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浙江祛斑多少钱Science and technolgy科学技术Geoengineering地理工程学Implicit promises包含着承诺A geoengineering experiment has come unstuck. But there will be more地理工程试验取得突破。可期待更多。FOR the past few years, a European collaboration called IMPLICC has been looking at what it might mean to engineer the climate,近几年在欧洲合作平台上,简称IMPLICC的组织,by reducing the amount of sunshine that reaches the Earths surface.持续对减少阳光直射地球为目的研究做探讨。A lot of IMPLICCs work, like much else in climate science, has taken the form of computer modelling.探讨是为了解该项气候工程的含义。IMPLICC和其他气候科学研究相似,较多采用电脑模拟程序。In its case the models try to mimic the effects of things like putting veils of reflective particles into the stratosphere,在这里,创造出的气候模型设法模拟出两种情况,其一是将层层的反光微粒放入平流层中,or brightening the clouds over the oceans.其二是增加海洋上空云朵对光线的反射度。This week the IMPLICC team and other interested parties met in Mainz, Germany, to discuss the results—for the various models have turned out to agree far better than many of their creators expected.IMPLICC团队与其他相关组织,这个星期在德国--迈因茨举行讨论。In particular, they suggest that particles in the stratosphere can indeed stop rising levels of greenhouse gases raising the overall global temperature, though in doing so they slightly cool the tropics while the poles warm a bit.多个模型结果的相符程度还比模型创造人所预计的更相似,加强了预测结果的可信度。尽管温室气体在持续的增加中,研究显示反光微粒能防止温室气体,造成全球气温的升高。Other things being equal, the models also agree that geoengineering tends to suppress the hydrologic cycle, with less evaporation and less rainfall.与此同时,预计到热带地区气温会微降, 南北极的气温则会微升。 所有其他因素不变,各模型一致显示水文循环会遭压制,代表将有较少的蒸发及降雨量。Some researchers, however, want to go beyond modelling.They wish to experiment in the real world.然而,有些科研人员则选择进行真正的实验。The highest-profile of these schemes has been part of a programme called SPICE, which is paid for mainly by Britains Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.最受瞩目的是简称SPICE的组织。Much of SPICE takes place in computers and laboratories, but one part was to be an actual experiment—a tethered balloon with a kilometre-long hosepipe attached to it.SPICE主要是由EPSRC助资,大部分研究仍在使用电脑程序及实验室研究,一部分研究则在使用真实实验。The idea was to pump a small amount of water up to the balloon and thence out into the air, so as to assess the possibility of spraying out other substances at far greater heights.实验采用一公里长的输送管拴住气球。气球升空后,实验性地通过输送管在空气中喷洒水,为估计在更高气层中喷洒其他物质的可能性。This move to a practical project has proved controversial.转向这类真实实验模式是有它的争议点。Some people worry that tinkering deliberately with the atmosphere may cause more harm than good.有人担心,以粗浅的方法任意操纵大气层,弊会大于利。Others fear that if geoengineering is shown to work it will, by offering a palliative for the problem of global warming, let politicians put off difficult decisions that might lead to a permanent solution.此外,地理工程即使奏效,功效也不会持久。As Clive Hamilton, a philosopher critical of much of the thinking behind geoengineering research, pointed out to the meeting, though the environmental effects of such experiments may be nugatory,哲学家克利韦·汉密尔顿在会议中对地理工程研究背后的理念提出批评,指政治家可能借暂缓措施,推迟制定有难度的持久性对策。their effects on the way people think could be more profound, and much less easily contained.认为地理工程或对环境影响微不足道,但对人们的思考模式却有更深层及无法控制的影响。Cloud cover云盖In light of such thinking, in September 2011, a stakeholder committee consisting of a geographer,这类思考方向的浮现,促使利益相关者委员会于9月2011年成立。a sociologist, an atmospheric scientist, an engineer and an adviser to Friends of the Earth who had been appointed by the EPSRC told the SPICE merchants,EPSRC任命,由地理学家,社会学家,大气层科学家,工程师及地球的朋友各一位所组成。they needed to be more convincing about how the experiment would be explained, how it would fit into ideas about the future, and how its safety and wisdom could be vouched for publicly.委员会要求SPICE商家,对实验目的,未来环境展望的合适性,如何对公众提供研究操作上的安全及知识担保,向这几个方面做出更有说力的解释及持。