泉州哪家医院专治尖锐湿疣
时间:2019年07月23日 00:04:53

Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic is battling to keep alive its dream of putting tourists into space as accusations surfaced that the company had ignored safety warnings, and its dwindling finances came under scrutiny.李察#8226;布莱信爵士(Sir Richard Branson)创立的维珍(Virgin Galactic)正努力让其将游客送入太空的梦想继续存活,此际,外界指控其忽视安全警告。同时,该公司日渐缩减的财力也成为关注的焦点之一。The head of the company rejected accusations that it had taken risks with its novel rocket propulsion system and said that it could have a new spacecraft y to fly next year.维珍CEO乔治#8226;怀特赛兹(George Whitesides)否认了这些指控,并表示,该公司考虑到了最新火箭推进系统的风险,同时宣称新的宇宙飞船可能会在明年建成飞行。George Whitesides, Virgin Galactic chief executive, said that claims from others in the space industry that Sir Richard Branson’s space tourism company was running high risks marked a difference of professional opinion rather than valid warnings.他说,航空界人士对李察爵士的太空旅游公司存在高风险的指控,仅代表不同的专业意见,并非有充分根据的安全警告。At the same time, Sir Richard’s Virgin Group confirmed that it was supporting the day-to-day expenses of Virgin Galactic of Virgin Galactic out of its own pocket after the money for the initial financing for the project, including 0m put up by an Abu Dhabi government investment vehicle, had been exhausted.同时,李察爵士的维珍集团(Virgin Group)实,在该项目的初期融资(包括阿布扎比一政府投资机构提供的4亿美元)用完后,维珍的日常费用现在由维珍集团提供。The possibility of further delays and the danger of cutbacks by Virgin were being watched nervously at the Mojave spaceport, a collection of hangars alongside a dusty strip of diners and cheap motels that has become a focus for the new private space industry.在莫哈维航空港,人们对项目进一步拖延的可能忧心及维珍削减经费的风险充满担忧。Friday’s flight was the first to use the new fuel system, which the Virgin Galactic chief executive acknowledged had been put through a full test cycle on the ground only a handful of times.上周五,维珍(Virgin Galactic)的“太空船2号”(SpaceShipTwo)在一次飞行测试中发生爆炸,两名飞行员一死一伤。此次试飞是维珍首次使用新的燃料系统,怀特赛兹承认仅在地面经过了为数不多的完整测试周期。US government investigators said late on Saturday that it was too early to reach any conclusions about the cause of the crash or how long the Virgin Galactic programme would be closed down. A full report could take a year, said Christopher Hart, acting chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board.美国政府调查人员上周六晚表示,现在就对飞船坠毁的原因以及维珍项目多久将被关闭做出任何结论,还为时过早。美国国家运输安全委员会(National Transportation Safety Board)代主席克里斯托弗#8226;哈特(Christopher Hart)表示,全面报告可能会耗时一年。Even if it ultimately clears Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo of any major flaws, the length of the NTSB investigation looks set to complicate further Sir Richard’s hopes of getting back to development of the project, which is aly years behind schedule.即便报告最终认定维珍的“太空船2号”(SpaceShipTwo)不存在任何重大缺陷,该委员会的调查时间之长也将进一步打击李察爵士让该项目重新上马的希望,该项目已较原计划拖延数年。A second spacecraft under construction for the last three years in New Mexico is “65 per cent complete”, Mr Whitesides said, adding that it could be y to fly next year, once the cause of last week’s accident has been resolved. “The second spaceship is getting close to iness,” he said.怀特赛兹表示,过去3年在新墨西哥州在建的第二艘宇宙飞船已“完工65%”,他补充称,一旦查清上周事故的原因,这架飞船可能会在明年起飞。他表示:“这架飞船正接近完工。” /201411/340802

