楼主:安互动 时间:2019年08月25日 19:13:06 点击:0 回复:0
China’s internet sector is a curious paradox – it enjoys the most foreign equity investment of any part of the Chinese economy, while at the same time, foreigners do not own a single share.中国互联网行业有一个奇怪的悖论——虽然它是中国经济中接受境外股权投资最多的领域,但外资企业对该领域并不持有一丝一毫的股份。A curious regulatory loophole known as a VIE, or variable interest entity, has allowed foreigners to get around Beijing’s prohibitions against foreign ownership of internet assets. They have amassed huge holdings in companies such as Tencent, Baidu and Alibaba, the ecommerce group that on Tuesday filed for a US IPO that could value it at up to 0bn.通过可变利益实体(VIE)这个奇怪的监管漏洞,外资企业得以绕开中国政府禁止外资拥有境内互联网资产的规定。它们已在腾讯(Tencent)、百度(Baidu)和阿里巴巴(Alibaba)等公司持有大量利益。电商集团阿里巴巴本周二向美国提交了首次公开发行(IPO)申请,其估值最高可能达2000亿美元。Prospective investors in Alibaba’s listing – likely to raise about bn and to be the biggest stock flotation in the world since Facebook – will know that in any dispute with Alibaba’s Chinese investors, their shares could be invalidated and rendered worthless in a Chinese court.阿里巴巴股票的未来投资者应该明白,一旦与该公司的中国投资者发生争议,他们的股票可能被中国法院判定无效,变得一文不值。阿里巴巴IPO可能融资约200亿美元,成为自Facebook上市以来全球规模最大的IPO。Alibaba’s blockbuster IPO caps a revival for US listings of Chinese companies after a two-year drought brought on by a series of financial scandals at Chinese groups. Ironically, one of the biggest involved none other than Alibaba, which was accused of abusing its VIE to strip assets out of the company in 2011.阿里巴巴声势浩大的IPO将成为中国企业赴美上市活动复苏的高潮。此前两年里,由于多家中国企业相继曝出财务丑闻,中概股在美国遇冷。讽刺的是,最轰动的丑闻之一恰恰涉及到阿里巴巴,该公司被指控于2011年滥用VIE架构将资产从公司剥离出去。But memories are short, and this year “Alibaba is the tide which is lifting all boats after two years of scepticism towards most US listed Chinese companies”, according to Nicholas Manganaro of Ogilvy Financial in Beijing.北京奥美金融(Ogilvy Financial)的尼古拉斯#8226;曼加纳罗(Nicholas Manganaro)表示,人的记忆是短暂的,“在大多数在美上市中国企业普遍遭到怀疑两年后,(今年)阿里巴巴IPO就相当于涨潮,能把所有船只都抬高”。Investors will have to have strong nerves. “Every so often someone will a [IPO] prospectus and say ‘hold on a minute, what do I really own here?’” says Mr Manganaro, adding that the ownership issue has been “hiding in plain sight” for years.投资者仍需有极大的勇气。“人们时常会读到一份(IPO)招股说明书,然后发问,‘等一下,我投资进去到底能拥有什么?’”他补充道,所有权问题“隐藏在人们眼皮底下”有好几年了。“Chinese regulators have always turned a blind eye, but the fear is what if they don’t? What if it is challenged in court?”“中国监管机构一直故意视而不见,但令人担心的是,如果他们一反常态怎么办?如果这个问题被告到法院怎么办?”A convenient loophole一个便于利用的漏洞Since the first Chinese internet IPO in 2000, Chinese start-ups wanting to list abroad have skirted ownership restrictions by setting up offshore companies known as VIEs. They are domiciled mainly in the Cayman Islands and have a series of contracts that “simulate” ownership in the Chinese company. In the event of a lawsuit, analysts doubt the contractual powers would be enforceable.自从2000年中国互联网企业第一次IPO以来,中国希望到境外上市的初创企业,一直通过设立VIE架构的离岸公司,绕开外资所有权限制。这些公司主要把注册地设在开曼群岛(Cayman Islands),并利用一系列协议“模拟”取得中国企业的所有权。倘若被诉至法院,分析师怀疑这些协议是否真的具有法律执行力。“It appears that the VIE structure works – until you need it to work, and then it won’t work. That is a concern that has many investors scared to jump back into Chinese stock,” said Paul Gillis, a professor of accounting at Peking University.