A further complication was a patent application covering some relevant technology by Peter Davidson, a consultant engineer whom the EPSRC had asked to play a role in choosing what geoengineering work it should pay for.实验的执行更因工程顾问彼得·戴维森对相关技术做出专利权申请,而有所复杂化。Though this application had been filed before SPICE was proposed,戴维森同时受EPSRC委托,负责挑选可获资助的地理工程项目。and Mr Davidson both declared his interest and recused himself from discussions on SPICE team when advising EPSRC,戴维森先生在SPICE组成之前以提交专利申请,也呈报有关利益冲突并对EPSRC提供专业指导时,刻意回避针对SPICE团队的讨论。Matt Watson of Bristol university, SPICEs principle investigator, was sufficiently concerned about both the application and wider issues of the sort considered by the stakeholder committee that, this week, he cancelled the balloon experiment.尽管如此,身为SPICE主要调查员的布里斯托尔大学人员马特·沃森,对专利权申请及受趣益相关者委员会关注的广泛问题持有所顾忌,以取消这星期的气球实验。The meeting in Mainz also learned, though, of another experiment that has met with better fortune.迈因茨会议仍从另个实验有所获得。Last September a team led by researchers from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, in La Jolla, California, looked at whether clouds could be whitened artificiallyusing particles emitted from a boat.实验团队来至加利福尼亚—拉奥拉,斯克里普斯海洋学公共机构,探讨的是,利用船只排出的微粒体将云朵人工白化的可行性。Such brightening has been observed in the exhaust plumes of cargo ships for some time, but Lynn Russell, who ran the experiment, was still surprised by how much brightening the team saw.观察出能使云朵变白,实验人员琳·拉塞尔仍对实验成果,云朵的白化程度感到惊讶。Though Dr Russells experiment had been designed mainly to look at how clouds form naturally, it paves the way for future work on geoengineering.云朵若经白化,就能把更多阳光反射回太空。尽管货船排放出的废气羽状物以被拉塞尔的实验是为观察云朵的自然形成而设计,在此也为更多地理工程研究铺路。How that will affect attitudes to global warming remains to be seen.该实验会如何影响对全球变暖的态度,却仍无法预计。 /201307/249412桐乡市妇幼保健院激光去斑手术多少钱 Its time to go again to the A Moment of Science mailbag. A listener writes:又到了科学一刻的读信时间,一位听友写道:Dear A Moment of Science,亲爱的《科学一刻》栏目:Everyone gets bored from time to time. But I was wondering–what is boredom exactly, scientifically speaking?每个人时不时都感觉到对某事的厌倦。但是我想知道---从科学的角度看,厌倦具体指的是什么呢?Boredom is one of those really common things that, partly because its so common, is rarely investigated with much rigor. But a study by researchers in Canada aims to change that. In fact, theyve come up with a definition of boredom.厌倦是一个普遍存在的现象,因为它是如此普遍,因此人们很少花费时间精力对它进行调查研究。加拿大研究人员试图改变这种现状。事实上,他们已经对厌倦给出了定义。According to the study, boredom is “an aversive state of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity,” arising from failures in one of the brains attention networks.调查研究表明,厌倦是指“渴望但又无法从事令人满意的活动的一种反感状态”,起因是大脑注意力网络故障。In other words, youre bored when you cant quite focus on stuff–such as thoughts or things happening around you–that allows you to engage in absorbing activities. And, to make it worse, youre sort of aware that you cant pay attention, which makes you feel listless and, well, bored.换句话说,当你无法完全集中精力在某些事情上,例如思考问题或者发生在你周围的事无法吸引你的注意力时,你便会感到无聊。更糟糕的是,你意识到自己不能集中注意力,这会让你更加无精打采进而产生厌倦情绪。Boredom is linked to many psychological, social, and health problems. For example, being bored at work can make you less productive and, in some jobs, can lead to serious accidents. Also, boredom has been linked to substance abuse and other health issues.厌倦与许多心理学、社会学还有健康问题相关联。例如,对于工作的厌倦会让工作效率低下,对于某些工作来说可能导致严重的事故。同时,厌倦与滥用药物以及其他健康问题密切关联。There are all sorts of ways to try to avoid becoming bored, or snapping out of it when you feel bored. But this research could be a first step towards developing more scientific ways to curb boredom.其实有各种各样的方法可以让你避免陷入厌倦的困境或者及时从厌倦的状态中脱身。此项研究仅仅是开发更多科学方式以抑制厌倦的第一步。 /201306/243671嘉兴曙光整形美容医院全身美白