Opportunity has made one of its greatest scientific discoveries so far. Clay minerals in a rock called Esperance clearly indicate that neutral water flowed across the rock some time in the first billion years of its existence.The rock was found near Endurance Crater, and took seven attempts to analyse because it was partially covered in Martian dust.The clay minerals are similar to one called montmorillonite. Formed under the influence of neutral water, this is significant because neutral water, which is similar to household tap water, is thought to be much more conducive to the chemistry needed for the origin of life.Announcing the results, Steve Squyres, principal investigator for Opportunity, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. said that, although they have talked in the past about finding water with Opportunity, really it was more like sulphuric acid.As Mars turned into the desert planet we see today, so the water became more acidic. This happened because of evaporation, which left a higher concentration of minerals in the remaining water – rather like reducing a sauce to make it richer.Neutral water dates from an earlier time on the planet, when it rained frequently bestowing a more Earth-like environment.Although a first for Opportunity, this is not the first time that neutral water has been found on Mars. In March, NASA#39;s larger, younger rover Curiosity found evidence for #39;drinkable#39; water in clay minerals in Gale crater. ;It is really striking to me, how similar the stories are for the rocks at Gale and Endeavour crater,; says Squyres, comparing the two findings.Opportunity is now heading for a 55-metre high outcrop called Solander Point. Averaging 50 metres per day, the team hope to get there before August.Winter is approaching on Mars. If Opportunity reaches Solander Point#39;s sloping sides, the solar panels can catch more of the low winter Sun. This could give them enough power to drive during the winter months.In previous Martian winters, on flatter terrain, power levels have dropped so much that engineers have had to park Opportunity and wait for the cold weather to end.Images show that Solander Point displays layered terrain. These layers preserve a record of Mars#39;s changing climate throughout the planet#39;s history, which Opportunity can . Analysing such layers is similar to Curiosity#39;s mission at Mount Sharp in Gale crater.The longevity of Opportunity is astonishing. Designed to last for just 90 Martian days, it is now approaching its 3400th Martian day of operation.It has lasted almost 40 times longer than its design lifetime. It was launched on 7 July 2003 and landed on 25 January 2004.Considering the age of the rover, and the fact that its twin Spirit #39;passed away#39; in 2010 during its fourth Martian winter, it seems prudent to start the celebrations now. Just in case.“机遇号”目前已实现了它的一项最伟大科学发现。一块名为“狮石”(Esperance)的岩石里,其中的粘土矿物表明在这块岩石最初的10亿年中的某个时刻时在,曾有中性水从它上面流过。这块岩石在“持久”陨石坑(Endurance Crater)附近发现的 ,由于有一部分在火星尘埃下面,通过七次尝试才将它分析出来。这个粘土矿物与“高岭石”(montmorillonite)矿物质很相似。这种矿物质在中性水的影响下形成,具有重要意义,因为与家用自来水相似的中性水被认为更加有助于生命起源所需的化学物质的产生。“火星”号的首席研究员斯蒂夫斯.奎尔斯(steve Squyres)在纽约州伊萨卡市的康奈尔大学(Cornell University)宣布研究结果时说,虽然过去他们宣布过“机遇”号发现水的事情,而事实上更像是硫酸。由于火星变成了我们今天所见到的沙漠星球,因此,水的酸性更强。这是由于蒸发才公这种现象,而蒸发把高浓度矿物质留在了剩余的水中,这有点像酱油蒸发。变得更加浓稠。中性水可以追溯到火星早期,那时火星上频繁地下雨,那时的大气环境与地球现在的环境很相近。虽然这是“机遇”号第一次在火星上发现水,但这却不是水第一次在火星上发现。在今年的三月份,美国宇航局的体积更大,设备更新的“好奇”号(Curiosity)火星车在盖尔陨石坑(Gale crater)的软土矿物中发现了可饮用水的据。