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万州区儿童医院收费高吗重庆开内眼角Newlyweds advised to lower hopes期望值不能太高The secret of a long and happy marriage appears to be not to expect too much from it.长久而又幸福婚姻的秘密在于不要期望太多。US researchers say that, unless you have superior relationship skills, your hopes of cosy coupledom are likely to be dashed.美国的研究人员说,除非你具备处理婚姻关系的高超技巧,否则你对美满婚姻的憧憬很可能会破灭。Far better, they say, to aim low to ensure you are not disappointed.他们还说,最好降低对婚姻的期望,这样可以保你不失望。The key to keeping that newlywed glow appears to be forgiveness and communication.宽恕和交流是保持新婚的关键。The study, by researchers from Ohio and Florida Universities looked at 82 couples.来自美国俄亥俄州和佛罗里达州各大学的研究人员对82对夫妻进行了研究。They quizzed all the spouses independently over four years.研究人员在4年多的时间里对所有的配偶单独进行研究。Their study, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, found those who believed their partner would be unfailingly kind, loving and agree with their every word, could retain their positive outlook by being forgiving, and having charitable explanations for their partner#39;s negative behaviour.他们的研究成果发表在《人格和社会心理学》杂志上。他们发现那些相信自己的伴侣会永远对自己好,永远爱着自己,同意自己每一句话的人会对婚姻的前景保持积极乐观的态度,因为他们能够宽恕并仁慈的解释伴侣的消极行为。However those with high expectations but without those relationship skills are likely to be brought down to earth fairly quickly as their Prince or Princess Charming falls off their pedestal.然而,那些对婚姻期望太高却又不具备处理婚姻关系技巧的人,一旦他们心中的白马王子或白雪公主从神圣的光环中跌落,他们可能很快就被迫回到现实中。In contrast, the researchers say holding a more prosaic view of your loved one means you are less likely to be disappointed, and therefore more satisfied with your marriage.相反,研究人员说,用平常心来看待自己的爱人就意味着你不太会失望,所以也就会对婚姻更加满意。Writing in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, researchers led by James McNulty, professor of psychology at Ohio University, said: ;In contrast to the idea that expectations in the early years of marriage exert main effects on satisfaction, the current findings suggest that the effects of expectations interact with the skills partners bring to their relationships.;由俄亥俄州立大学心理学教授詹姆斯·迈克纳蒂领导的研究者们在《人格和社会心理学》杂志上发表文章说:“以往的研究表明,结婚最初几年对于婚姻的期望值会对婚姻的满意程度产生重要影响,与此形成鲜明对照的是,目前的研究表明期望值的影响力与伴侣对其婚姻关系所采用的技巧是相互作用的。”Previous research found that people tend to select like-minded partners who they believe will be able to maintain a stable relationship.上述研究还发现,人们倾向于选择志趣相投的伴侣,他们相信这样能够维持一份稳定的婚姻。The finding contradicts the old adage that opposites attract.这一发现与过去所认为的“不同性格相互吸引”的说法截然不同。Instead, the US researchers said people looking for long-term relationships should select partners who were similar to themselves, rather than seeking out the highest quality partner available.取而代之的是,美国的研究人员说,寻找长期婚姻关系的人们应该选择与自己性格相近的伴侣而不是寻求最优秀的伴侣。 /201401/272257重庆医科大学附属口腔医院痘痘 In order for human cells and organs to function properly, we need an adequate amount of water in our bodies. Since nearly all activities cause people to lose water, it#39;s essential to replenish our water levels. The standard rule for water replenishment is the 8x8 method: eight ounces of water, eight times a day. However, other dietary recommendations, such as those from the Institute of Medicine, recommend 13 cups a day for men and 9 cups a day for women. The exact amount of water that people should consume each day depends on factors such as body weight, level of activity and diet.我们需要充足的水分让身体细胞和器官正常运作。因为人类所有活动都会消耗水分,而补水就成了必要的一步。标准的补水方案是8x8:每日8次,每次8盎司。但是也存在其他的饮食建议,如医学研究所:男性每天应喝13杯水,女性每天应喝9杯水。其实,人体日常准确的补水量取决于个人体重,活动量和饮食。While hydration is absolutely essential to a healthily functioning body, too much water, especially over a short period of time can be dangerous and even fatal. If a person drinks more water than her kidneys can excrete, the overall electrolyte level in the blood will drop significantly and the excess water can enter and swell your brain cells, resulting in a potential seizure and/or coma.