Mexican chili to make chili dogs. More recently, New Yorkers drew on the collective genius of generations of Jewish and Italian cooks to produce: the pizza bagel.这种创新历史悠久。内战之后迁移到北方的黑人把欧洲华夫饼和非洲五香炸鸡混合在了一起。在20世纪10年代,美国人把德国法兰克福香肠浸透了墨西哥红辣椒,做成了辣椒热。最近,纽约人民利用世代传下来的犹太和意大利的烹饪智慧制造出了:披萨百吉饼。Because America is a nation of immigrants, it has many traditions to mine. But because many cooks try to please everyone, ethnic recipes have often been tweaked so as not to offend unfamiliar palates. “You take something thats different, and you make it similar,” says Roger Horowitz of the Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington, Delaware. That has often involved adding sugar and fat, which everyone likes. The wonut illustrates another grand old American tradition, too: the layering of mountains of different types of food in a single dish, which goes back at least to the invention of the ice-cream sundae 120 years ago.因为美国是一个移民国家,因此它拥有许多个人习俗。但是因为大部分食物都是要取悦所有人,民族食谱经常会被改造以满足不同的人的口味。“你拿来与不同的东西,然后把它变成你熟悉的东西,”特拉华州海格利物馆和威明顿图书馆的罗格·霍洛威茨说。这通常包括加入糖和油脂,这是大部分人都喜爱的。Wonut也说明了另一种极为重要的美国古老习俗:在一道菜中包含了层层叠叠的不同食物,这至少可以追溯到120年前圣代冰淇淋的发明。Good ideas sp fast, so hybrid hits are soon copied. Crumbs Bake Shop, an ailing and pricey New York-based chain of cupcake shops, was one of several to introduce variations of the cronut. Alas its “crumbnut” failed to save the business, and Crumbs closed its doors on July 7th. As for Mr Hernandez, he is looking to open wonut shops in Chicago, Los Angeles and Phoenix. But he knows that the wonut will not be novel for long, so he is aly working on his next creation: a waffle pizza, which perhaps he should call the “piffle”.好点子传播的很快,因此混合食品的创意很快就有人山寨了。Crumbs Bake Shop是一家总部在纽约的杯形蛋糕连锁店,价格昂贵而且正面临着困难。它是引入多品种牛角甜甜圈的几家店之一,但可悲的是它的crumbnut未能挽回日渐下滑的生意,并于7月7日关门了。对于赫尔南德斯来说,他准备在芝加哥、洛杉矶和凤凰城开wonut商店。但是他知道wonut不会新奇很长时间,因此他正在致力于下一个创新:华夫饼披萨,他可能会把这种食品叫做“priffle”。 /201407/311746 Science and technology科学技术The joys of parenthood身为人父的喜悦Fathers day父亲节Having children really does make a man more content with life有了自己的孩子的确会让男人更热爱自己的生活WILL fatherhood make me happy?当爸爸会让我开心么?That is a question many men have found themselves asking, and the scientific evidence is equivocal.这是一个许多男人都会问自己的问题,然而科学家们对此的措辞却含糊不清。A lot of studies have linked parenthood—particularly fatherhood.许多研究项目将双亲的身份—尤其是父亲,with lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher rates of depression than are found among non-parents.和低满足感与高压抑感联系起来,而且认为那些没有为人父母的人们则要逍遥许多。Biologically speaking, that looks odd.从生物学的角度来说,以上的观点其实很滑稽。Natural selection might be expected to favour the progeny of men who enjoy bringing them up.因为从自然选择的角度来说,大自然会更加青睐那些由开心的父亲抚养大的孩子。On the other hand, the countervailing pressure to have other children, by other women, may leave the man who is aly encumbered by a set of offspring dissatisfied.从另一个角度来看,男人天性受到一种相反的压力,希望和其他女性生育更多的孩子,这种压力可能会让受到现有子女负累的父亲感到不满。To investigate the matter further Sonja Lyubomirsky, a psychologist at the University of California, Riverside, decided both to study the existing literature, and to conduct some experiments of her own.一位来自加州大学的心理学家,索尼娅·柳米尔斯基,为了弄清这件事情,决定在研究现存文献的同时,也亲自组织一些实验。The results, just published in Psychological Science, suggest parenthood in general, and fatherhood in particular, really are blessings, even though the parent in question might sometimes feel they are in disguise.她研究的结果,《心理科学》上刚发表了不久。研究结果显示,总体上来说,为人父母,的确是会受到祝福的,即便那些受访的父母很多时候觉得可能自己在接受调查时伪装了些东西。Dr Lyubomirskys first port of call was the World Values Survey.首先,柳米尔斯基士从世界价值观大调查开始着手。This is a project which gathers huge amounts of data about the lives of people all around the planet.