通过比较两次发现,斯奎尔斯说:“这真的令我很震惊,发生在盖尔陨石坑和持久陨石坑的事情是多么的相似啊。”“机遇”号现在正朝着五十五米高的被叫做索兰德高地的一块露出地表的岩石进发。它平均每天能前进五十米,所以它很有可能在八月前到达目的地。火星上的冬天正在悄然来临。如果“机遇”号能到达索兰德高地(Solander Point)的斜坡,那么在冬天太阳电池板就能从高度角较低的太阳中吸收更多的能量。这就能给它们充足的能量在冬天的几个月里继续前行。在火星上之前度过的几个冬天,“机遇”号都处于平坦地带,而功率电平降到了很低,工程师们不得不让“机遇”号停下来,等待着寒冷天气的结束。图片显示索兰德高地呈现出层状地形。这些“机遇”号能研究的层状结构保存了火星整个历史进程中变化的气候的记录。“机遇”号分析这些层状结构的任务和“好奇”号在盖尔陨石坑中夏普山上的使命是相似的。“机遇”号的寿命是惊人的。最初它被设计在火星上停留的时间仅仅是九十天(火星每天比地球长40分钟),而现在它即将要迎来它在火星上工作的第3400个日子。“机遇”号在2003年7月7日发射升空,并于2004年1月25日着陆火星,已运行了接近四十倍于设计寿命的时间。鉴于它现有的寿命和它的“孪生”火星车——“勇气”号在2010年即“勇气”号在火星上的第四个冬天期间“去世”。现在来进行庆祝似乎是很谨慎的。毕竟要以防万一嘛。

If some group gave out awards for the least energy-efficient structures-the way those LEED (Leadership in Energy amp; Environmental Design) designations for state-of-the-art #39;green#39; buildings are handed around-our home upstate would likely make it into at least the semifinals. 假如某个机构要颁发最不节能建筑奖――正如那些能源与环境设计认(Leadership in Energy amp; Environmental Design)称号被授予最先进的“绿色”建筑一样――我们家在州北部的住宅可能至少能闯入半决赛。 The furnace dates from the #39;60s and burns lots of oil. We have three large hot water heaters. Why three? Don#39;t ask me. The insulation, to the extent there is insulation, includes horsehair from the 19th century-we believe the place was built around 1850, if not earlier-and some sort of foam my grandparents, who bought the place in the 1940s, had injected into the walls in the #39;70s. 我们家的炉子还是上世纪60年代的,非常耗油。我们还有三台大热水器。为什么有三台?这个问题别问我。房子的隔热材料(如果说还有隔热材料的话)夹杂着19世纪的马毛――我们认为房子建于1850年左右或更早的时候。另外,它们还含有我的祖父母(他们在40年代买下这所房子)在70年代注入 内的某种泡沫材料。 There#39;s also central air conditioning that my mother added as an afterthought when she renovated and enlarged the place in the early #39;80s. And a sunroom with lots of glass. 在80年代初,母亲在翻修和扩建房子时又新添加了中央空调系统,并且建了一个安有大量玻璃的阳光房。 In short, the place is probably an energy sieve, and one I#39;d like to stanch as quickly as possible. I have no illusion that it can be turned into one of those net-zero structures that actually contributes more energy to the grid than it takes, but it would just be nice if it didn#39;t bankrupt me. 简言之,这所房子称得上是一个“能源漏筛”,一个我想尽快把它堵上的漏筛。我不幻想它能变身为一座零能耗建筑,实际产生的能量比它耗费的还要多,只要它没让我破产就不错了。 In the hope of cleaning up the house#39;s act, I paid a visit last week to a solar house conveniently situated in Hoboken that students and professors from Stevens Institute of Technology have just completed. Hoboken isn#39;t its final destination. #39;Ecohabit,#39; as it#39;s called, will be disassembled and trucked to Irvine, Calif., where it will be reassembled for October#39;s #39;Solar Decathlon.#39; That#39;s a biannual competition hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy where 20 energy-conscious schools, such as Stanford, the California Institute of Technology, Middlebury College and the University of Texas, compete in categories such as architecture, engineering, appliances, hot water efficiency, home entertainment and communications to create the most energy-efficient solar homes. 怀着改变房子耗能现状的希望,前不久我去附近的霍肯(Hoboken)参观了一所太阳能房。它名为“Ecohabit”,刚刚由斯蒂文斯理工学院(Stevens Institute of Technology)的学生与教授们组建完成。霍肯并非它的最后一站。接下来它将被拆装运至加州尔湾市(Irvine),然后在那儿重新搭建以参加10月份的国际太阳能十项全能竞赛(Solar Decathlon)。这项一年两度的竞赛由美国能源部(U.S. Department of Energy)主办,包括斯坦福(Stanford)、加州理工(California Institute of Technology)、米德尔伯里学院(Middlebury College)和得克萨斯大学(University of Texas)在内的20所具有节能意识的高校将参赛,角逐建筑设计、工程技术、家用电器、热水供应能效、家庭以及通信等类别的奖项,以打造出最节能的太阳能房。 #39;Two years ago, we won affordability,#39; explained Michael Bruno, the dean of Stevens#39;s Schaefer School of Engineering and Science. #39;This year, we want to win the whole thing.#39; 斯蒂文斯理工学院谢弗工程与科学学院(Schaefer School of Engineering and Science)的院长迈克尔#12539;布鲁诺(Michael Bruno)说:“我们在两年前赢得了可负担性方面的奖项,今年我们想赢取总冠军。” Let me state from the outset that I know nothing about electricity (solar or otherwise), plumbing, air conditioning, heating, construction, condensation, etc. I grew up in an apartment. Besides which, I#39;m mentally, physically and emotionally impaired when it comes to doing anything with my hands more advanced than replacing a light bulb. 首先,我要声明一下,我对电能(太阳能或其他能源)、管道、空调系统、供暖、建筑以及冷凝技术等等都一无所知。我是在公寓房中长大的。除此之外,每每涉及到要我动手做任何一件难度高于换灯泡的事情时,我在精神上、身体上以及情绪上都会受到摧残。 My consciousness of such things is pretty much limited to having an intuitive sense of whether something is cool. So let#39;s examine the house from that point of view. From a distance, situated in a parking lot overlooking the Hudson River, the 0,000, 980-square-foot home is way cool, and not just because the New York City skyline served as its backdrop. 我对此类事物的认识基本上只限于凭直觉判断某个地方是否凉爽,因此就让我们从这个角度考察这所房子吧。它位于一个俯瞰哈德逊河的停车场上,远远望去,这所耗资300,000美元、面积为980平方英尺(约合90平米)的房子相当地酷,而这不仅是因为它有纽约的天际线作为它的背景。 The architecture reminded me of one of Frank Lloyd Wright#39;s prairie houses, an exercise in elegant simplicity. 这座建筑让我想起了弗兰克#12539;劳埃德#12539;赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)设计的牧场风格住宅,一座简约又不失雅致的房子。 The front of the house is covered in attractive red cedar. Other parts of the structure are clad in a paneling that I#39;m sure has some sort of futuristic purpose but that resembled sheetrock before it#39;s painted, or wallpapered, and whose appearance I wasn#39;t wild about. 房子的正面铺着引人注目的红杉木,其他区域则铺着镶板,我相信它肯定有某种未来主义的用途,但它在未刷漆或贴上壁纸之前看上去像石膏板,外观不是让我非常喜欢。 However, my interest was genuinely piqued when I was shown one of the solar shingles-not panels, shingles-of which the roof was constructed. #39;This is one of the most innovative things and one of the easiest things somebody who aly owns a house can do to make it more energy efficient,#39; explained Claire Griffin, a Stevens sophomore studying mechanical engineering. 然而,当我看到一块用于铺设屋顶的太阳能瓦片――不是面板,是瓦片――时,我的兴趣真正被勾了起来。斯蒂文斯理工学院机械工程学系的大二学生克莱尔#12539;格里芬(Claire Griffin)解释道:“对于已经有房子的人来说,这是能用来提高房子节能效率的最有创新性、最简便的东西之一。” #39;They work like normal shingles but generate energy at the same time,#39; added Liem Nguyen, a senior who is another member of the Ecohabit team. Ecohabit团队的成员之一、大四学生连源(Liem Nguyen,音)称:“它们的功能与普通瓦片一样,但它们同时还能产生能量。” These devices, donated by their manufacturer Dow Chemical, which include a fully integrated photovoltaic system to power the house, would certainly fall into the cool (bordering on awesome) category. 这些材料设备由它们的生产商陶氏化学(Dow Chemical)捐赠,它还包括一个给房子供电的全集成光电系统,房子的温度显然是属于比较凉爽的(接近于令人赞叹的程度。) I mean, I assumed that if I wanted to solar-retrofit my house, I#39;d have to find a field somewhere or cut down a grove of trees to provide space for the array of solar panels required to power my dishwasher or dryer. It would obviously be a lot easier if I could simply slap a bunch of shingles on the house. The existing ones on the garage are starting to look pretty cruddy, as it is. 