水虽然是身体健康运作不可或缺的因子,但过多的量,尤其是短时间内大量补充实则有害健康,甚至还会致命。如果人体吸收的水分超过其肾脏可排泄范围,血液中整体的电解质水平将会大幅度下降,一旦多余水分进入大脑,大脑细胞受到膨胀,就会导致潜在疾病发作或引发昏迷。One of the most serious results of too much water consumption is hyponatremia, a decrease in the blood#39;s sodium level. If more water enters the body than the kidneys can process, the mineral content of the blood decreases and the blood#39;s overall sodium levels drop. When sodium and electrolyte levels drop in the blood, water can escape the blood and enter the cells as the blood and the cells struggle for electrolyte equilibrium. While the swelling of cells because of water is never good, it#39;s particularly dangerous when it occurs in the brain (known as cerebral edema). Since the brain is housed within the skull, with little room to grow, brain cell swelling will lead to brain damage if severe enough. If a person continues to add water to his body, the swelling process will continue and the damage may be irreversible.低钠血症是过度补水带来最严重的结果,血液中的钠含量会降低。倘若体内吸收的水分超过了肾脏承受范围,血液中的矿物含量将会减少,而整体的钠含量也会骤降。钠离子和电解质含量一旦减少,血液和细胞就会抢争电解质,而水分也会同时脱离血液进入细胞。水肿的细胞对身体绝对无益,若是脑细胞出现水肿更是危险(称为脑水肿)。因为头骨紧密覆盖大脑,其中伸展空间极小,脑细胞若极度肿胀就会导致大脑受损。此时人体若继续补水,细胞也就会持续肿胀,对大脑造成不可逆的损害。In addition, a massive increase in water will add to the body#39;s overall blood volume and put tremendous strain on the heart and circulatory system. The most severe symptoms of water intoxication occur when hyponatremia leads to cerebral edema. Symptoms of cerebral edema mirror other brain conditions such as tumors and concussions. Common symptoms of cerebral edema start with a headache that increases in intensity followed by mental confusion and seizures. Vomiting and exhaustion are also possible. As the brain cells continue to swell, the risk of death from water intoxication increases.当低钠血症引发脑水肿时,就会出现最严重的情况。脑水肿可诱发其他大脑疾病,如脑肿瘤和脑震荡。常见的脑水肿始于剧烈的头痛,伴随着的症状还有精神混乱和癫痫症。也可能出现呕吐和乏力的状况。倘若脑细胞继续水肿,死亡的风险也将攀升。The easiest way to avoid water intoxication is not to make a conscious attempt to drink as much water as possible. Water drinking contests, whereby contestants try to drink gallons of water in short periods of time, are especially dangerous. Marathon runners and others who may lose large amounts of water are at risk if they try to rehydrate too quickly. For people who require above average amounts of water, it is best to ration that water and sip it rather gulp it. If you begin to suffer any of the symptoms of cerebral edema, immediately stop drinking water and seek professional assistance.杜绝潜意识里企图喝水的习惯是预防水中毒的最简方式。耗水量大的竞赛,即在短时间内需喝数加仑的水的竞赛,尤其危险。马拉松选手和其他在比赛中失水量大的选手,如果他们补水速度过快,就会产生风险。若有人对水的需求量高于平均值,最好是定额配给,小口啜,切忌一饮而尽。如果你开始出现脑水肿症状,立即停止饮水,寻求专业救护。 /201312/270212重庆大学医院正规吗

重庆祛眼袋He might like you to believe he#39;s as hard as nails, but don’t be fooled by your man’s tough exterior.男性往往希望别人相信自己是像钢铁一般坚强的,但是你要当心,别被他们强悍的外表所蒙蔽了。Enlightening new research has found that men are in fact more emotional than women.一则令人震惊的新研究成果表明,男性其实比女性更感情丰富。The experiment found that when men and women watched the same heart-warming s, it was the men who experienced stronger physiological reactions.这项实验结果实,当男性和女性同时观赏一部感动人心的视频时,男性会体验到更为强烈的心理反应。But true to type, when asked about their emotions, the women admitted feeling more emotional than the men did.但是,如人们惯常所知的是,当被问及他们的感受时,女性更愿意表示自己受到了情感上的触动。In the experiment, a group of 30 participants (15 fathers and 15 mothers) were presented with a series of images and s, while their physiological responses were measured via skin conductance electrodes attached to their fingers.这项实验中共有30名参与者(15位父亲和15位母亲),他们一同观看了一系列的图片和视频,研究者们通过连接在参与者手指上的皮肤电导电极,可以观测他们的心理反应。The content they were presented with was categorised into four topics: blissful, funny, exciting and heart-warming.他们所观赏的图片和视频可以分为四个主题:祥和类的,幽默类的,刺激类的和感人类的。