“VIE架构现在看来管用,但到你需要它真管用时,它就不管用了。许多投资者不敢再碰中国企业股票,就是存在这种担忧,”北京大学会计学教授保罗#8226;吉利斯(Paul Gillis)说。Of the more than 200 Chinese companies to list in the US since 1999, roughly half have used VIEs, according to Fredrik Oqvist, a Beijing-based accountant. These are mainly internet and education companies which are restricted from having foreign shareholders.驻北京会计师弗雷德里克#8226;奥基维斯特(Fredrik Oqvist)表示,自1999年以来共有200多家中国企业在美上市,其中大约一半采用了VIE架构。由于互联网和教育行业的企业在外资持股方面受限制,采用VIE架构的主要是这两类企业。Gene Buttrill, of the Jones Day law firm, says the main risks of a VIE are that the individuals holding the shares of the operating company will abscond with the assets and good name of the company. The other is that the Chinese government will deem the structures illegal and “collapse them”.众达律师事务所(Jones Day)的卜嘉男(Gene Buttrill)表示,VIE的主要风险是,持有运营公司股份的个人可能卷走公司资产,并损害公司的良好声誉。另一点担忧是,中国政府可能认为VIE架构非法,并“摧毁该结构”。The Alipay scandal付宝(Alipay)丑闻Everything could go horribly wrong, and has on a number of occasions. In Alibaba’s case, chairman Jack Ma in 2011 transferred ownership of Alipay, the company’s payments arm, out from a VIE and into a structure that he controlled personally. At the time Alibaba Group, the VIE, was 40 per cent owned by Yahoo, and 34 per cent owned by Japan’s SoftBank.一切事情都可能变得非常糟糕,而且在很多情况下这确实发生了。以阿里巴巴为例,该公司董事长马云(Jack Ma) 2011年将付业务子公司付宝转移出VIE,转入他本人控股的一家公司。在当时的VIE阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group)中,雅虎(Yahoo)持股40%,日本软银(SoftBank)持股34%。Executives at Yahoo complained that they were not informed of the transfer, though Mr Ma says he consulted Alibaba’s board, on which Yahoo and SoftBank have a seat. Yahoo and SoftBank deny this. The three companies came to a settlement in which if Alipay ever went public, it would pay Alibaba between bn and bn.雅虎的高管抱怨称,他们对付宝被转移毫不知情,不过马云则表示他已咨询过阿里巴巴董事会——雅虎和软银在其中皆有席位。雅虎和软银对此予以否认。这三家公司后来达成了和解,约定倘若付宝上市,将向阿里巴巴付20亿至60亿美元。Mr Gillis says Mr Ma’s history of taking advantage of a VIE structure should set off alarm bells. But Alibaba’s prospectus outlined bold plans to mitigate investor fears by holding most of its assets, aside from licences, in the foreign-owned part of its business, and to ensure that most revenue is generated directly by the foreign-owned business.吉利斯说,马云善于利用VIE结构的过往应给人们敲响警钟。但阿里巴巴招股说明书简要列出了旨在化解投资者担忧的大胆计划,包括让外资控股的那一部分业务持有大部分阿里巴巴资产(牌照除外),并确保绝大部分收入直接由外资控股公司产生。“Mr Ma seems to have gotten some religion from his past VIE experience,” says Mr Gillis. “The present VIEs are structured better than most, putting most operations in wholly owned subsidiaries and leaving only the licences and permits in the VIEs.”“马云看来十分崇尚过去操持VIE架构的那一套,”吉利斯说,“目前的VIE架构设计得比过去更巧妙,将大部分业务置于全资子公司内,VIE仅持有牌照和许可。”The VIE structure has always been a grey area in the Chinese legal system, and the Chinese government prefers to look the other way. In 2012, according to a number of lawyers, China’s ministry of commerce drafted a memo suggesting the VIE structure be abolished. But the suggestion “never made it out of committee”, said one.VIE架构在中国法律体系中一直属于灰色地带,而中国政府更乐于从另一个角度看问题。据多名律师称,2012年中国商务部草拟了一份提议取缔VIE架构的备忘录。但一名律师表示,该提议“最终胎死腹中”。Mr Buttrill said that the VIE structure has actually been strengthened by the scrutiny. US and Chinese regulators “have each re-examined the structure over the past couple of years, with the result that it is here to stay”, he said.