嘉兴治疗多毛怎么样Science and technology科学技术Childrens intellectual development儿童智力发展Bedtime stories睡前故事Regular sleeping hours really are good for children—if they are girls有规律的睡眠时间对儿童真的有好处—如果她们是女孩IN THAT mythical era when children were seen and not heard, and did as they were told without argument, everyone knew that regular bedtimes were important. 在那个孩子们被看见却不被倾听,没有任何异议顺从地去做被告知的事的神话般的年代,人人都知道有规律的就寝时间很重要。Dream on! most modern parents might reply.大部分现代家长可能会这样回复:怎么可能,做梦吧!But research by Yvonne Kelly of University College, London, shows that the ancient wisdom is right—half the time.但是伦敦大学学院的Yvonne Kelly 的研究表明,古老的智慧有一半是正确的。Daughters, it seems, do benefit from regular bedtimes. Sons do not.有规律的就寝时间对女儿似乎确实有益,对儿子却没有效果。Dr Kelly knew of many studies that had looked at the connection between sleep habits and cognitive ability in adults and adolescents.士Kelly熟知很多关于睡眠习惯与成年人、青少年认知能力联系的研究。All showed that inconsistent sleeping schedules went hand in hand with poor academic performance.所有研究都表明,反复无常睡眠安排和糟糕的学业表现是密切相关的。Surprisingly, however, little such research had been done on children.然而令人惊讶的是,几乎没有关于儿童这方面的研究。She and a team of colleagues therefore examined the bedtimes and cognitive abilities of 11,178 children born in Britain between September 2000 and January 2002, who are enrolled in a multidisciplinary research project called the Millennium Cohort Study.因此,她和她同事组成的团队调查了那些注册参加了千禧世代研究多学科研究项目、在2000年9月到2002年1月期间在英国出生的11,178个孩子的就寝时间和认知能力方面的信息。The bedtime information they used was collected during four visits interviewers made to the homes of those participating in the study.他们用的就寝时间的信息是在四次访问期间,采访者去那些参加了这个研究的家里收集的。These happened when the children were nine months, three years, five years and seven years of age.访问会在孩子九个月大,三岁,五岁和七岁时进行。Besides asking whether the children had set bedtimes on weekdays and if they always, usually, sometimes or never made them, interviewers collected information about family routines, economic circumstances and other matters—including including whether children were to before they went to sleep and whether they had a television in their bedroom.除了问孩子们是否在工作日按时作息以及他们是总是、经常、有时按时作息,还是从未按时作息。采访者也会收集关于家庭的日常生活惯例,经济状况,还有其他事项—包括家长是否会在孩子睡觉前读东西给孩子听,孩子的卧室是否有电视。The children in question were also asked, at the ages of three, five and seven, to take standardised ing, mathematical and spatial-awareness tests, from which their IQs could be estimated.在三岁,五岁和七岁时,孩子们也会被要求去做标准化阅读、数学还有空间感测试,通过这些测试来评估他们的智商。Dr Kellys report, just published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, shows that by the time children had reached the age of seven, not having had a regular bedtime did seem to affect their cognition, even when other pertinent variables such as bedtime ing, bedroom televisions and parents socioeconomic status were controlled for.Kelly 士的报告刚在《流行病学和公共健康杂志》上发表,其报告显示在儿童到了7岁的时候,即便在睡前阅读,卧室电视还有父母社会经济地位等相关变量被控制的情况下,没有一个有规律的就寝时间似乎的确会影响他们的认知能力。But that was true only if they were female. On the IQ scale, whose mean value is 100 points, girls who had had regular bedtimes scored between eight and nine points more than those who did not.但是只有在女孩身上才有这个影响。在智商测量中,女孩的平均得分是100分,有定期就寝时间的女孩的分数比那些没有定期就寝时间的女孩分数要高8到9分。Boys were not completely unaffected.男孩并不是完全不受影响。Irregular bedtimes left their IQs about six points below those of their contemporaries at the age of three.在他们三岁的时候,无规律的就寝时间让他们智商分数要比他们的同龄人要低大约6分。But the distinction vanished by the time they were seven.但是当他们到了7岁的时候,这个差异消失了。This difference between the sexes is baffling.不同性别之间的不同是令人困惑的。Dr Kelly did not expect it and has no explanation to offer for it.Kelly士并没有预料到这点,并且不能对此提供任何解释。As scientists are wont to say, but this time with good reason, more research is necessary.就像科学家们习惯的说的,更多的研究是有必要的,但是这一次有很好的理由。Meanwhile, in the going-to-bed wars most households with young children suffer, the sons of the house have acquired extra ammunition.同时,在大部分有着年幼的孩子的家庭所痛苦的去床上睡觉的战争中,家里的儿子们已经获得了额外的弹药。Mind you, those with the nous to and understand Dr Kellys results are probably not suffering from their sleep regimes anyway.注意,无论如何,如果孩子们能够理性地阅读与理解Kelly士的研究结果,他们或许不会因其睡眠方式而受损。 /201310/262456 浙江嘉兴做韩式开眼角哪家好嘉兴市手术疤痕修复多少钱

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