我想说的是,我曾经想当然地以为,如果要将我的房子改造成太阳能的,我得在其他地方找到一块地或是砍掉一片树林,以此为给我的洗碗机或烘干机供电的一排太阳能面板提供空间。如果仅仅换掉屋顶上的一批瓦片就可以,事情显然就要简单得多了。车库上现有的那堆瓦片已经开始看起来让人讨厌了,它们确实也让人讨厌。 There#39;s also a green wall. It wasn#39;t green yet, but will eventually be hydrated by a rainwater-capture system and covered in plants and flowers native to Southern California. Once the Solar Decathlon is over, the house will be donated and turned into a veteran#39;s center on the campus of California State University San Marcos. Ecohabit还有一面绿色的 。现在它还没有变绿,不过它最终将由雨水收集系统供水,长满南加州土生土长的植物和花卉。待此次比赛结束,这栋房子将被捐出去,成为加州州立大学 马科斯分校(California State University San Marcos)的老兵活动中心。 I neglected to ask whether such a system of plants could survive a Northeast winter, since there#39;s probably nothing quite as dour as dead plants decorating the outside of your home. On the other hand, it would be pretty cool to have your garden growing up the wall of your house. It would also serve as a thumb in the eye of destructive woodchucks and rascally chipmunks. 我忘了问这样一面绿色植物 是否能熬得过东北部的冬季,因为大概再没什么会像自家的外 满是凋谢的植物那般死气沉沉了。不过,把花园搬到房子的 上也会是一件非常酷的事情,而且它还可让搞破坏的土拨鼠和无赖的金花鼠无处藏身。 In any case, I doubt the concept will be integrated into our house, which seems to invite leaks. Our goal is generally to direct water away from the house rather than toward it. 不管怎样,我还是怀疑这一理念是否能融入到我们的房子中,它似乎会引起房子漏水。我们一般都是想要把水从房中引出去,而不是把它引向房子。 The inside of Ecohabit seemed as cheerful and airy as the outside, though I was informed that its most novel elements are invisible. The walls include phase-changing materials, or PCMs, that store heat during the day and release it at night. Ecohabit的内部看上去与外部一样招人喜欢,而且也宽敞,但是我被告知它最新奇的元素是看不到的。它的 体含有相变材料,该种材料可在日间储存热量,然后在晚间把它释放出来。 A recirculating heat pump keeps the water warm in the kitchen and bathroom, so you don#39;t have to run it and waste water. And there are sensors in each room that monitor and send data about everything from temperature, weather patterns, power usage, lighting-even the number of occupants in the room-to a central control system. 循环式热泵一直保持着厨房与卫生间的水温,所以你不必先把冷水放掉而浪费了水资源。每个房间还配有传感器,它可监控并向一个中央监控系统发送有关温度、天气、电力用量、照明乃至房中人数的各类事项的数据。 #39;We hope to get to the point where [the system] can make suggestions,#39; explained Mark Pollock, the project#39;s manager and an industry assistant professor at Stevens. #39;#39;You#39;ve done three loads of laundry and it#39;s kind of cloudy. You should wait until tomorrow,#39; when it#39;s forecast to be sunny, #39;#39;and you won#39;t have to pull as much energy from the grid.#39;#39; Ecohabit项目的指导人、斯蒂文斯理工学院工科助理教授马克#12539;波洛克(Mark Pollock)说:“我们希望(该系统)可以达到能够提供建议的智能程度。比如说‘你已经洗了三堆衣,天气有些阴。你应该等到明天天气预报播报天晴的时候再洗’,这样一来你就不必耗费那么多的电量。” More than 60 Stevens faculty members and students contributed to Ecohabit. #39;Doing this project is part of their curriculum,#39; Dr. Bruno explained. #39;It draws from every discipline you can imagine and some you couldn#39;t imagine: energy, management, computer science and the College of Arts and Letters.#39; 斯蒂文斯理工学院有60多名教职员及学生对Ecohabit项目做出了贡献。布鲁诺士说:“做这个项目是他们课程的一部分,它要利用到你所能想象到的每一门学科,甚至还有一些你想象不到的学科,比如能源、管理、计算机科学以及人文艺术等。” Jesse House, a music and technology major and a philosophy minor, was fine-tuning a computer program that controls the house#39;s sound system. It seemed to be playing some sort of series of tones. #39;The music program takes all the data the house is collecting and turns it into soothing background music,#39; Mr. House explained, adding something about brainwaves and the theta state of consciousness. 