Men demonstrated a marginally higher emotional reaction to the blissful, funny and exciting content, compared to the women.与女性相比,男性对祥和类的,幽默类的,刺激类这三类材料表现出略高的情感反应。However, the experiment found that men responded twice as strongly as women with higher levels of physiological emotion when presented with heart-warming content.但同时,研究发现,当参与者观看感人类的研究材料时,男性的心理反应程度是女性的两倍之多。The men’s emotional reactions significantly spiked when they watched a of a solider coming home from war and reuniting with his daughter.尤其在观看一部表现士兵在战后回到家里,与女儿重聚的视频时,男性的情感反应程度表现出激增的趋势。As part of the experiment, participants also had to rate the content on a questionnaire to say how it made them feel.作为该实验的一部分,参与者们还必须填写一张调查问卷,为自己观看了研究材料之后感受到的心理反应程度评出几个等级。As expected, women said they felt more emotional in response to the content compared to the men.如研究者意料到的一样,和男性相比,女性更愿意坦诚的承认,她们观看了研究材料后体验到强烈的情感反应。However, even though men reported feeling less emotion than women, their physiological changes showed that in fact they felt emotion more strongly.然而,虽然男性表示自己并没有像女性那样产生强烈的情绪反应,事实上,他们的心理活动变化已经反应了这一事实,即他们比女性体验到的感情更加强烈。 /201407/310206黔江区中心医院专家门诊 Chinese civilization stretches back at least to the 3rd millennium . It is the source of many of the world’s great inventions, including paper, the compass, gunpowder, and printing, not to mention china (porcelain) itself. But maybe the greatest contribution that the country and its language have made to the Western world is tea. The drink is first mentioned in English in 1655. The Chinese connection first found in US English in the early 20th century.中华文明可以至少追溯到公元前300万年。它是世界上许多伟大发明的源头,例如造纸术,指南针,火药和印刷术。更不用说还有瓷器本身。但是对中西方语言文化交流作出最大贡献的是茶。茶最早在1655年引入英国,而英语和汉语的关联,最早也是在20世纪初的美式英语中被发现。People drinking something stronger than tea might say chin-chin, or ‘cheers!’ This is a mangled pronunciation of qing qing, a Chinese greeting. Another ‘doubled’ word is chop-chop, or ‘quickly’. Chop here is a pidgin Chinese rendition of Chinese kuaì ‘quick, nimble’, and is also found in chopstick.人们在喝比茶更浓的饮品时可能会说“chin chin”或者“干杯”!这是模仿中国“请请”的发音。另外一个双音节词则是”chop-chop”,意为“快快”。这里的chop基于“筷子”的“筷”的发音,是对中式发音“快”的模仿。Our range of savoury relishes was extended when traders introduced us to ketchup at the end of the 17th century. The name may come from Chinese ‘tomato juice’.在17世纪末番茄酱被引入之后,菜肴的风味有了延展。这个名字可能和汉语中的“番茄汁”相关。Contact with imperial China in the early 19th century introduced Westerners to the Chinese custom of kowtowing—kneeling down and touching the forehead on the ground in worship or submission. The word means literally ‘to knock the head’.19世纪初期,西方人开始了解了封建王朝叩头的礼节——双膝跪地,前额轻触地面以显示尊敬或降之意。这个词字面意思就是“头和地面相碰”。Ginseng is a plant whose root is credited with various health-giving and medicinal properties. Its Chinese name, rénshén, literally means ‘man root’, a reference to the root’s forked shape, which supposedly resembles a person.Ginseng是一种植物的根茎,被认为可以促进健康并有药用价值。它的中文名字“人参”的意思是“人的根”,因其形状酷似人形而得名。Gung-ho, meaning ‘unthinkingly enthusiastic and eager, especially about fighting’, dates from the Second World War. It is from Chinese gōnghé ‘to work together’, and was adopted as a slogan by the US Marines fighting in the Pacific under General Evans Carlson (1896–1947). He organized ‘Gung-ho’ meetings to discuss problems and explain orders to promote cooperation.Gung-ho,意味不加思考的热情和冲动,尤为好斗。它的起源可追溯至二战。原形为汉语中的“共和”,即一起工作,并在埃文斯卡尔森将军 (1896–1947)领导的太平洋海战中被引入作为口号。他组织召开“共和”会议来研讨问题,促进合作。Increasing interest in our living spaces in the 1990s led to the popularity of feng shui, the ancient Chinese system of designing buildings and arranging objects in rooms to achieve a positive flow of energy and so bring happiness or good luck. It goes back a long way in English, and even had an entry in the Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1797.对于生存环境的愈发好奇使得在20世纪90年代,“风水”一词被引入,它指的是中国古代建筑及安排房间内物品摆放以达到能量均衡,从而带来幸福安康的一种方式。该词早在1797年就被收入大不列颠百科全书。Not all our Chinese words are ancient, though. China’s first manned space flight in 2003 gave us taikonaut, a Chinese astronaut—taikong means ‘outer space’.然而也不是所有的中文都源自古代。2003年,中国对太空领域的第一次载人探索使得新词taikonaut诞生,意味中国宇航员。 /201410/333735巴南区妇女儿童医院吸脂手术多少钱