卜嘉男表示,审查实际上反而强化了VIE架构。他说,美中两国监管机构“过去两年里分别重新审查了该架构,结果是该架构保留到了现在”。Auditors under scrutiny被审查的审计机构VIEs are just one of the risks that prospective Alibaba investors will have to consider. Another relates to the auditing of Alibaba’s financial statements.VIE架构不过是阿里巴巴潜在投资者必须考虑的风险之一。另一个风险牵涉到对阿里巴巴财务报表的审计。After several US-listed Chinese companies, such as Longtop Financial and Sino Forest, were accused of financial fraud last year, there has been a diplomatic stand-off between the US Securities and Exchange Commission and China’s financial regulators over access to the audit papers of Chinese companies.去年,东南融通(Longtop Financial)和嘉汉林业(Sino Forest)等多家在美上市中国企业被控实施了财务欺诈。随后,美国交会(SEC)与中国金融监管机构,在获取上市中国企业审计工作底稿的问题上陷入了一场外交对峙。This means, as Alibaba writes in its prospectus, that the audit of its accounts by PwC is not fully inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the US’s top audit watchdog, and could, as with all other US-listed Chinese companies, be barred from being listed on a US stock exchange.正如阿里巴巴在其招股说明书中所写,这意味着,普华永道(PwC)对阿里巴巴账目的审计结果,没有经过美国最高审计监管机构——上市公司会计监管委员会(Public Company Accounting Oversight Board,PCAOB)的完全审查,因此,可能像所有其他在美上市中国企业一样,被禁止在美国的股票交易所挂牌上市。“The path we’re on now is that all US-listed Chinese companies could eventually get kicked off US exchanges,” said Mr Gillis.吉利斯说:“我们现在面临的是,所有在美上市中国企业可能最终被踢出美国的交易所。”“What we’re hoping for is a diplomatic agreement, because at the end of the day this is not between the SEC and Chinese regulators. It is between the US and China trying to figure out their respective places in the world.”“我们希望美中达成一项外交协议,因为归根结底,这不仅仅是美国交会与中国监管机构之间的事。此事牵涉到美中两国努力厘清各自在世界上的位置。”Treasures abound回报丰厚Yet if the risks can be daunting, investors have in many cases been compensated richly as well. Shares in 58.com, a Chinese version of Craigslist that listed in November, has nearly doubled since its debut.不过,如果说风险可能大得吓人的话,投资者在许多情况下也得到了丰厚的补偿。中国版Craigslist——58同城(58.com)去年11月在美上市,如今其股价自上市以来几乎上涨了一倍。South Africa’s Naspers, the publishing company, bought a 46 per cent stake in then-lossmaking Tencent in May 2001 for m. Thirteen years later, Hong Kong-listed Tencent is one of Asia’s biggest technology companies, with a market capitalisation of 4bn.2001年5月,南非传媒公司Naspers斥资3200万美元,买入当时处于亏损状态的腾讯46%的股份。13年之后,在香港上市的腾讯已成为亚洲最大科技企业之一,市值达到1140亿美元。According to its internal estimates disclosed in the prospectus, Alibaba in April valued itself at up to 1bn, though the final valuations at its IPO could be swayed by internal performance, the market and investor reaction to a roadshow spanning three continents.据招股说明书披露的内部估算,今年4月阿里巴巴对自身估值高达1210亿美元,不过,IPO的最终估值可能受到内部业绩、以及市场与投资者对一场跨三大洲路演的反应的影响。Nevertheless, the message is clear – the risk-reward calculation is heavily skewed in favour of the reward.然而,这向外界传达了明确的信息——关于风险与回报的权衡考量在很大程度上偏向了回报。“The scenario is so binary,” says one lawyer. “You can’t afford not to invest in these things. But if something goes wrong, you are left with nothing.”一名律师说:“这个情况太极端了,非此即彼。你没法不投资这样的公司。但如果哪个环节出了问题,你就血本无归。” /201405/296908BETSY came to Dr. Martin for a second — or rather, a sixth — opinion. Over a year, she had seen five other physicians for a “rapid heartbeat” and “feeling stressed.” After extensive testing, she had finally been referred for psychological counseling for an anxiety disorder.