杰西#12539;豪斯(Jesse House)是一名主修音乐科技、辅修哲学的学生。在我参观房子时,他正在调试一个控制房子音响系统的电脑程序,它似乎正在播放一连串的某种音调。豪斯说:“这个音乐程序会接收房子收集到的所有数据,然后把它转变为舒缓的背景音乐。”他另外又谈了一些有关脑电波和潜意识状态的内容。 I want to live in a smart house, but I#39;m not sure one whose music apprehends and reflects my mood. What if I#39;m depressed? 我想住在智能住宅中,不过我不确定我是否想住在一所它的音乐能理解并反映我的情绪的房子中。万一我觉得沮丧呢? #39;You can put the Rolling Stones on, too,#39; Dr. Bruno assured me. “你还可以添加滚石(Rolling Stones)的音乐。”布鲁诺士向我保道。 /201310/259922

When he was a student in linguistics and English at the University of California, Berkeley, David Peterson worked on a secret language for two months. It was called “Megdevi”. This was an amalgam of both his own name and Megan, his girlfriend at the time. Once satisfied with his new words and grammar rules, he presented it to her. It was his grand romantic gesture: a private language they could use to communicate only with each other.戴维#8226;彼得森(David Peterson)在美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)学习语言学和英文时,花两个月时间发明了一种秘密语言,给它取名为“梅戴语”(Megdevi)——这是大卫和他当时的女友梅甘(Megan)名字的结合体。待新词和语法规则令他满意后,他将成果展示给女友。这是他送出的一份非常浪漫的爱情大礼:一种只在他俩之间使用的私密语言。“We didn’t use it”, the 33-year-old admits today, 15 years later. While Megan appreciated the effort, she did not want to learn the language. “It was far too much work.” Now married to someone else, he is more agitated about the technical shortcomings of Megdevi, describing it as “an abomination”. He laments: “It tried to be a bunch of different things at once and ended up being nothing.”不过15年后,33岁的彼得森承认:“我们没用过它。”梅甘虽然赞赏了他的努力,但并不想学习这门语言。“太费力了。”如今,已娶别人为妻的彼得森对“梅戴语”的技术缺陷更为心烦,称之“令人讨厌”。他叹道:“它想一次实现许多个目标,结果落得一无是处。”Back then he was under the illusion he was the first person to create a language just for himself. “I thought I’d cornered the market and there would be demand for invented languages.” Later, when he searched the internet, he saw there were legions of people just like him, picking holes in grammar rules and admiring the poetry of their new lexicons in chat rooms around the world.当时,他还以为自己是头一个为自己创造一门语言的人。“我以为自己会垄断市场,人们对新语言的发明会有需求。”后来,他在网上搜索后发现,世界上有许多像他这样的人,他们在聊天室里给语法规则挑毛病,欣赏用自己新发明的词汇写成的诗歌。The invention of new languages has a rich history. Some have a political purpose such as Esperanto, created in the 19th century to foster peace, or the feminist Láadan, created in 1982. Another, Toki Pona, uses positive words to engender positive thinking.新语言的发明史丰富多。一些语言带有政治目的,例如,发明于19世纪的世界语(Esperanto)是为了促进和平,发明于1982年的拉丹语(Láadan)带有女权主义色。还有一种道本语(Toki Pona),这种语言使用积极词汇,以鼓励积极思维。Today Mr Peterson is a professional “conlanger” – the name that those who construct languages give to themselves. What transformed his hobby into a trade was the growing desire by television and film producers to infuse science fiction and fantasy dramas with authenticity, including completely fabricated and naturalistic languages. Fans scrutinise the languages, sharing inconsistencies on Twitter and discussion forums.如今,彼得森是职业的“语言设计师”(conlanger)——那些自造语言的人以此相称。他的爱好缘何变成职业?这是因为科幻和奇幻类影视剧制片商越来越追求在剧中营造一种真实感,包括创造完全虚构的自然主义语言。影迷剧迷们对这些语言的研究细致入微,还在Twitter和论坛上分享剧中语言的破绽。Mr Peterson’s big break was Game of Thrones, the lavish HBO drama, which next month starts its fourth season.彼得森的重大突破是《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)。