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广州长安妇科医院怎么去好信息

2019年10月17日 23:16:47 | 作者:泡泡门户 | 来源:新华社
The wider world that perceives fashion as a...sometimes a frivolity that should be done away with...in the face of social upheavals and problems that are enormous...很多人可能会把时尚看作是…一些很浮华的东西在动荡的社会大局中非常的微不足道在我看来,The point is, in fact, that fashion...时尚是…嗯…You know, in point of fact, it#39;s the armor to survive the reality of everyday life.在我看来…它像是远离现实生活的避难所。I don#39;t think you could do away with it. It would be like doing away with civilization.我无法想象我生活中没有它的存在。如果我的生活中没有时尚就好像人类文明没有开启一样。You know, I...That#39;s what I think.嗯…我就是这么认为的。I mean, a lot of people think ;He#39;s a crazy fanatic,; you know.可能很多人会觉得;他是个狂热的疯子;。At any rate, that#39;s what I think about it.但不管怎样时尚对于我就是这样的重要。How is it different shooting here than in New York?在这儿拍照和在纽约拍照有什么不同?Fashion week here is exceptional.这儿的时装周很特别。Why?哪里特别?It educates the eye.它会给你一种新的视角。Paris?巴黎么?That#39;s right. That#39;s really...I come for the fashion, but that#39;s what happens.是的,是这样…我是来看时装周的但这里给我的影响…Every six months it#39;s like going to school.就像是每半年重新学习一次。You have to go back and reeducate the eye.每次来到这儿,会让自己有一种新的视角。 Article/201609/460799Think about how your favorite stories hook you.想想你最喜爱的故事是如何吸引你的。;When he was nearly 13, my brother Jim got his arm badly broken at the elbow.我兄弟吉姆在他13岁左右时胳膊受伤了,挺严重的。When it healed, and Jim#39;s fears of never being able to play football were assuaged,伤口恢复后,他对以后都不能踢球的担心也减缓了,he was seldom self conscious about his injury.;他自己几乎没有意识到自己的伤。;All this happened, more or less.所有的一切,或多或少都发生过。The war parts, anyway, are pretty much true.但是战争那部分内容是千真万确的。One guy I knew really was shot in Dresden for taking a teapot that wasn#39;t his.;我认识的一个朋友在德累斯顿真的被射中了,就因为他拿了个不属于他的茶壶。;My father#39;s family name being Pirrip, and my Christian name Philip,我父亲姓皮日普,我的教名是菲利普,my infant tongue could make of both names nothing longer or more explicit than #39;Pip.#39;我在小时候两个名字都叫不准,顶多叫成;皮普;So I called myself Pip, and came to be called Pip.;所以我叫自己皮普,后来就真的成了皮普。Imagery, intrigue, emotion: each introduction makes you want to more.富含想象力,情节,情感因素的引言,都会让你想读下去。If you have an assignment to write a literary analysis, your introduction will be just as important.如果你有一篇文学作品分析的作业,引言也一样重要。There will be four elements in your essay: your introduction, thesis statement, analysis and conclusion.你的文章需由四部分组成:引言,主题论述,分析和结论。If you begin writing a literary analysis with the introduction, you may be discouraged.如果你的文学分析和引言一起开始写,那你可能会大受打击。Here#39;s a tip for writing a great introduction: Write it last, and write your thesis first.以下是写好一篇引言的技巧:先写论题,最后写引言。Figure out what you want to analyze before you actually analyze it.在你真正进行分析前,明确你想要分析什么。Your thesis is the foundation for the rest of your essay, including your introduction.你的论题是文章的基础,包括引言在内。So how do you find your thesis? Start by asking questions.那么,如何确定论题呢?由问问题开始。To Charles Dickens you may ask, ;why do you draw attention to characters#39; hands?;拿查尔斯·狄更斯来说,你可能会问,;你为什么专注于描写角色的手呢?;;What#39;s up with their names?; ;Pumblechook? Really?;;他们的名字有什么寓意?;;彭波契克,真的吗?;To narrow your concept for analysis, answer the questions yourself.试着缩小主题分析的范围,自己来回答问题。;Estella ridicules Pip#39;s hands, Jaggers constantly washes his hands,;埃斯特拉嘲笑皮普的手,贾格斯不停的洗手,Pip insufferably burns his hands, Mrs. Joe brings Pip up by hand.;皮普难以忍受地灼烧双手,乔伊亲手带大皮普。;Are there patterns in your answers?这有你要的吗?Estella#39;s comments smack of cruelty, while Jaggers#39; cleanses his immoral conscience.艾斯黛拉的带有冷酷的味道,然而,贾格斯却掩盖他邪恶的良心?Pip finds a second chance, while Mrs. Joe abuses a child under the guise of love and dedication.;当乔夫人在爱和奉献的伪装下虐待一个孩子时,皮普找到了第二次机会。What can you analyze with this pattern?你从这个图案中分析到什么?;Hands symbolize social class inequities, and through Dickens#39; criticism,手象征社会阶级不平等,通过狄更斯的批判,he exposes the dire need for reform in Victorian London.他揭露了在维多利亚时代的伦敦的改革的必要性。What you will do next, which is an entirely different lesson, is to draft and revise your analysis.