贝蒂来找马丁医生是想问问第二个大夫的意见——实际上是第六个。在过去一年里,因为“心动过速”和“受迫感”的问题,她咨询过五位医生。在经过大量的检查后,医生最终建议她去做焦虑症方面的心理咨询。The careful history Dr. Martin took revealed that Betsy was taking an over-the-counter weight loss product that contained ephedrine. (I have changed their names for privacy’s sake.) When she stopped taking the remedy, her symptoms also stopped. Asked why she hadn’t mentioned this information before, she said she’d “never been asked.” Until then, her providers would sooner order tests than take the time to talk with her about the problem.马丁医生仔细地询问病史,终于得知贝蒂当时正在用一种减肥用的非处方药,其中含有麻黄碱。(为了保护隐私,文中用了化名。)停止用这种药物后,她的症状也就消失了。在被问到过去为什么没有提过这件事时,她说,“从来没人问过。”在那以前,她的医生都会很快让她去做检查,而不是花时间和她谈病情。Betsy’s case was fortunate; poor communication often has much worse consequences. A review of reports by the Joint Commission, a nonprofit that provides accreditation to health care organizations, found that communication failure (rather than a provider’s lack of technical skill) was at the root of over 70 percent of serious adverse health outcomes in hospitals.贝蒂的情况还算幸运,沟通不畅常常会导致更恶劣的后果。非营利组织“医疗机构认联合委员会”(Joint Commission)发布的一份报告指出,医院中发生的严重不良健康后果中,有逾70%的根源在于沟通不畅(而不是医护人员欠缺专业技能)。A doctor’s ability to explain, listen and empathize has a profound impact on a patient’s care. Yet, as one survey found, two out of every three patients are discharged from the hospital without even knowing their diagnosis. Another study discovered that in over 60 percent of cases, patients misunderstood directions after a visit to their doctor’s office. And on average, physicians wait just 18 seconds before interrupting patients’ narratives of their symptoms. Evidently, we have a long way to go.医生能否解释、倾听、与患者产生共鸣,对于病人的诊疗有着深远的影响。然而一项调查发现,有三分之二的病人在不知道诊断结果的情况下,就被要求出院了。另一项研究发现,在超过60%的病例中,患者在问诊后误解了医生的指示。医生平均只会等18秒,就会打断患者对症状的陈述。显然,我们有很长的路要走。Three years ago, my colleagues and I started a program in Harrisburg designed to improve doctors’ communication with their patients. This large urban hospital system serves a city with a population of about 50,000, together with the surrounding metropolitan area of more than 550,000 people.三年前,我和同事在宾夕法尼亚州哈里斯堡启动了一个旨在改善医患沟通的项目。这个规模庞大的城市医院系统,为本市大约5万人口提供务,同时也面向周边城市群共计超过55万的居民。The hospital faces particular challenges: The city has a high poverty rate (32 percent, compared with the state average of 13 percent), and the metro area has a high rate of childhood obesity. Over all, nearly a third of people around Harrisburg are uninsured, compared with about one in 10 for the rest of Pennsylvania.医院面临着一些特殊的挑战:这座城市贫困率极高(达32%,与之相对比,全州平均水平为13%),所在城区的儿童肥胖率也很高。总体而言,哈里斯堡及周边人口中,有近三分之一没有医疗保险,而宾夕法尼亚州其他地区的这一比例则约为十分之一。Our project started with a simple baseline assessment of how we as doctors communicated with our patients. Observation soon revealed that physicians introduced themselves on only about one in four occasions. And without an introduction, it’s no surprise that patients could correctly identify their physician only about a quarter of the time.项目开始时,我们对医生与患者的沟通状况做了一个简单的基准评估。通过观察,我们很快就发现,只有大约四分之一的情况,医生会向患者做自我介绍。既然没有做自我介绍,另一个现象也就不奇怪了:仅有大约四分之一的情况,患者能正确指出给自己诊断的医生是谁。