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泉州哪家妇科好Science and Technology科技Computer security计算机安全Blame game推脱责任How to mimic human laxness with computers如何用计算机模拟人类错误TO ERR is human, but to foul things up completely takes a computer, or so the old saw goes.犯错是人类的天性,不过某些错误要完全归咎于电脑,也种说法也说不过去。Although this may seem a little unfair to computers, a group of cybersecurity experts led by Jim Blythe of the University of Southern California are counting on there being at least some truth in the saying.由南加州大学的Jim Blythe领导的一个网络安全专家团队正在研究这种说法的背后是否真的存在着一些事实——虽然说这对于电脑有点不公平。They have created a system for testing computer-security networks by making computers themselves simulate the sorts of human error that leave networks vulnerable.他们设计了一个系统用来测试计算机的安全网络,在这个系统中 ,计算机将会模拟人类的各种错误行动,正是这些导致了网络的脆弱。Mistakes by users are estimated to be responsible for as many as 60% of breaches of computer security.与破坏计算机安全有关的事件中,由用户自己制造的错误估计占到60%。Repeated warnings about being vigilant, for example, often go unheeded as people fail to recognise the dangers of seemingly innocuous actions such as downloading files.例如,对于危险频繁的警告经常被人们忽略——当人们下载文件时这种看似无害的行为让人很难意识到其中的危险。On top of that, some ;mistakes; are actually the result of deliberation.除此之外,一些;错误;甚至是深思熟虑的结果。Users—both regular staff and members of the information-technology (IT) department, who should know better—often disable security features on their computers, because those features slow things down or make the computer more complicated to use.正规的工作人员和信息技术部门的职员他们应该对此有更好的了解——他们通常会关闭电脑上的安全功能,因为这些功能会让系统变慢或者许让电脑使用起来更加复杂。Yet according to Dr Blythe, such human factors are often overlooked when security systems are tested.不过按照Blythe士的说法,当安全系统进行测试时,这样的人为的因素往往忽略掉。This is partly because it would be impractical to manipulate the behaviour of users in ways that would give meaningful results.因为这种行为会产生的是有意义的结果,在某种程度上来讲,模拟这种用户的行为是不切实际的。He and his colleagues have therefore created a way of testing security systems with computer programs called cognitive agents.他和他的同事因此就设计了一种测试安全系统的方法,这种方法包含一种被称之这;认知行为者;的计算机程序。These agents motives and behaviours can be fine-tuned to mess things up with the same aplomb as a real employee.这些行为者的动机和行为与真实的雇员一样有着相应的沉着,它们可以进行精确地调节来搞砸某些事情。The difference is that what happened can be analysed precisely afterwards.有所不同的就是事后可以精确地分析这些行为者所发生的行为。Each agent represents a run-of-the-mill user, a manager or a member of the IT staff.每个行为者都代表一个普通的用户,一个经理或者说是一个信息部门的员工。It is given its own set of beliefs, desires and intentions, along with a job to do and a deadline by which that job must be done.每个行为者有自己的一套信仰,要求和意图,他们有工作并且必须在限定的时间内完成该工作。All operations connected with the job are mediated through a standard Microsoft Windows interface that is hooked up to the security system.所有与工作有关的操作都将通过一个标准的微软;视窗;界面进行协调,并且该界面与安全系统相连。Agents can also be given group tasks, which in turn may be influenced by their own group dynamics.同时,可以给行为者们分配集体任务,这些行为者的整体动态反过来又可以影响它们自己。Put simply, the agents can have friends, shared interests and power relations, and can trust some agents more than others, all of which will affect how quickly they perform the job at hand.简而言之,这些行为者可以拥有朋友,共享利益与权力关系,还可以更加信任其他的一些行为者,所有的这些行为都将会影响他们完成手头工作的进度。Another factor that can influence an agents behaviour is its physiology.另外一个可以影响到行为者行为的因素就是它们的生理状态了。Agents can get tired and become hungry, just like people. According to Dr Blythe, ;we have focused mainly on fatigue, the physical need to take breaks at regular intervals, or the need to go to the bathroom.;行为者们就像人一样,会疲倦,会饥饿。据Blythe说,;我们已经集中于研究它们的疲劳了,行为者的身体需要定期的休息,或者需要去洗手间。;And agents may also skive off, choosing to switch to a spot of web browsing on a synthetic internet that the researchers have created for the purpose.另外,行为者们也可能会偷懒,会切换到网页去浏览一些网上的同步内容——这些内容研究人员故意设计出来的。