接下来你要做的是完全不同的课程,那就是设计并修正你的分析。Only after you write your analysis, return to your introduction.只有在你写出你的分析之后,才能回到你的引言Like authors earlier, try to intrigue and inspire your er.就像早期的作者,试着去激发和鼓励读者Avoid starting with famous ations, dictionary definitions or rhetorical questions.避免用名人名言、字典的定义或夸张的问题来开头。Consider the historical context of your topic, or an anecdote or some larger idea or concept. Here#39;s an example:仔细想一下你的主题的历史背景、趣闻,或一些大的想法或观点。举个例子;27 bones in the hand and wrist allow humans to concurrently create and destroy.手上和手腕的27块骨头,使人们能够同时创造和破坏。Thousands of hands have been behind history#39;s astounding creations.成千上万只手能够创造出历史上惊人的作品。Hands represent a powerful symbol, one that was not lost on Charles Dickens.在查尔斯·狄更斯笔下,手一直是强有力的象征。In Great Expectations, Dickens uses hands to symbolize social class inequities,在《远大前程》一书中,狄更斯用手来象征着社会阶级的不平等and through his criticism, he exposes the dire need for social reform in Victorian London.;通过批判,他揭露了维多利亚时代的伦敦的社会改革的必要性。Take time crafting and revising your thesis and introduction.花些时间制作并修改你的论点和引言Remember, if you are bored while writing, your er will be bored while ing.记住,如果你在写作时感到厌烦,那么你的读者也会在阅读你的作品时感到无聊。By the way, did you notice the introduction to this lesson?顺便说一下,你注意到本课的引言了吗?It didn#39;t start with ;here#39;s how to write a thesis and introduction. Would that have hooked you?它并不是#39;以怎样写论点和引言#39;开始的。如果是的话,那还会吸引你吗? Article/201706/514834Imagine you are a part of a crew of astronauts traveling to Mars or some distant planet.想象你是一个正在向火星或者某个遥远的星球飞行的飞船上面的一名宇航员The travel time could take a year or even longer.这次旅行可能会需要一年的时间或者更长The space on board and the resources would be limited.当你们着陆的时候 资源就变得很少了So you and the crew would have to figure out how to produce food with minimal inputs.所以你和你的航行团队必须找出用最少的材料生产出食物的方法What if you could bring with you just a few packets of seeds, and grow crops in a matter of hours?假如你能携带一小包可以在几个小时内成熟的种子And what if those crops would then make more seeds,如果这些谷物又结下了更多的种子enabling you to feed the entire crew with just those few packets of seeds for the duration of the trip?这样你只需这几包种子就能使整个航行人员在整个航行的过程中都有食物吃Well, the scientists at NASA actually figured out a way to do this.美国国家航空航天局的科学家实际上已经找到了这样的方法What they came up with was actually quite interesting.他们的想法非常有趣And it involved microorganisms, which are single-celled organisms.它涉及到一些单细胞的有机物的微生物And they also used hydrogen from water.而且他们还使用了从水中提炼的氢The types of microbes that they used were called hydrogenotrophs,他们使用的那种微生物被称为氢利用菌and with these hydrogenotrophs, you can create a virtuous carbon cycle that would sustain life onboard a spacecraft.利用这些氢利用菌,你可以创造出有效的碳循环 这种循环会维持飞船上的生活Astronauts would breathe out carbon dioxide,宇航员们会呼出二氧化碳that carbon dioxide would then be captured by the microbes and converted into a nutritious, carbon-rich crop.那些二氧化碳会被这些微生物捕捉到然后转化为一种有营养的 碳含量高的农作物The astronauts would then eat that carbon-rich crop and exhale the carbon out in the form of carbon dioxide,宇航员们就能吃掉那些含碳量高的谷物 然后将碳元素以二氧化碳的形式呼出来which would then be captured by the microbes, to create a nutritious crop,这些二氧化碳又能被微生物吸收 然后制造出有营养的谷物which then would be exhaled in the form of carbon dioxide by the astronauts.再由宇航员以二氧化碳的形式呼出So in this way, a closed-loop carbon cycle is created.这样一个封闭的碳循环就形成了So why is this important?为什么碳循环这么重要呢We need carbon to survive as humans, and we get our carbon from food.作为人类我们需要碳来维持生存而且 我们从食物中获取碳On a long space journey, you simply wouldn#39;t be able to pick up any carbon along the way,在远途的空间旅行中你可能在沿途无法获取任何碳物质so you#39;d have to figure out how to recycle it on board.所以你就必须要找出使碳在飞船上循环的方法This is a clever solution, right?这是一个聪明的解决办法,不是吗But the thing is, that research didn#39;t really go anywhere.但问题在于 那个研究并没有实践应用于任何地方We haven#39;t yet gone to Mars. We haven#39;t yet gone to another planet.我们还没有去火星,也没有去其他的行星And this was actually done in the #39;60s and #39;70s.而且这个研究实际上是在60-70年代期间完成的So a colleague of mine, Dr. John Reed, and I, were interested, actually, in carbon recycling here on Earth.