Brief, rushed physician encounters were common, with limited opportunity for questions. A lack of empathy was often apparent: In one instance, after a tearful patient had related the recent death of a loved one, the physician’s next sentence was: “How is your abdominal pain?”与医生会面时简短、仓促的情况十分普遍,提问的机会也很有限。对患者缺乏理解的情况往往很明显:在一个案例中,患者痛哭流涕地倾诉,最近一位亲人去世了,但医生接下来问的却是,“你的腹痛是什么情况?”We developed a physician-training program, which involved mock patient interviews and assessment from the actor role-playing the patient. Over 250 physicians were trained using this technique. We also arranged for a “physician coach” to sit in on real patient interviews and provide feedback.我们推出了一项医生培训计划,其中包括由演员扮演的患者参与的模拟问诊和评估。有超过250名医生接受了运用这个技巧进行的培训。我们还安排了“医生辅导员”在实际接诊时坐在旁边,进而提供反馈。Over the next two years, patient satisfaction with doctors, as measured by a standard questionnaire, moved the hospital’s predicted score up in national rankings by a remarkable 40 percentile points. Several studies have found a correlation between higher patient satisfaction scores and better health outcomes. In one, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, Harvard health policy researchers reported that higher patient satisfaction was associated with improved outcomes for several diseases, including heart attacks, heart failure and pneumonia.在接下来的两年里,通过一项标准化问卷的衡量,患者对医生的满意度提高了,而这所医院的预期得分,在全美排名中也出现了40个百分点的可观提升。有若干项研究发现,患者满意度指标的提高,与治疗效果的改善存在正相关性。在一篇发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)上的研究论文中,哈佛大学的医疗政策研究人员写道,患者满意度提高,与若干种疾病治疗效果的改善存在相关性,包括心肌梗死、心脏衰竭和肺炎。The need to train and test physicians in “interpersonal and communication skills” was formally recognized only relatively recently, in 1999, when the American Board of Medical Specialties made them one of physicians’ key competencies. Although medical schools and residency programs then began to train and test students on these skills, once physicians have completed training, they are seldom evaluated on them. And doctors trained before the mid-1990s have rarely, if ever, been evaluated at all.对医生在“人际关系和沟通技巧”方面进行培训和检验的需求,直到近年来才正式得到承认。在1999年,美国医疗专科委员会(American Board of Medical Specialties)将这些技巧列为医生的关键能力之一。尽管医学院和住院医项目从那时就开始对学生的这些技巧进行培训和测试,但是医生在完成学业后,极少还会受到这方面的评估。所有在上世纪90年代中期之前接受医学教育的医生,则极少甚至完全没有得到过评估。I realize that many colleagues may see methods like ours as too intrusive on their clinical practice and may say that they don’t have the time. But we need to move away from the perception that social skills and better communication are a kind of optional extra for doctors. A good bedside manner is simply good medicine.我明白很多同行可能会认为,我们这样的方法对临床实践的干扰太强,也可能会说他们没时间。不过,我们需要摒弃那种认为社交技巧和改善沟通对医生来说是一种可有可无的额外素质的念头,因为在临床实践中,良好的态度本身就是一剂良药。A passionate diabetes specialist told me how she sat down with a patient to understand why he was not using his diabetes medications regularly, despite numerous hospital admissions for complications.一位充满热情的糖尿病专科医师给我讲述了她与一名患者坐下来聊天的情形。尽管那名患者因为并发症而多次入院治疗,但是他还是不肯规律地摄入糖尿病药物,她想弄明白这是为什么。“I can’t continue to do this anymore,” he told her, on the verge of tears. “I’ve just given up.”“我不能再这样活了,”他强忍着泪水告诉她。“我干脆放弃了。”She placed a hand on his shoulder and just sat with him. After a pause, she said: “You have a heart that still beats, and legs you can still walk on — many of my patients don’t have that privilege.”她把手放在他的肩膀上,坐在了他身旁。