这部HBO的豪华大剧下月将开播第4季。In 2008, after completing a masters in linguistics and teaching English at a community college, Mr Peterson found himself unemployed. He entered a competition set by the Game of Thrones producers for members of the Language Creation Society, a group he had co-founded, to promote, discuss and deconstruct invented languages.2008年,在修完语言学硕士学位、并在一所社区学院教授了一段时间的英语之后,彼得森失业了。他参加了《权力的游戏》制片商面向“语言创造协会”(Language Creation Society)会员设立的一场竞赛。彼得森是协会的联合创始人之一,协会宗旨是推广、讨论和解构人造语言。The group was invited to devise a language – Dothraki – for the show. He won both rounds – the first, judged by his peers, the second by the television executives. It changed his working life.协会受邀为电视剧设计一门语言——多斯拉克语(Dothraki)。他在两轮比赛中均告胜出——第一轮是会员评审,第二轮是电视制片方评审。这改变了他的职业道路。Unlike previous languages he had worked on, Dothraki had some basics aly in place. George RR Martin, author of the five volumes of A Song of Ice and Fire, the fantasy saga on which the TV series is based, had created some words aly. By analysing these, he fleshed it out to create a “naturalistic” language, reflecting the feudal pseudo-Mongolian society’s preoccupations. There are, for example, seven different words in Dothraki for striking with a sword. These include: “hlizi#64257;kh”, a wild but powerful strike; and “kolverikh”, a straight sword thrust.与他之前设计的语言不同,多斯拉克语已经具备了一些基本成分。电视剧根据魔幻传奇小说《冰与火之歌》(A Song of Ice and Fire)五部曲改编,小说作者乔治#8226;马丁(George RR Martin)已经创造了一些单词。彼得森对单词进行了分析,为它们添枝加叶,创造出了一门“自然主义”语言,并反映出那个虚构的蒙古封建社会更关注哪些方面。例如,在多斯拉克语中,有7个单词可以形容使剑的动作,比如,“hlizifikh”指偏离目标但相当有力的一击,“kolverikh”形容笔直的一刺。While Mr Martin has insisted he did not pay attention to linguistic rules, Mr Peterson believes the author has a “natural language affinity”. Typically, he says, fantasy writers “do a terrible job”. Their languages are inconsistent and merely bastardised English.虽然马丁坚称自己并未刻意关注语言学规则,但彼得森认为他很有“创造语言的天赋”。彼得森表示,魔幻作家创造的语言通常“是一团糟”,不仅漏洞百出,而且往往只不过是换了个样子的英语。By the start of the first season, Mr Peterson had created 1,700 words and now has added another 2,000. He has set a goal of 10,000, though he has become derailed by working on other science fiction and fantasy projects.到第一季开始播出时,彼得森已经发明了1700个单词,如今又新创了2000个单词。他将目标设在1万个,但眼下其他科幻和魔幻方面的项目开始分散他的精力。He records every line that he writes in Dothraki so that actors can learn how to pronounce the words. Actors do a pretty good job, he says, although when he sees the final product he often cringes (mistakes are made, he says, by editors and directors who do not have an ear for his language and might choose a clip best left on the cutting floor).他将自己写下的每一句多斯拉克语台词都录了下来,以便演员学习发音。他说,演员们学得不错,但剪辑好的最终成品常常让他感到非常无奈(他说,错误都出在剪辑师和导演那里,他们听不懂多斯拉克语,往往把本应该剪掉的片段留下。)Originally Mr Peterson’s goal had been to become an English teacher in high school. While an undergraduate at Berkeley, Mr Peterson, who is half-Mexican and speaks Spanish, studied different languages for fun: basic Arabic, a term of Russian. At his mother’s suggestion he learnt linguistics, which sparked his interest in language creation.彼得森最初的目标是当一名高中英文教师。在伯克利念本科时,有一半墨西哥血统、会说西班牙语的彼得森出于兴趣学习过不同语言。他学过一点阿拉伯文,还学了一学期的俄文。在母亲的建议下,他开始学习语言学,这激发了他对创造语言的兴趣。Once he started he realised there was no chance he would ever stop. “It’s addictive,” he says. He has always had tunnel vision when it comes to his personal passions. When he was very young it was drawing, then writing, until he became focused on languages.