The team plans a full-scale test later this year, but preliminary results, which Dr Blythe will present to the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligences 25th annual conference in San Francisco on August 9th, look promising.该小组计划于今年晚些时候进行全面的测试,不过初步的结果看起来很有希望,该结果将由Blythe士在人工智能发展学会[1]第25次年会上发布——会议将于8月9日在旧金山举行。For example, as users fall foul of so-called phishing attacks—giving away sensitive details such as passwords while browsing the internet, or allowing code that corrupts work files to be downloaded—the ability of IT staff to cope with the consequences diminishes as they become increasingly overwhelmed and tired.例如,用户们遇到的所谓的钓鱼式攻击——在浏览网页的时候会泄露密码等敏感信息,或者那些导致毁坏文件的代码被下载下来——信息技术的工作人们处理这些问题的能力会随着他们增加的重担和持续的疲倦而下降。The next stage after applying emotional and physiological pressure to the agents is to apply financial pressure—by constraining, for example, an agents income compared with the amount of money it needs to earn in order to meet its outgoings.在考察了情绪和生理的压力后,下个阶段将会对行为者引入财务的压力因素的考察——例如,与满足一个行为者开所需的收入相比,通过限制它的收入来实现关于这种因素的考察。Doing this may tempt some agents to double deal.这样做的话,会使得一些行为者变得口是心非。In time, then, Dr Blythes agents may serve to vindicate another familiar saying about computers: that behind every error blamed on computers there are at least two human errors, including the error of blaming it on the computer.不久以后,Blythe士的行为者或许就会明另外一种关于电脑熟悉的说法:每个人该指责的电脑背后至少有两个人为的错误,其中包括指责计算机错误的这个错误。 /201211/209617泉州治疗乳房痛较好的医院 泉州看妇科那家医院权威

泉州超导可视无痛人流多少钱 Business.商业。Businesses and cyber-security.商业活动与网络安全。A spook speaks.鬼魅之声。Its cost may be hard to count, but cybercrime has companies worried.网络犯罪损失难料,公司企业忧心忡忡。LIKE blooms on a peculiar plant, speeches by the head of the British security service are rare; and when they do appear, they draw attention. On June 25th Jonathan Evans, the director-general of MI5, burst into oratorical flower for the first time in 21 months. After commenting on preparations for the Olympic Games and on counter-terrorism, Mr Evans turned to cyber-security-where the ;front line…is as much in business as it is in government.; States as well as criminals were up to no good, he said: in particular, a ;major London listed company with which we have worked; had lost revenue of ;some £800m; (.2 billion) to state-sponsored cyber-attack. The firm in question had lost intellectual property and had been put at a disadvantage in commercial negotiations.英国安全局的发言就如铁树开花一般罕见,而一旦他们发话了,便立即吸引众人目光。6月25日,军情五处的总干事Jonathan Evans在沉默了21个月后首次发表演讲。他先评价了奥运会准备工作和反恐的问题,接着便把话题转移到网络安全上——;在前线……企业和政府的遭遇没什么区别;。他说,国家和个人罪犯都不怀好意,尤其是国家给予经济持的网络攻击,使得;部分受我们保护的主要伦敦上市企业;盈利损失近达;8亿英镑;(12亿美元)。遭受攻击的企业失去了知识产权,还会在商务谈判中处于劣势。Examples and rumours abound of companies being burgled by cyberfrauds, cyberspooks or cyber-mischief-makers. On June 26th Americas Federal Trade Commission sued Wyndham Worldwide, a hotel group, alleging that security failures at the company in 2008 and had led to the export of hundreds of thousands of guests payment-card account numbers to a domain registered in Russia. The FTC says ;millions of dollars; were lost to fraud. Wyndham says it knows of no customers who lost money and that the FTCs claims are ;without merit;.关于公司企业遭受网络诈骗、网络幽灵或者网络恶作剧绑架的例子和传闻遍地开花。6月26日,美国联邦贸易委员会控告温德姆环球酒店公司,控诉其因安全疏忽致使08至09年客户的信用卡账号信息泄露,流入了一个在俄罗斯注册的域名。联邦贸易委员会称因受诈骗,;数百万美元;的资金遭受损失,而温德姆酒店方面则没有客户受害,联邦委员会的说法;毫无根据;。The loss of industrial secrets is perhaps even more worrying to companies than that of their customers credit-card data. Some think worry is overdue. Mark Anderson, the chairman of INVNT/IP, a new organisation of technology companies, says: ;We are encouraged by discovering the number of global technology CEOs who have come to understand this issue and its importance to their own company welfare, regardless of the incentives and protestations offered by China, Russia and other nations known to actively steal IP.;恐怕对于企业来说,更可怕的是泄露商业机密而不是顾客信用卡数据被窃取,有些人认为现在才开始担心来得太迟。