停顿片刻后,她说:“你的心脏还能跳,腿也还能走。许多患者根本没有这样的运气。”Five years later, recalling this episode, her patient credits her with inspiring him to take better care of himself. The entire encounter took less than five minutes.五年之后,这位患者在回顾这一幕时称赞道,是医生的鼓舞让他更好地照顾自己。那次会面只花了不到五分钟。 /201501/352632(Reuters) - Ukraine#39;s protest leaders namedthe ministers they want to form a new government following the overthrow ofPresident Viktor Yanukovich, as an angry Russia put 150,000 troops on highalert in a show of strength.(路透社)——在推翻总统亚努科维奇后,乌克兰抗议领袖们任命新的部长来组成他们所想要的新政府,而愤怒的俄罗斯为了展示自己的实力而让15万军人处于警戒状态。*President Vladimir Putin#39;s order onWednesday for soldiers to be y for war games near Ukraine was the Kremlin#39;sboldest gesture yet after days of sabre rattling since its ally Yanukovich wasousted at the weekend.普京周三发布命令,要求士兵们做好在乌克兰附近进行战争的准备,这是其盟友亚努科维奇于周末被驱逐后,克林姆林宫所做出的最大胆举动。Moscow denied that the previouslyunannounced drill in its western military district was linked to events in itsneighbor but it came amid a series of increasingly strident statements aboutthe fate of Russian citizens and interests.莫斯科否认在其西部军事地区突然举行的军事演习与乌克兰发生的事件有关,但是在这期间,俄罗斯就在乌克兰的俄公民以及俄国家利益问题发表了一系列越来越刺耳的声明。U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry warnedMoscow that ;any kind of military intervention that would violate thesovereign territorial integrity of Ukraine would be a huge - a gravemistake;.美国国务卿克里警告莫斯科“任何违反乌克兰主权完整的军事介入都将是一个巨大且严重的错误”。 /201402/277817

The notorious underwear bomber#39;s plot in 2009 to blow up a plane on Christmas Day failed because the explosives became #39;degraded#39; after he wore the same pair of underpants for two weeks, according to a U.S. Official.一名美国官员表示,2009年一名臭名昭著的自杀炸弹袭击者密谋在圣诞节炸毁一架飞机。计划失败的原因是他的内裤两礼拜没换导致炸弹“性能下降”。Nigerian Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab was on a suicide mission when he attempted to detonate a bomb in his underpants as the plane, en route from Amsterdam, approached Detroit.尼日利亚人Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab试图用藏在内裤里的炸弹和一架从阿姆斯特丹飞往底特律的飞机同归于尽。The bomb however failed to detonate aboard the flight, which was carrying nearly 300 people, but caused a brief fire that caused burns to his groin. He was sentenced to life without parole in February 2012 after he pleaded guilty to all charges.但炸弹没能引爆这架载有300名乘客的飞机,它只引起了一场短暂的火灾,烧伤了恐怖分子的腹股沟。他对所有罪行供认不讳并于2012年2月被判终身监禁不得保释。The head of the Transportation Security Administration said this week the bomb failed to detonate because of how long Abdulmutallab had been wearing his underwear.本周,美国运输安全局长皮尔斯托表示炸弹失效的原因是Abdulmutallab的内裤穿了太久。Mr Pistole was then asked whether the bomb had become #39;damp#39;, to which he replied: #39;Let#39;s say it was degraded.#39;在被问到炸弹是否受潮时,皮尔斯托答道“我们还是说它性能下降吧”。During his trial, Abdulmutallab said the bomb in his underwear was a #39;blessed weapon#39; to avenge poorly treated Muslims around the world.在被拘捕期间,Abdulmutallab说他内裤中的炸弹是全世界遭遇不公平对待的穆斯林复仇的“神圣武器”。After the bomb failed to detonate, passengers pounced on Abdulmutallab and forced him to the front of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 where he was held until the plane landed minutes later.Abdulmutallab试图引爆的飞机是美国西北航空的253号航班。炸弹没能引爆后,乘客们抓住Abdulmutallab并将他拘禁在飞机前部直到降落。 /201407/315792

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