我的一个同事约翰 里德士和我当时对于地球上碳的重复利用非常感兴趣We wanted to come up with technical solutions to address climate change.我们希望可以想出科学的办法来解决气候变化问题And we discovered this research by ing some papers published in the #39;60s 1967 and later articles about this work.我们通过阅读60年代的1967年及其以后发表的与这项工作有关的文章得到了这样的研究结果And we thought it was a really good idea.而且我们认为那是一个非常好的想法And so we said, well, Earth is actually like a spaceship.于是我们提出,地球其实就像一个飞船一样We have limited space and limited resources, and on Earth, we really do need to figure out how to recycle our carbon better.我们拥有有限的空间和有限的资源而且在地球上 我们着实需要想清楚如何更好地循环利用碳So we had the idea, can we take some of these NASA-type ideas and apply them to our carbon problem here on Earth?于是我们有了一个主意我们能不能利用这些美国航空航天局的思路并把他们应用于我们地球上的碳问题Could we cultivate these NASA-type microbes in order to make valuable products here on Earth?我们能不能培养他们所谓的那种微生物使我们能够在地球上生产有价值的产品And we started a company to do it.于是我们创办了一个公司做这件事And in that company, we discovered that these hydrogenotrophs在那个公司里,我们发现这些氢利用菌which I#39;ll actually call nature#39;s supercharged carbon recyclers(我把它称为自然界碳资源的超级循环器)we found that they are a powerful class of microbes我们发现他们是一类强大的微生物that had been largely overlooked and understudied,这类微生物曾一直被忽视并被作为替补and that they could make some really valuable products.我们还发现他们可以创造一些非常有价值的产品So we began cultivating these products, these microbes, in our lab.于是我们开始在实验室里制造这些产品,这些微生物We found that we can make essential amino acids from carbon dioxide using these microbes.我们发现我们能够利用这种微生物从二氧化碳中得到基础的氨基酸And we even made a protein-rich meal我们甚至制造出一种富含蛋白质的粉that has an amino acid profile similar to what you might find in some animal proteins.这种粉有一种氨基酸的外形,就像你可能会从一些动物蛋白中看到的那样And we began cultivating them even further, and we found that we can make oil.我们开始更深层次的培养他们于是我们发现我们能够制造出油Oils are used to manufacture many products.油可以用来加工很多产品We made an oil that was similar to a citrus oil,我们制造了一种类似于柠檬油的油which can be used for flavoring and for fragrances,它可以被用来调味或用于香水中but it also can be used as a biodegradable cleaner or even as a jet fuel.但是它也可以被用于一种具有生物降解功能的清洁剂或者是一种喷气燃料And we made an oil that#39;s similar to palm oil.而且我们还生产了一种类似于粽榈油的油Palm oil is used to manufacture a wide range of consumer and industrial goods.棕榈油被用于供给很大范围的生态消费者和制造一些工业商品We began working with manufacturers to scale up this technology,我们开始和制造商一起工作以扩大这项技术的规模and we#39;re currently working with them to bring some of these products to market.而且我们现在依然和他们一起合作把一些产品推向市场We believe this type of technology can indeed help us profitably recycle carbon dioxide into valuable products我们相信这种科技的确可以帮到我们合理的回收二氧化碳,并用于有价值的产品something that#39;s beneficial for the planet but also beneficial for business.而这些产品对地球是有益的对我们的商业也是很有益的That#39;s what we#39;re doing today.那就是我们现在正在做的事情But tomorrow, this type of technology and using these types of microbes但是未来,如果我们把这种技术和对这种微生物的利用actually could help us do something even greater if we take it to the next level.应用到下一个层次的话,这着实可以帮到我们做到更环保We believe that this type of technology can actually help us address an issue with agriculture我们相信这种技术其实也可以帮我们解决农业上的问题and allow us to create a type of agriculture that#39;s sustainable,这种技术使我们能够创造出一种可持续的农业模式that will allow us to scale to meet the demands of tomorrow.那将使我们扩大规模以满足未来的需求And why might we need a sustainable agriculture?为什么我们需要一个可持续的农业模式呢?Well, actually, it is estimated that the population will reach about 10 billion by 2050,实际上,有人预测截止2050年人口数量将会达到100亿and we#39;re projecting that we will need to increase food production by 70 percent.我们提出我们将需要增加70%的食品产量In addition, we will need many more resources and raw materials to make consumer goods and industrial goods.除此之外,我们将需要更多资源和原材料来制造消费品和工业化商品So how will we scale to meet that demand?那么我们应该如何扩大范围以满足这样的需求呢?Well, modern agriculture simply cannot sustainably scale to meet that demand.当然,仅仅靠现代农业无法实现持续化来满足那样的需求There are a number of reasons why.这其中有很多理由One of them is that modern agriculture is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases.其中一个原因就是现代农业是温室气体的一大发射源In fact, it emits more greenhouse gases than our cars, our trucks, our planes and our trains combined.事实上,由现代农业所释放的温室气体要比我们的汽车、卡车、飞机和火车加起来还要多Another reason is that modern ag simply takes up a whole lot of land.另一个原因是仅仅是现代农业就占据了很大的土地We have cleared 19.4 million square miles for crops and livestock.我们为种植业和家畜提供了1940万平方英里的土地What does that look like?那看起来有多大呢?Well, that#39;s roughly the size of South America and Africa combined.那几乎是南美与非洲加起来那么大Let me give you a specific example.让我给你举一个具体的例子In Indonesia, an amount of virgin rainforest was cleared totaling the size of approximately Ireland, between 2000 and 2012.在印度尼西亚,大量的原始森林被清除总计有大约爱尔兰岛那么大的面积那是发生在2000到2012年之间的Just think of all of the species, the diversity, that was removed in the process, whether plant life, insects or animal life.想象在这个过程中,所有的物种及其多样性无论是植物,昆虫还是动物都在这个过程中被迁移And a natural carbon sink was also removed.于是一个天然的碳池会就被移走了So let me make this real for you.请让我告诉你这个事实This clearing happened primarily to make room for palm plantations.那被清理的土地主要被用来种植大片的棕榈树And as I mentioned before, palm oil is used to manufacture many products.就像我前边提过的那样, 棕榈油能够被用来制造许多产品In fact, it is estimated that over 50 percent of consumer products are manufactured using palm oil.事实上,估计有超过50%烦人消费产品在制造过程中使用棕榈油And that includes things like ice cream, cookies It includes cooking oils.那些商品包括冰淇淋,曲奇饼干 包括食用油,It also includes detergents, lotions, soaps.还包括洗涤液,洗衣液和肥皂You and I both probably have numerous items in our kitchens and our bathrooms that were manufactured using palm oil.我们可能在我们的厨房和浴室里有大量的使用棕榈油制造的产品So you and I are direct beneficiaries of removed rainforests.所以我们也都是雨林被移除的直接受益者Modern ag has some problems, and we need solutions if we want to scale sustainably.现代化农业有一些问题,如果我们想要稳定的扩张,我们需要解决方法I believe that microbes can be a part of the answer specifically, these supercharged carbon recyclers.我认为那种微生物可以是一种解决方案具体而言,就是那些超动力碳元素回收者These supercharged carbon recyclers, like plants, serve as the natural recyclers in their ecosystems where they thrive.这些超动力碳元素回收者,就像植物一样,充当着自然的反复循环器在他们所生存的生态系统中And they thrive in exotic places on Earth, like hydrothermal vents and hot springs.他们生活在地球上非常独特的地方就像深海热泉或是温泉里In those ecosystems, they take carbon and recycle it into the nutrients needed for those ecosystems.在这些生态系统中,他们吸收碳元素并回收它把碳元素转换为那个生态系统中所需要的营养物质And they#39;re rich in nutrients, such as oils and proteins, minerals and carbohydrates.于是这些生态系统就富含了营养物质例如油和蛋白质,矿物质和碳水化合物And actually, microbes are aly an integral part of our everyday lives.微生物已经成为人们日常生活中不可或缺的一部分If you enjoy a glass of pinot noir on a Friday night,如果你想在一个漫长劳累的一周后的周五晚上after a long, hard work week, then you are enjoying a product of microbes.来一杯黑比诺葡萄酒其实你就是在享受微生物的产品If you enjoy a beer from your local microbrewery a product of microbes.如果你在品味来自你们当地酿酒厂的啤酒它其实也是微生物的作品Or b, or cheese, or yogurt.或者像面包,奶酪,酸奶These are all products of microbes.他们也都是微生物的产品But the beauty and power associated with these supercharged carbon recyclers但是这些超动力碳元素回收循环器的美和力量lies in the fact that they can actually produce in a matter of hours versus months.在于它们能够在几个小时内生产几个月的产量That means we can make crops much faster than we#39;re making them today.那就意味着我们可以比现在更快地种植作物They grow in the dark, so they can grow in any season and in any geography and any location.这些微生物在黑暗中生长所以他们可以在任何一个季节在任何地形地势,任何位置生长They can grow in containers that require minimal space.他们还可以在极小的容器中生长And we can get to a type of vertical agriculture.于是我们能够得到一种立体农业Instead of our traditional horizontal agriculture that requires so much land,代替我们传统的需要占据很多土地的水平农业we can scale vertically, and as a result produce much more product per area.我们可以在垂直方向上扩张这样一来,我们在单位面积的土地上就可以产出更多的产品If we implement this type of approach and use these carbon recyclers,如果我们使用了这种方法并且使用这些碳元素循环器then we wouldn#39;t have to remove any more rainforests to make the food and the goods that we consume.