重庆治疗皮肤暗黄Cindy Wachenheim was someone people didn#39;t think they had to worry about. She was a levelheaded lawyer working for the State Supreme Court, a favorite aunt who got down on the floor to play with her nieces and nephews, and, finally, in her 40s, the mother she had long dreamed of becoming.辛迪·瓦肯海姆(Cindy Wachenheim)是一个人们觉得不用为她操心的人。她是个头脑冷静的律师,在州最高法院工作;也是个受欢迎的长辈,能和甥侄辈的孩子玩个不亦乐乎;在40多岁时,她终于实现了长期以来的梦想,成为一个母亲。But when her baby was a few months old, she became obsessed with the idea that she had caused him irrevocable brain damage. Nothing could shake her from that certainty, not even repeated assurances from doctors that he was normal.然而,在宝宝几个月大的时候,辛迪开始固执地认为,自己给孩子的大脑造成了不可挽回的损伤。任何事情,哪怕多位医生反复保她儿子一切正常,都无法动摇她对那一点的确信。;I love him so much, but it#39;s obviously a terrible kind of love,; she agonized in a 13-page handwritten note. ;It#39;s a love where I can#39;t bear knowing he is going to suffer physically and mentally/emotionally for much of his life.;“我很爱他,但这显然是一种可怕的爱,”她在手写的一封13页长的信中痛苦地写到,“这种爱,让我无法忍受知道他一生中的很多时候,都要饱受身体和精神/情感上的煎熬。”On March 13, 2013, Ms. Wachenheim, 44, strapped her 10-month-old son to her chest in a baby carrier and leapt to her death from the eighth-floor window of her Harlem apartment. ;I became so low,; she wrote in the 13-page outpouring shortly before she jumped, ;thinking that if I had unknowingly caused brain damage to my beautiful, precious baby, I didn#39;t want to live.;2013年3月13日,44岁的瓦肯海姆用背带把10个月大的儿子绑在胸前,从哈林区八楼的公寓窗户跳楼身亡。“我变得很低沉,”她在那封跳楼前不久一口气写成的长信中写道。“想到如果自己在无意中给我漂亮、珍爱的儿子造成了大脑损伤,我就不想活了。”Ms. Wachenheim#39;s story provides a wrenching case study of one woman#39;s experience with maternal mental illness in its most extreme and rare form. It also illuminates some of the surprising research findings that are redefining the scientific understanding of such disorders: that they often develop later than expected and include symptoms not just of depression, but of psychiatric illnesses.瓦肯海姆的故事是一个令人心痛的案例,以最极端、最罕见的形式呈现了一名女性患上产后精神疾病的经历。这个故事也阐明了一些出人意料的研究结果,这些研究结果正在重新定义对这类疾病的科学理解:它们的发展通常会比预期晚,不仅包括抑郁的症状,还包括精神疾病的症状。Now these mood disorders, long hidden in shame and fear, are coming out of the shadows. Many women have been afraid to admit to terrifying visions or deadened emotions, believing they should be flush with maternal joy or fearing their babies would be taken from them.如今,长期以来一直隐藏在羞耻和恐惧中的这些情绪紊乱,正在从阴影中走出来。很多女性一直害怕承认自己有可怕的念头,或是低落的情绪,认为自己应该陶醉在当母亲的喜悦中,或是害怕孩子会被夺走。But now, advocacy groups on maternal mental illness are springing up, and some mothers are blogging about their experiences with remarkable candor. A dozen states have passed laws encouraging screening, education and treatment. And celebrities, including Brooke Shields, Gwyneth Paltrow and Courteney Cox, have disclosed their postpartum depression.但现在,关注产妇精神疾病的倡导团体正在涌现,有些母亲十分坦率地在客中记述自己的经历。已经有12个州通过了鼓励筛查、教导和治疗的法律。波姬小丝(Brooke Shields)、格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)以及柯特尼·考克斯(Courteney Cox)等多位名人都透露自己曾患过产后抑郁症。Ms. Wachenheim#39;s sister, Deb, is among those breaking the silence.瓦肯海姆的黛布(Deb)便是打破沉默的人之一。;We did try to help her, but perhaps if we had been more knowledgeable about postpartum mood disorders, including the fact that postpartum depression is just one of an array of such mood disorders, we could have done something differently that would have maybe saved her life,; she wrote in an email.“我们的确尝试过帮她,但如果当时对产后情绪障碍有更多了解,比如产后抑郁症实际上只是诸多情绪障碍中的一种,我们或许就能以不同的方式做些事情,兴许就能挽救她的生命了,”她在电子邮件中写道。