INVNT/IP是一家新成立的技术公司,他的总裁Mark Anderson说:;中国、俄罗斯和其他猖狂进行IP偷窃的国家如今一味发表声明以正其身,尽管如此,我们仍然备受鼓舞,因为我们发现世界上越来越多技术公司总裁意识到网络安全的问题及其对他们公司资产的重要性。Working out the cost of cybercrime is a devil of a job. The FTC and Wyndham are poles apart on their estimates of the effect of the credit-card thefts. Companies say they are under constant cyber-attack in ever more ingenious forms, but they are loth to say in public how often the raiders get through and how much damage they do—assuming that the breach is spotted. That suggests the damage is underreported. When they are speaking to the security services they may be more forthcoming, but will they be accurate? Companies might anyway have lost some of the business written off to cybercrime. In that case, Mr Evanss £800m would be on the high side.核算网络犯罪带来的成本损失让人避之若浼,联邦贸易委员会和温德姆酒店集团对信用卡盗窃的影响预估大相径庭。公司企业声称他们经常受到网络攻击,其形式更甚高明,但他们却不愿意公布,如果他们的漏洞被盯上的话,他们受入侵的次数以及受损程度会是多少,估计损失也被低估。他们可能会向安全局透露更多,但在这过程中他们会给出准确信息吗?企业的部分业务收入可能也与网络犯罪的损失勾销。在之前提到的事例中,Evan先生的8亿美金就算偏高了。In a report by Britains Cabinet Office last year, Detica, the software arm of BAE Systems, a defence company, put the cost of cybercrime to the country at a staggering £27 billion, or 1.8% of GDP. Businesses bore £21 billion, mostly because of the theft of secrets and industrial espionage. Lots of people doubted these numbers-including, it seems, the Ministry of Defence, which commissioned a study from a team led by Ross Anderson, a computer-security expert at Cambridge University.据英国内阁办公厅去年的报告显示,主理防卫业务的英国BAE系统公司的附属公司Detica给其提供软件助理,Detica在去年投入到英国国内的网络犯罪防范成本惊人,达到270亿英镑,占了GDP的1.8%。他们的业务收入达到210亿英镑,大部分涉及偷取商业机密和行业间谍活动。包括国防部在内的许多人都质疑这份数据,国防部还特此委任了剑桥大学计算机安全专家Ross Anderson组织团队开展研究。The teams report, published this month, shies away from adding up totals, preferring to assess the costs of different types of crime in turn, but comes up with much lower figures-partly because it discounts Deticas numbers for intellectual-property theft and espionage entirely, saying they have ;no obvious foundation;. Most of the cost of cybercrime, it concludes, is indirect, such as spending on antivirus software or other corporate defences. In other words, a lot goes on payments by one lot of businesses to another: the computer-security industry.该团队于本月发布了报告,报告避而不谈损失总量,却反过来评估各种网络犯罪造成的不同损失,但是其估算出来的数据远远偏低——部分原因是他们完全不重视Detica关于知识产权窃取和商业间谍活动的数据,声称他们;没有明显基础;。该报告总结,大部分针对网络犯罪的成本损失都是间接的,比如说杀毒软件或其他公司防卫手段的出。换句话说,大部分花费付给了另一类行业:计算机安全保障行业。That may be inevitable. Cyber-attacks are happening more often and are becoming more precisely targeted. Greg Day, the chief technology officer for security in the European business of Symantec, a computer-security firm, says that for years cybercrime was more or less ;random;, as crooks looked for any holes they could find anywhere. In the past couple of years, however, they have chosen their corporate targets more precisely. Symantec observed virtually no targeted attacks before Stuxnet, a worm that attacked industrial-control systems, appeared in 2010. Last December it spotted an average of 154 a day.这是不可避免的,网络攻击越来越频繁,目标越来越精确。计算机安全公司赛门铁克的欧洲分公司技术总监Greg Day说,过去的网络犯罪多多少少有点;随机性;,不法分子只是在到处找寻他们可以突破的漏洞而已。然而,在最近几年,他们更加有的放矢。据赛门铁克观察发现,2010年之前,没有任何网络受到过针对性攻击,后来,旨在攻击企业控制系统的蠕虫病毒Stuxnet出现了,这种情况就改变了,去年12月,每天就有154个系统受到这种病毒的攻击。The bad guys are increasingly using social media to try to find a way in, either by gathering intelligence or by befriending employees who may be tricked into opening an e-mail with nasty code within. People, a security-industry adage runs, are the weakest link. Training them to be careful may still be the best defence.越来越多坏蛋利用社交媒体进行黑客攻击活动,他们要么成群结队地展开活动,要么找易上当的雇员下手,欺骗他们打开含有恶意代码的电子邮件。正如安保行业的格言所说,人们是最脆弱的环节。因此,训练人们警惕小心可能仍是最好的防卫手段。 /201209/198647泉州小阴唇整形多少钱泉州宫颈囊肿价格

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