他发现自己的研究一发不可收拾。他表示:“这会让人上瘾。”他对自己的兴趣一向非常投入。小时候他迷过绘画,然后是写作,最后,他的兴趣集中到了语言学上。The work satisfies the mathematical side of his brain, he says, by trying to “solve the problem of communication”. But it is also artistic. “Filling out a lexicon means filling out the back story. It is not purely mechanical.”他表示,尝试“解决沟通的问题”,满足了他头脑中的数学一面。但这一工作也具有艺术性。“填写一个词语,意味着填写一段历史。这不是纯粹机械的工作。”The transformational moment for conlangers was Klingon. Marc Okrand, a linguist, was hired to create a language for Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (Klingons had largely spoken English in the original Star Trek television series), which was released in 1984.语言设计师的转折点是克林贡语(Klingon)。语言学家马克#8226;奥克兰德(Marc Okrand)受聘为1984年上映的《星际迷航3:石破天惊》(Star Trek III: The Search for Spock)创造一门新语言(在《星际迷航》原版电视剧中,克林贡人主要说英语)。Later came James Cameron’s science fiction extravaganza, Avatar. For that the director hired Paul Frommer, a linguistics expert from the University of Southern California, to create the Na’vi language spoken by a 10-foot-tall alien tribe.之后是詹姆斯#8226;卡梅隆(James Cameron)的科幻巨制《阿凡达》(Avatar)。卡梅隆聘请了美国南加州大学(University of Southern California)的语言学专家保罗#8226;弗罗默(Paul Frommer),为片中10英尺高的外星人——纳威人(Na#39;vi)——创造一门纳威语。Professor Frommer’s modus operandi includes determining the sound of the language (deciding which sounds are included and pronunciation rules); the morphology (word-building rules); and the syntax (rules for combining words into phrases and sentences). It was also important to plan how the Na’vi culture would be reflected in the language.弗罗默教授的工作方法包括,确定该语言的发音(决定取用哪些音素,以及确定发音规则)、词形(构词法)以及句法(如何将词语组合为短语和句子)。在语言设计中将该语言对纳威文化的反映考虑进入,这也是很重要的一点。Good language creators, Prof Frommer says, have a deep understanding of linguistic principles; knowledge of a wide variety of languages; sensitivity to the interplay between language, culture and environment; imagination and a clear idea of purpose – how and why will the language be used. Without a goal, Mr Peterson says, a language is “a jumble, with choices made seemingly at random”.弗罗默表示,优秀的语言设计师熟谙语言学规则,通晓多门语言,注意语言、文化、环境的相互作用,想象力丰富,并且目标清晰,即对这门语言的使用方式以及目的心中有数。彼得森表示,没有目的性的语言将“乱七八糟,好像随意拼凑起来的一样”。Science fiction and fantasy films inspire fierce devotion. Some fans have tattoos using the writing system Mr Peterson created for the sci-fi TV series Defiance. “That blows my mind,” he says.科幻和魔幻电影引发了狂热的追随。有的影迷在纹身时使用了彼得森为科幻电视剧《抗争》(Defiance)创造的语言文字。“这让我很激动,”彼得森说。Video games should be a rich source of work yet developers care more about the artwork and gaming than linguistic consistency, he says. However, he makes an exception for one game in development, which he declines to name.彼得森表示,本应是语言设计师大显身手的舞台,但开发商更关注艺术效果和游戏体验,而不是语言的严密性。他表示有一款正在开发的游戏是个例外,不过他不愿透露游戏名称。Professional linguists can be rather sniffy about conlangers, although Prof Frommer insists conlangs “can serve as laboratories to test ideas about language”. Mr Peterson, who believes linguistic construction should be taught at school, sees television’s use of conlangs as educational. “People are coming to linguistics because they are interested in my work.”专业的语言学家可能会瞧不起语言设计师,但弗罗默教授坚持认为人造语言“可以作为测试语言理念的实验室”。彼得森认为学校应该教授构建语言的学问,在他看来,电视节目对人造语言的使用起到了教育作用。“人们因为对我的工作感兴趣,开始接触语言学。” /201403/280691


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