我们将不需要移除更多的雨林来制造我们消耗的食物和商品Because, at a large scale, you can actually make 10,000 times more output per land area因为,在大规模上,你在单位土地上实际上可以实现原来10000倍的产出than you could -- for instance, if you used soybeans例如,如果你种植大豆,if you planted soybeans on that same area of land over a period of a year.如果你在同样面积的土地在一年中种植一期大豆Ten thousand times over a period of a year.10000倍于一年一期的大豆产量So this is what I mean by a new type of agriculture.这就是我想通过一种新型农业表达的想法And this is what I mean by developing a system that allows us to sustainably scale to meet the demands of 10 billion.这也是我为什么说要发展一个允许我们持续扩大规模以满足未来100亿的需求And what would be the products of this new type of agriculture?那么这种新型农业的产品将会是什么呢Well, we#39;ve aly made a protein meal,事实上,我们已经生产出一种蛋白质粉so you can imagine something similar to a soybean meal, or even cornmeal, or wheat flour.因此你可以想象出像豆粉,玉米粉或面粉之类的东西We#39;ve aly made oils, so you can imagine something similar to coconut oil or olive oil or soybean oil.我们也已经产出了油所以你可以想象一些像椰子油,或橄榄油,豆油之类的产品So this type of crop can actually produce the nutrients所以这种作物可以生产营养品that would give us pasta and b, cakes, nutritional items of many sorts.从而为我们提供面食和面包,蛋糕等各种各样的营养品Furthermore, since oil is used to manufacture multiple other goods, industrial products and consumer products,而且,由于油被用于生产制造多种产品工业产品和消耗品you can imagine being able to make detergents, soaps, lotions, etc., using these types of crops.你可以想象一下使用这种作物来制造洗涤剂,肥皂或洗衣液等等Not only are we running out of space,我们目前不仅仅在渐渐用尽我们的土地but if we continue to operate under the status quo with modern agriculture,而且,如果我们还要继续维持在现代农业这一现状中的话we run the risk of robbing our progeny of a beautiful planet.我们还将使后代失去一个漂亮的地球But it doesn#39;t have to be this way.但是我们不必要这么做We can imagine a future of abundance.我们可以想象一个富余的未来Let us create systems that keep planet Earth, our spaceship, not only from not crashing,让我们创造这样的系统,使我们的地球和飞船不仅可以免受冲撞,but let us also develop systems and ways of living that will be beneficial to the lives of ourselves而且还让我可以研发出生存的系统和方式那将有利于我们自己的生存and the 10 billion that will be on this planet by 2050.和截止2050年存在的100亿人类的生存Thank you very much.非常感谢 Article/201706/514780

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201610/469987

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201606/451261

Some people think that there#39;s a TED Talk formula:有些人认为TED有一套演讲模式:;Give a talk on a round, red rug.;“站在一块圆形的红地毯上”;Share a childhood story.;“分享童年的经历”;Divulge a personal secret.;“泄露私人秘密”;End with an inspiring call to action.; No.“最后号召大家行动起来” 不That#39;s not how to think of a TED Talk.那不该是我们看待TED演讲的方式In fact, if you overuse those devices, you#39;re just going to come across as clichéd or emotionally manipulative.实际上 如果滥用这些套路 只会给人留下陈词滥调 或者心灵鸡汤的感觉But there is one thing that all great TED Talks have in common,但是精的TED演讲确实有一个共同之处and I would like to share that thing with you,我想在这儿跟大家分享because over the past 12 years, I#39;ve had a ringside seat,因为12年来我一直坐在近距离观察席位listening to many hundreds of amazing TED speakers, like these.聆听了数百位演讲者的精演讲 像这样I#39;ve helped them prepare their talks for prime time, and learned directly from them their secrets of what makes for a great talk.我协助他们准备演讲 在黄金时段播出 直接从他们那里学到了做一场精演讲的秘诀And even though these speakers and their topics all seem completely different,尽管这些演讲者和他们的演讲主题都各不相同they actually do have one key common ingredient.但有一个关键的共同要素And it#39;s this: Your number one task as a speaker那就是:作为演讲者最重要的任务is to transfer into your listeners#39; minds an extraordinary gift a strange and beautiful object that we call an idea.是给你的听众的思想一件特别的礼物 它神奇而美丽 我们称之为“想法”Let me show you what I mean. Here#39;s Haley.让我来展示一下我的意思 我们首先看看海利的演讲She is about to give a TED Talk and frankly, she#39;s terrified. Haley Van Dyck!她将要进行TED演讲 坦白说 她很紧张 海莉·范·戴克!Over the course of 18 minutes,在18分钟的演讲过程中1,200 people, many of whom have never seen each other before,此前互不相识的1200名听众are finding that their brains are starting to sync with Haley#39;s brain and with each other.发现他们的思想开始和海莉的思想以及他们互相之间都同步了They#39;re literally beginning to exhibit the same brain-wave patterns.