这是个浩大的工程,用来收集海量的居住在这个星球各个角落里的人的数据。For the purposes of her research, Dr Lyubomirsky looked at the answers 6,906 Americans had given, in four different years, to four particular questions.柳米尔斯基士从这些数据中调出了6,906份来自美国的数据,用以进行她的研究。这些数据从四个不同的年份里收集获得,涉及了四个方面不同的问题。These were: how many children the responder had;这四个方面是:受访者有多少子女;how satisfied he was with life;他对自己的生活有多大程度的满足感;how happy he was;他的快乐感多大;and how often he thought about the meaning and purpose of life.以及他多少次思考过生活的意义和目标。She found that, regardless of the year the survey was conducted, parents had higher happiness, satisfaction and meaning-of-life scores than non-parents.结果她发现,剔除调查的年份因素之后,为人父母的人群比非父母人群具有更高的快乐感和满足感,生活意义项的得分值也更高。The differences were not huge,这些数据的差别其实并不明显,but they were statistically significant.但是从统计学的角度来看,其意义却非常重大。Moreover, a closer look showed that the differences in happiness and satisfaction were the result of mens scores alone going up with parenthood.另外,仔细查看这些数据会发现,男子在当了父亲后,快乐感和满足感会出现细小的差别,分数会越来越高。Those of women did not change.但是女性则没有变化。Armed with this result, Dr Lyubomirsky conducted her own experiment.有了这个结果做撑,柳米尔斯基士开始着手弄自己的实验了。The problem with projects like the World Values Survey is that, 不过诸如世界价值观大调查此类的大工程的问题是,because participants are asked to recall their feelings rather than stating what they are experiencing in the here and now, this might lead them into thinking more fondly in hindsight about their parenting duties than they actually felt at the time.它在收集数据时,要求参与者是回忆自己的感受,而不是叙述他们当下的经历,所以这就容易导致他们去深情地,美化地思考他们为人父母的责任,而不是他们当时真实的感受。Dr Lyubomirsky therefore gave pagers to 329 North American volunteers aged between 18 and 94, having first recorded, among other things, their sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, marital status and number of children.为此,柳米尔斯基士给329名来自北美地区的志愿者发了调查问卷。这些志愿者从18岁到94岁不等。她第一手记录下他们的性别,年龄,种族,社会经济地位,婚姻状态以及子女的数量。She told them they would be paged at random, five times a day.她告诉他们受访者将会被随机排列,一天五次受访。When they were so paged, they were asked to complete a brief response sheet about how they felt, then and there.当受访者被随机排列好后,将会被要求完成一份简明的答卷,用来调查关于其当时的感受。She did not, however, tell them why she was asking these questions.当然,柳米尔斯基士并没有告诉受访者她为何问他们这些问题。The upshot was the same as her findings from the World Values Survey.结果,这次的结局和她在世界价值观大调查项目里得出的结论是一致的。Parents claimed more positive emotions and more meaning in their lives than non-parents, and a closer look revealed that it was fathers who most enjoyed these benefits.相比那些还没做父母的人,为人父母者在他们的人生中显示出了更加积极的情感和更多对他们人生意义的积极思考。Moreover, further analysis revealed that this enhanced enjoyment came from activities which involved children rather than those that did not.同时,通过更加仔细的观察,显示出父亲在上述方面更加典型。另外,更进一步的分析表明了上述的那种积极和欢乐来自于有关孩子的活动。生活中不涉及孩子的日常活动则没有这种效果。It looks, then, as if evolution has bolted into men a psychological mechanism to keep them in the family.所以说,由此可见,似乎自然进化让男人们产生了一种心理学机制,把他们闩在了家庭里。At first sight, it is strange that women do not share this mechanism, but perhaps they do not need to.乍一看,似乎女性没有这种机制很奇怪,但是仔细想想,她们也许根本就不需要这种机制。They know, after all, that the children are theirs, whereas the best a man can do is hope that is true.她们至少知道,自己的孩子一定是自己生的。That, and a mans potential to father an indefinite number of offspring if he can find willing volunteers, might encourage him to stray from the bosom of his family.但是孩子是不是男人自己的血脉,他们只能祈求上天了。所以说,一个男人想做一大堆子子孙孙的父亲的潜在本能,会激励他挣扎着走出家庭的怀抱。Enjoying fatherhood, by contrast, will help keep him in the porch.但是,相反的,身为人父的喜悦,则会让他们在家里的门廊前停住脚步。 /201307/247868四川省成都市第六医院有无痛人流术吗成都市中西医结合医院生孩子好吗

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