Cindy Wachenheim#39;s experience defied the long-held belief among doctors and experts that symptoms emerge within a few weeks after birth. She seemed fine until her son was about 4 months old, said family and friends. And as a healthy, active woman, Cindy had no risk factors that would signal a mother likely to become delusional and suicidal.医生和专家们长期以来认为,症状会在产后几星期内出现,但辛迪·瓦肯海姆的经历与这种观念相左。据辛迪的家人和朋友说,在儿子大约四个月之前,她看上去很正常。而且辛迪作为一个健康积极的女性,根本没有表现出这个母亲可能会产生妄想,甚至自杀的风险因素。;She loved life, she loved family, she was social,; said her sister-in-law, Karen Wachenheim.“她热爱生活,热爱家庭,也爱和人交往,”她的嫂子卡伦·瓦肯海姆(Karen Wachenheim)说。In fact, Cindy, long interested in women#39;s issues and social justice, had, years earlier, identified postpartum depression in Karen. ;Cindy would call at least once a day to check on me,; Karen recalled. ;She said, #39;Maybe you have postpartum; I think it#39;s past the baby blues.#39; ; At Cindy#39;s urging, Karen got therapy and medication, recovering quickly.实际上,一直关注女性问题和社会公正的辛迪,多年前在卡伦身上发现了产后抑郁症。“辛迪每天至少会打一次电话,确认我没事,”卡伦回忆说。“她说,#39;你可能是患上了产后抑郁症,我觉得不只是生宝宝后情绪不好。#39; ”在辛迪的督促下,卡伦接受了治疗并了药,很快便康复了。A Son Who Was #39;My Heart#39;“心肝宝贝”儿子Cindy grew up in Colonie, N.Y., outside Albany, where she was her high school#39;s valedictorian. She attended the State University of New York at Buffalo and Columbia Law School. She valued public service and took a job doing research and writing for judges on the State Supreme Court in Manhattan.辛迪在纽约州奥尔巴尼郊区的科隆尼长大,曾因成绩优异在高中时作为毕业生代表发言,并在纽约州立大学布法罗分校(State University of New York at Buffalo)和哥伦比亚大学法学院(Columbia Law School)就读。她重视公共务,曾在位于曼哈顿的州最高法院工作,为法官做研究并撰写文件。When her mother became ill with leukemia, and later her father with lung cancer, Cindy would travel upstate to go to their medical appointments with them. When her siblings or their children had medical checkups, Cindy jotted the dates in notebooks, and called the night before to remind them to fill her in.当母亲患上白血病,后来父亲又患上肺癌时,辛迪会去纽约州的北部,陪同父母就诊。当兄弟或是他们的孩子体检时,辛迪会在笔记本上记下日期,并在前一天晚上打电话,提醒他们要把最新情况告诉她。;I think she even kept all those books too, in a shoe box,; said her brother, Ron. ;People collect stamps; she collected that stuff.;“我想她甚至保存着所有这些本子,放在一个鞋盒里的,”哥哥罗恩(Ron)说。“别人集邮,她收集的却是这些东西。”She married at 40, and she and her husband underwent fertility treatment. She miscarried twice. But family and friends said that while mourning those losses and dealing with fertility hormones, she remained hopeful, noting that doctors said it was a good sign she had been able to become pregnant.辛迪结婚时40岁,夫妇俩都接受过生育治疗。她小产过两次,但家人和朋友表示,尽管经历了流产之痛,还要调节生育激素,但她仍很乐观,还说医生表示,她还能怀就是个好兆头。;She just thought that she#39;s going to keep trying and take each step as it came,; said a longtime friend, Julie Knapp.“她只是觉得要不断尝试,每次机会到来时都要抓住,”多年好友朱莉·纳普(Julie Knapp)说。Experts say little evidence links fertility treatment to postpartum mental illness; indeed, becoming pregnant may bring more joy than stress. Still, Wendy N. Davis, the executive director of Postpartum Support International, said some women experience cumulative stress from ;fertility treatments, many losses, and the very, very high expectation she will enjoy this new baby.;专家称,鲜有据表明产后精神疾病与生育治疗有关;的确,怀可能会带来更多的喜悦,而非压力。然而,产后持国际组织(Postpartum Support International)的执行董事温迪·N·戴维斯(Wendy N. Davis)表示,某些女性会因“生育治疗、多次流产,以及十分十分期望自己会喜欢新生的宝宝”而导致压力累积。Eventually, Cindy was able to conceive and have an uneventful pregnancy, her only out-of-the-ordinary response being a tendency to be hyperaware of whether the fetus was kicking.终于,辛迪成功怀了,而且怀期间一切平安。唯一不寻常的反应似乎是,她常常极其在意胎儿有没有在踢她。Cindy gave birth normally and adored her son, often calling him ;my heart.;辛迪顺利生产,并且非常喜欢自己的儿子,常常称他为“我的心肝宝贝”。;Not unlike a lot of high-achieving women, she was somewhat of a perfectionist, and she also wanted to be the perfect mother,; Deb said. Still, she was pretty easygoing in the first months of her son#39;s life, even when she had to introduce formula early because she produced too little breast milk, Deb said.