甚至可以说 他们的脑电波开始同步And I don#39;t just mean they#39;re feeling the same emotions.他们当时不仅感受相同There#39;s something even more startling happening.还有更令人吃惊的事在发生Let#39;s take a look inside Haley#39;s brain for a moment.让我们到海莉的大脑中看一看There are billions of interconnected neurons in an impossible tangle.数十亿神经元相互连接 互相缠绕But look here, right here a few million of them are linked to each other in a way which represents a single idea.但是看这里 其中几百万个神经元连接在一起形成了一个想法And incredibly, this exact pattern is being recreated in real time inside the minds of everyone listening.难以置信的是 与其一样模式也立即在每一位听众的脑海中出现了That#39;s right; in just a few minutes, a pattern involving millions of neurons is being teleported into 1,200 minds,是的 几分钟内这种包含几百万神经元的特殊连接模式仅仅通过听演讲者的声音和看她的脸just by people listening to a voice and watching a face.就传递进了1200个大脑之中But wait -- what is an idea anyway?那么 到底什么是想法呢Well, you can think of it as a pattern of information你可以理解为是一种信息的组合that helps you understand and navigate the world.能帮你理解和探索这个世界Ideas come in all shapes and sizes, from the complex and analytical to the simple and aesthetic.想法是多种多样的从复杂的需要理性分析的到简单的具有审美趣味的Here are just a few examples shared from the TED stage.下面我举几个例子 都发生在TED讲台上Sir Ken Robinson creativity is key to our kids#39; future.这是肯 罗宾逊爵士 他的演讲主题是 创造力是决定孩子未来的关键My contention is that creativity now is as important in education as literacy,我认为在教育中培养孩子的创造力和教他们读书写字一样重要and we should treat it with the same status.我们应该对它们一视同仁Elora Hardy building from bamboo is beautiful.这是尹劳拉 哈迪 他的演讲主题是 竹制建筑的魅力It is growing all around us, it#39;s strong, it#39;s elegant, it#39;s earthquake-resistant.竹子随处可见 它们很茁壮 很优雅 而且可以防震Chimamanda Adichie people are more than a single identity.这是奇麻曼达·阿迪契 他的演讲主题是人类并不只有单一属性The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue,单一的故事会导致老套问题并不在于它不正确but that they are incomplete.而在于它不完整Your mind is teeming with ideas, and not just randomly.你的大脑里充满了各种想法 它们并不是随机的They#39;re carefully linked together.而是相互联系的Collectively they form an amazingly complex structure that is your personal worldview.它们汇集成神奇而复杂的体系形成你的世界观It#39;s your brain#39;s operating system.是你大脑的操作系统It#39;s how you navigate the world.也是你探索世界的方式And it is built up out of millions of individual ideas.是数百万个想法的大集合So, for example, if one little component of your worldview is the idea that kittens are adorable,所以比如说 你世界观中的一小部分告诉你小猫很可爱then when you see this, you#39;ll react like this.那么当你看到小猫时你就会抚摸它But if another component of your worldview is the idea that leopards are dangerous,而另一部分告诉你美洲豹很危险then when you see this, you#39;ll react a little bit differently.那么当你看见它时你就会反应不同So, it#39;s pretty obvious why the ideas that make up your worldview are crucial.所以显而易见这些想法对于塑造你的世界观至关重要You need them to be as reliable as possible -- a guide, to the scary but wonderful real world out there.它们就像一名值得信赖的向导帮你应对这个美妙却又危险的世界Now, different people#39;s worldviews can be dramatically different.不同人的世界观截然不同For example, how does your worldview react when you see this image:举个例子你对下面的视频会有什么反应?What do you think when you look at me你看到我的时候你在想什么;A woman of faith,; ;an expert,; maybe even ;a sister;?“一个有信仰的女人” “一名专家” 甚至 “一名修女”?Or ;oppressed,; ;brainwashed,; ;a terrorist;?或者“受压迫的” “被洗脑了的”还是“恐怖分子”?Whatever your answer, there are millions of people out there who would react very differently.无论你的是什么 成千上万的人 就会有成千上万种So that#39;s why ideas really matter.正因为此 想法才如此重要If communicated properly, they#39;re capable of changing, forever,如果交流适当 那么它们能够改变how someone thinks about the world,永久地改变一个人的世界观and shaping their actions both now and well into the future.影响他们现在和未来的的行为Ideas are the most powerful force shaping human culture.想法是塑造人类文化最强大的力量So if you accept that your number one task as a speaker is to build an idea inside the minds of your audience,如果你认同作为一名演讲者 你的主要任务是在观众的思想中植入你的想法的话here are four guidelines for how you should go about that task:那么这里有四条原则需要你遵循:One, limit your talk to just one major idea.