黛布说,“和很多优秀女性一样,她有些完美主义,而且想当一个完美的母亲。”但黛布表示,在生下儿子的最初几个月里,她还是很放松的,即便在因为母乳不足,而不得不早早地给孩子喝配方奶粉时也一样。But when her son was 4 months old, Cindy emailed Deb that he was making ;strange/jerky movements w/his right arm,; almost ;flapping like a wing.;但在儿子四个月大时,辛迪给黛布发电子邮件说儿子正在“用右手做些抽筋似的奇怪动作”,就像“在扇翅膀”。The pediatrician said it was nothing to worry about, but Cindy scoured the Internet for diagnoses. She fixated on an instance a few weeks earlier, in August when, while washing clothes, she briefly left the baby on a play mat on the floor. He fell while pushing up, hitting his head.儿科医生说完全不用担心,但辛迪却在网上四处搜寻资料自行诊断。她对数周前发生的一件事耿耿于怀。那是在8月,在洗衣时,她暂时把孩子放在了游戏垫上。宝宝在往起爬时跌倒了,碰到了头。She believed this minor episode had caused him severe neurological problems: seizures, autism, concussion. She blamed herself for leaving the room, for placing the play mat on the hardwood floor. Other incidents alarmed her, and she decided he was more irritable, smiling less.她认为这次小小的意外给他的神经系统造成了严重的问题:癫痫、自闭症和脑震荡。她怪自己离开了房间,怪自己把游戏垫放在了硬木地板上。其它一些事情也使她感到不安。她确信孩子变得更烦燥了,也笑得少了。She visited two pediatric neurologists. Then she saw an expert in cerebral palsy because her son did not always exhibit the Landau reflex, a Superman-like pose babies make when held aloft, stomach-down.辛迪去见了两位儿童神经科医生,后来还去看了一位大脑性麻痹领域的专家,因为儿子并不总是能做出兰多反射(Landau Reflex)——被腹部朝下抱起时,婴儿通常会做出这个像超人一样的姿势。In October 2012, when her son was 5 months old, she emailed a doctor she had seen that day: ;When you said babies can#39;t injure their brains from even several floor-level head hits on a wooden floor, did that include hits even if they are turning and hit back or side of head on the floor?;2012年10月,儿子5个月大,她给当天见过的一名医生发电子邮件询问:“你说,宝宝哪怕是头在木地板上磕了好几下也不会伤到大脑,这种情况包括他们在转身时后脑勺或脑袋两侧撞到地板上吗?”The doctor replied: ;That#39;s right. Little bumps on the head at floor level that a baby may cause themselves in the course of normal spontaneous movements would not cause any injury. Babies are really very hardy (thank goodness)!;医生回复:“是的。宝宝在地板上自发进行正常活动时,可能会导致头部受到轻微碰撞,但这不会造成任何损伤。宝宝真的很结实(谢天谢地)!”Cindy sent the doctor a of her son, noting that ;he almost always moves the right hand when holding a toy, reaching to grab something, etc.;辛迪又把儿子的一段视频发给了那名医生,称“他在拿玩具、伸手抓东西或做其他事情时,几乎总是用右手”。The doctor responded: ;All of his movements look like normal, age-appropriate movements to me.;医生回复:“在我看来,你儿子的所有举动都很正常,都和他的年龄相符。”Her siblings assured her that their children had made similar movements, but she was implacable. Without telling her sister, Deb called the pediatrician, who said she was also concerned about Cindy. Deb said Cindy#39;s husband worried too, although ;part of him said: #39;Maybe she#39;s right. She is smart and was with the baby all the time.#39; ;辛迪的兄弟安慰她说,他们的孩子也曾有过类似的动作,但这还是无法缓解辛迪的忧虑。黛布瞒着,偷偷给那名儿科医生打了电话。医生表示她也对辛迪有所担心。黛布说,夫也有忧虑,不过“他同时认为:#39;或许她是对的。她很聪明,而且时刻都和孩子在一起。#39;”Still, both Cindy#39;s husband and siblings urged her to seek therapy.但辛迪的丈夫和兄弟还是敦促她接受治疗。;I just really want you to see someone,; Deb emailed Cindy. ;You cannot continue like this, for your sake and for his sake.;“我真的想让你去看看医生,”黛布给辛迪发邮件。“为了你自己,也为了你儿子,不能再这样下去了。”Cindy agreed, but insisted that she had no postpartum mental illness. She told her family she was simply depressed because of the harm she had done to the baby.辛迪同意了,但坚称自己没患产后精神疾病。她告诉家人,只是因为给宝宝造成了伤害而觉得郁闷。;You can hardly imagine how it feels to strongly believe he has brain damage and that I caused it,; she emailed Deb. ;It must be one of the top one or two nightmares for any parent. iloveyou, cindy.;“你几乎想象不到这种感觉是什么样子,我强烈地觉得他有大脑损伤,而且是我造成的,”她给黛布发邮件说。“对任何父母来说,这肯定都是数一数二的恶梦。爱你的辛迪。”Consumed With Worry忧心忡忡Experts say such breaks from reality are likely symptoms of postpartum psychosis, which affects only one or two in 1,000 mothers. About 4 percent of those hurt their children; about 5 percent kill themselves. Flagrant cases usually emerge soon after birth; women may hear voices or feel compelled to inflict harm, like Andrea Yates, who drowned her five children in a bathtub in 2001, or Dena Schlosser, who in 2004 cut off her infant#39;s arms. Both women were ultimately found not guilty by reason of insanity.专家表示,这类与现实的脱节,很可能是产后精神病的症状。产后精神病的发病率只有千分之一到千分之二。在那些患病的母亲中,约有4%的人会伤害自己的孩子;大约5%的人会自杀。骇人听闻的案例通常出现在母亲生下孩子后不久;产妇可能会出现幻听,或者有去制造伤害的冲动,比如2001年将自己的五个孩子淹死在浴缸里的安德烈娅·耶茨(Andrea Yates),以及2004年砍掉婴儿双臂的德娜·施洛瑟(Dena Schlosser)。这两位母亲最终都因精神失常被判无罪。;More subtle forms of psychosis are going to be picked up later,; said Dr. Katherine Wisner, a professor of psychiatry and obstetrics at Northwestern University. These women ;tend to have prolonged delusional thinking: #39;there#39;s something really wrong with my baby.#39; ;西北大学(Northwestern University)的精神病学和产科学教授凯瑟琳·威斯纳(Katherine Wisner)说:“不那么典型的产后精神病会较晚出现症状。”这些女性“往往会出现长期错觉:#39;我的孩子真的有问题#39;”。Most other maternal mood disorders do not involve such unshakably unrealistic convictions; most women know something is wrong, and although they fear they will harm their children, they rarely do.大部分其他产后情绪障碍都不会出现这类不切实际到不可动摇的坚定想法;大部分女性知道出了问题,而且尽管害怕自己会伤害到孩子,但她们很少真的那么做。At Thanksgiving in 2012, Cindy#39;s family gathered at her brother Ron#39;s home outside Albany, and Cindy, normally outgoing, seemed consumed with her son#39;s supposed problems. She told Deb she had thought about suicide, saying ;How can you go on knowing that you#39;ve ruined your baby#39;s life and it was your fault?; Deb was stunned. She and Cindy#39;s husband discussed the situation, hopeful that therapy would help.2012年的感恩节,辛迪的家人在哥哥罗恩(Ron)位于奥尔巴尼郊区的家中聚会。通常颇为外向的辛迪,似乎一心想着她所谓的儿子的问题。她告诉黛布她想过自杀,说“知道因为自己的错误而亲手毁了孩子的一生,你还能活下去吗?”黛布大吃一惊。她和辛迪的丈夫讨论了这一情况,希望治疗会有所帮助。Later that visit, the baby rolled off a low bed. It was one of several times that Cindy panicked and took him to the emergency room, where doctors pronounced him fine.那次聚会后,宝宝从一张矮床上滚了下来。辛迪惊慌失措地把孩子送到急诊室,但医生却说宝宝一切安好。这样的情况发生过好几次。The next month, Cindy began seeing a psychiatrist, who prescribed Zoloft, an antidepressant. She briefly visited other counselors for talk therapy. Friends offered support and company.接下来的那个月里,辛迪开始看精神科医生。那名医师给她开了左洛复(Zoloft),一种抗忧郁的药物。她还短暂地去其他几名咨询师那里接受过谈话治疗。朋友给了她持与陪伴。One January weekend at Ron#39;s house, she seemed more engaged, smiling more. When Deb asked, she acknowledged still having thoughts of suicide, but said her psychiatrist had told her it was not too worrisome ;as long as they#39;re not getting more frequent,; Deb recalled.1月的一个周末,在哥哥罗恩家,辛迪似乎精神更集中了,笑容也多了。黛布回忆,当她问起时,辛迪坦言依然会有自杀的想法,但她说,精神科医生告诉她不用太担心,“只要这些想法没有变得更频繁。”Family and friends wonder now if she was feigning feeling better. ;Now I think maybe she was backing off so everyone wouldn#39;t think she was crazy,; Karen said.家人和朋友现在揣测,她当时是不是假装感觉好些了?“我现在觉得,她那时候是退了一步,这样大家就不会觉得她疯了,”卡伦说。Experts said postpartum psychosis symptoms can fluctuate. Sometimes women are ;lucid and not delusional,; said Dr. Davis of Postpartum Support International. ;Then they slip back into delusions more easily than with other types of psychosis.;专家表示,产后精神病的症状可能会出现波动。国际产后持组织的戴维斯士说,病人有时候“头脑清晰,不会产生错觉。然后,她们会比患其他精神病的人更容易陷入错觉中去”。The mixed signals from Cindy continued into March. She discussed returning to work and finding day care. On a visit to her mother-in-law on Long Island, she called Deb while strolling by the ocean and sounded good. But the next day, Sunday, the baby fell while pulling up on a chair in his grandmother#39;s kitchen. Cindy considered it another disastrous ;head hit.;辛迪表现出来的复杂情况持续到了3月。她说起回去工作,并找家日间托儿所。去长岛探望婆婆期间,她一边在海边散步,一边给黛布打电话,当时听上去挺好的。但第二天是星期日,在奶奶的厨房里,孩子碰到椅子上摔倒了。辛迪把这看作是另一场灾难性的“撞头事件”。On Tuesday, Cindy uncharacteristically canceled her psychiatrist#39;s appointment, citing rain. On Wednesday, as she sometimes did, Cindy asked her husband to come home from work. When he arrived, she said their son#39;s morning had been rough, but that she was feeling better. After a few hours, he returned to work.