第一 让你的演讲要只围绕一个主题Ideas are complex things;思想是一种很复杂的概念you need to slash back your content你要避免长篇大论so that you can focus on the single idea you#39;re most passionate about,所以你要专注于你一个让你最激动不已的想法and give yourself a chance to explain that one thing properly.并且要以合适的方式把它解释清楚You have to give context, share examples, make it vivid.你可以通过描述背景 分享事例等方式让它变得生动形象So pick one idea,所以只挑选一个想法and make it the through-line running through your entire talk,让它贯穿你的整个演讲so that everything you say links back to it in some way.让你讲的所有内容都能与之呼应Two, give your listeners a reason to care.第二 吸引你的听众Before you can start building things inside the minds of your audience,在你将自己的想法灌输给观众之前you have to get their permission to welcome you in.你必须得到他们的允许And the main tool to achieve that? Curiosity.那主要手段是什么呢 好奇心Stir your audience#39;s curiosity.勾起观众的好奇心Use intriguing, provocative questions to identify why something doesn#39;t make sense and needs explaining.提一些耐人寻味 引人入胜的问题让大家发现为什么有些事情不合理并且需要解释If you can reveal a disconnection in someone#39;s worldview,如果你让某人发现 他的世界观里有断点they#39;ll feel the need to bridge that knowledge gap.他们就会想把这个知识的缺口连接上And once you#39;ve sparked that desire, it will be so much easier to start building your idea.一旦你勾起他们的求知欲灌输你的想法就容易多了Three, build your idea, piece by piece, out of concepts that your audience aly understands.第三 一步一步构造你的想法要使用观众已经了解的概念You use the power of language to weave together concepts that aly exist in your listeners#39; minds用语言的力量把观众脑海中已经存在的概念重新整合but not your language, their language.不过要用观众能懂的语言You start where they are.你要让他们跟上你的节奏The speakers often forget that many of the terms and concepts they live with are completely unfamiliar to their audiences.演讲者经常会忘记 自己每天接触的术语和概念在观众们眼中可能就是天书Now, metaphors can play a crucial role in showing how the pieces fit together,因此 善用比喻非常重要because they reveal the desired shape of the pattern,因为比喻是用听众已经了解的概念based on an idea that the listener aly understands.来勾画缺失的那一块知识拼图For example, when Jennifer Kahn wanted to explain the incredible new biotechnology called CRISPR,比如当珍妮弗·卡恩想解释一种叫做CRISPR的 最前端的生物技术时she said, ;It#39;s as if, for the first time, you had a word processor to edit DNA.她说:“这项技术 就像你第一次拥有了一台可以编辑DNA的文字处理机一样CRISPR allows you to cut and paste genetic information really easily.;CRISPR能让你十分轻松的剪切和粘贴基因组;Now, a vivid explanation like that delivers a satisfying aha moment as it snaps into place in our minds.就这样 一个生动的描述让我们恍然大悟并且深深地印在了我们的脑海里It#39;s important, therefore, to test your talk on trusted friends,在信任的朋友面前 试讲一下是很关键的and find out which parts they get confused by.你可以找出他们听不懂的地方(加以修改)Four, here#39;s the final tip: Make your idea worth sharing.第四条 也是最后一条:使你的想法值得分享By that I mean, ask yourself the question: ;Who does this idea benefit?;我的意思是扪心自问:“这个想法对谁有好处?”And I need you to be honest with the answer.你需要实事求是If the idea only serves you or your organization,如果这个想法只务于你或者你的组织then, I#39;m sorry to say, it#39;s probably not worth sharing.那么对不起 它也许不值得分享The audience will see right through you.观众通过你马上能发现这一点But if you believe that the idea has the potential to brighten up someone else#39;s day但如果你认为自己的想法有可能照亮他人的人生or change someone else#39;s perspective for the better或者改善他人的观点or inspire someone to do something differently,或者激励他人去改变then you have the core ingredient to a truly great talk,那么你就拥有了一篇精演讲的核心元素one that can be a gift to them and to all of us.所有人都会因此受益 Article/201706/513897

Optics, or the enhancement of our natural vision,光学,或者说对我们自然视力的提升,has been one of the biggest catalysts for science over the past 500 years,是过去500年来科学发展的最大催化剂之一。Interestingly, it wasn#39;t scientific interest, but more practical matters that led to the initial advancements in optics,有趣的是,最初光学的发展并不是出于科学兴趣,而是更实际的事物——starting around 1440 when Johannes Gutenberg invented his printing press.早在1440年左右,约翰尼斯·古登堡发明了印刷机。In short order, books, which had been a rarity, were now becoming a widesp phenomenon.很快,书籍不再是稀罕物,得到了广泛传播。All that new ing material meant more knowledge was circulating,新兴的阅读材料使得更多知识得以传播,but it also meant that more people were straining their eyes, likely as they by candlelight.但也使得更多秉烛夜读的人们在烛光下耗费视力。And while spectacles had been invented in Italy around 1286, the need for ing glasses increased substantially.当1286年眼镜在意大利被发明出来,对老花镜的需求猛增。Now that people could use lenses to see things more clearly,因为借助眼镜能看得更清楚,they started wondering if vision could be enhanced to see things the human eye couldn#39;t perceive by its own devices.人们开始探索是否能够提升视力进而看清肉眼看不清的东西。Robert Hooke pursued microscopy, and 1665 he published his findings of worlds inside worlds,醉心显微镜学的罗伯特·胡克于1665年将他关于微观世界的研究结果出版,which he called #39;cells#39; in the book #39;Micrographia.#39;在他的书《显微制图》里,他将微观世界里的基本构造叫作“细胞”。At the other end of the spectrum, Galileo innovated with telescopic lenses,在光谱的另一头,伽利略发明了望远镜。and in 1609, he had refined a telescope until he had an instrument powerful enough to see distant objects in the sky with an accuracy no one had before him.1609年,他改进了望远镜,使其能以前所未有的精确度探索遥远的天际。He found that the moon had craters and mountains,他发现了月球上的环形山that Jupiter had moons of its own, and the whole system governing the earth and space was brought into question.发现了木星也有卫星,开始探索配地球和太空的整个系统。Not everyone was thrilled with all the things Galileo saw though.但并非所有人都为伽利略的发现惊叹。For instance, it was taught at the time that the moon was a perfectly smooth sphere.比如,那时候人们还认为月球是个光滑完美的圆球。Yet here was visual proof that was awfully hard to discount.但现在有了难以忽视的视像据。Upon finding moons around Jupiter, he also verified what Johannes Kepler had surmised:发现木星的卫星后,伽利略同时验了约翰内斯·开普勒的推测:that the earth was not the center of the universe, dispelling another central dogma of Galileo#39;s day.地球不是宇宙的中心。即否定了同时期其他“地心说”学说。Then almost exactly a year after Galileo died, Isaac Newton was born.伽利略去世差不多一年后,艾萨克·牛顿诞生。A lot that had been unknown was visible by now,当年未知的世界现在已清晰可见,but much of it was simply the foundation for further questions.但这些大都只是未来更多问题的基础。What was light anyway? And color, for that matter?光是什么?颜色又是什么?What were the laws that governed the earth, and the heavens?配地球和天空的规律又是怎样?And could we capture them through keen observation?我们是否能够通过细致的观察掌握真相?Newton experimented extensively with optics, and came to understand light as something of substance,牛顿对光学进行了深入研究,认识到光是某种物质,and colors as components of light at different frequencies.颜色是由不同频率的光组成的。Before Newton, people widely believed that the color was due to different amounts of light,在牛顿以前,人们普遍认为颜色是由于光的数量不同,with red being lots of light, and blue being mostly dark.比如红色是聚集了很多光,而蓝色则基本是不亮。Newton#39;s prism experiments showed that white light could not only be broken into its component colors with one prism,牛顿的棱镜实验表明,白光经过一面三棱镜会分解出不同的光,but that a second lens could recompose those colors back into white light again,而多放一面三棱镜,光线又会聚合成一束白光。thus showing that color was a matter of light#39;s refraction rather than how light or dark it was.这个实验说明颜色是由光的折射现象形成的,而不取决于光线数量的多少。Newton#39;s studies of optics led to the development of the reflecting telescope.牛顿的光学研究促进了反射式望远镜的发展。This, together with his study of planetary motion, led to his theory of gravitation,牛顿的光学研究和他对行星运动的研究,共同催生了万有引力理论。one of the world#39;s greatest examples of learning to see something invisible by observing its effect on things that are visible.万有引力的发现是世界上最伟大的发现之一,它通过观察无形事物对有形事物的作用来了解无形的事物。So fast forward a few hundred years, and here we stand.以至几百年后的今天,我们取得现在的认识。We#39;ve evolved from a single lens to optics that reveal the birth of a star in another galaxy,我们从一个镜片发展出光学,发现了其他星系内恒星的诞生,or a child developing in the womb, or an electron whirling around an atom.看到子宫中育的婴孩的模样,发现围绕原子旋转的电子。At a time when so much is visible, how we see the world around us matters even more than what we see.这么多东西都可以观察到,我们如何去观察比我们看到了什么更加重要。Will we see a world where everything important has aly been discovered?我们是否已经发现了世上所有重要的事物?Or will we see one in which yesterday#39;s discoveries are but a doorway to the breakthroughs of tomorrow?还是我们只是打开了一扇发现之门,将来还有更多未知世界等我们去探索? Article/201706/513662

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