接下来的周二,辛迪以下雨为由,反常地取消了和精神科医生的预约。周三,与之前偶尔出现的情况一样,辛迪把丈夫从公司叫回了家。丈夫到家后,她说儿子一上午都过得不顺,不过她感觉正在好转。几个小时后,丈夫回去上班了。That afternoon, with her baby snug to her chest, she jumped.当天下午,辛迪把孩子捆在自己胸前,跳下了楼。;I am so unbearably sorry, which I know does nothing to undo the evil I have done,; her farewell note began. ;I wanted to be a mother so badly and I hoped to be a wonderful one, and instead I have become the worst of the worst.;“我特别特别愧疚,我知道这无法弥补我犯下的恶行,”辛迪在遗书开头写道。“我非常想当母亲,想成为一位优秀的母亲,然而,我却成了差到不能再差的一个母亲。”Searching for anything to blame herself for, she described minor, harmless moments: tucking a light blanket over his face for warmth, letting him suck a leaf, briefly putting a dime in his mouth and immediately removing it. ;These things I did were horrible,; she wrote.在找一切理由责怪自己时,她说到了一些没造成什么伤害的小事:为了保暖把薄毯子盖到了宝宝脸上、任由他吮吸一片树叶、短暂地把十分钱硬币放到宝宝嘴里又马上拿走。“我做的这一切太可怕了,”她在信里写道。She was sure her son would never walk, and said she believed his most recent fall caused a concussion. ;I#39;m so so sorry, but I can#39;t bear for him to suffer more and more.;她确信儿子永远都不会走路,还说她认为最近那次摔倒造成了脑震荡。“真的非常非常对不起,但我无法忍受他越来越遭罪。”She said she knew others would see her suicide as a result of ;postpartum depression/psychosis.; But, she said: ;I know I am right that I mistakenly harmed him. I#39;m not claiming a voice told me to do this.;她还说自己知道,其他人会把她的自杀归咎于“产后抑郁症/精神病”,但她说:“我无意中伤害到了儿子,我知道自己是有理由这么想的。并不是说有个声音让我这么做。”She even chastised herself for crumbling emotionally, saying she made her son a less happy baby.她甚至苛责自己情绪不稳定,说她让儿子没那么快乐。;I don#39;t know if there is a hell,; she wrote, ;but I hope so.;“我不知道是否有地狱,”她写道,“但我希望有。”Cindy Wachenheim would never know that in her last act, her body cushioned the fall for her son and saved his life. Weeks later, the healthy little boy took his first steps.辛迪·瓦肯海姆永远不会知道,她生命的最后一刻,自己的身体为儿子从高处摔下来时提供了缓冲,救了他一命。几个星期后,这个健康的小男孩迈出了人生的第一步。 /201411/339901 你和老外闹过笑话或者误会吗?中西文化差异会造成两方人对某些事情的态度和做法的不同。加强沟通,理解万岁。为了让你和老外轻松相处,我们总结出经常发生的10种误会及其解决方法。 Top 10 赞美 西方人乐于赞美别人,同时也乐于接受别人的赞美。而中国人为了显示谦恭,常常会“拒绝”他人的赞美。这种“拒绝”会让老外觉得莫明其妙,好像你不领他的情似的。 还有,中国人出于礼貌,或者想跟人套近乎,总是愿意说些关心人的话。为了献殷勤,我们常喜欢对客人说;You must be tired? Have a good rest.;。然而,普通的问候之语却有可能让西方人误解为你对她的身体状况表示担忧。他们很喜欢别人夸他们年轻、强壮,如果你质疑他们的身体健康,他们甚至会发怒的。 Top 9 致谢 中国人认为对家里人或者好朋友的帮助是one#39;s own obligation, no need to thank or be thanked,彼此根本不必说谢谢,说了反而显得关系生分。而老外对家人或者朋友的帮忙都习惯说谢谢,他们期待polite expression_rs like ;please;, ;thank you;, etc.。所以,和老外相处,千万不要吝啬“谢谢”两个字。“谢”少了只会让老外觉得你羞涩且不懂礼貌。 Top 8 出游 中国人结伴出游的时候,如果买什么东西,花钱的那个人一般都会先统计有几个人,然后按照人头购买东西,即便有人之前客气地说不要,中国人还是会给他买上一份。When a Chinese offers refreshments or drinks to his colleague, his colleague often declines the offer politely, because he doesn#39;t want to trouble the person who offers and it also shows his politeness. Normally the person who offers still prepares or buys refreshments or drinks, and this will be expected by his colleague. Sharing food and drink when going out together is common among colleagues and friends。 然而和老外结伴出游,如果你客气地推说不需要某样东西,那么对方真的就不会给你买。他们觉得不给你买是尊重你的决定。Respect one#39;s own decision, ;yes; means one wants it, ;no; means one doesn#39;t, politeness is usually shown by the expression_r #39;thank you#39; or ;please;。所以,想要什么东西,就直接说出来吧,事后真诚地说声谢谢才是他们眼中的礼貌做法。 Top 7 称呼 当外国人听到中国人称呼他们为“老外”的时候,他们心里是不高兴的,因为他们觉得自己并不老,且很健康。他们dislike being labelled as ;old;, being young valued above being old。 而当他们听到中国人管外国小孩也叫“老外”的时候,他们才明白“老”其实是对某个人的尊称,比如老张,老王。;Lao; is a commonly used term by Chinese people to address someone who is older than the speaker to show his politeness, respect and closeness. The term does not necessarily mean old age. ;Lao Wai; is a colloquial term of address for foreigners。 Top 6 送别 中国人表达情感的方式相对内敛。送别的时候,他们强忍泪水,吝于拥抱,种种“冷淡”表现让老外深感诧异。所以,如果你和老外送别,举止不妨洒脱奔放一些,可别让他们觉得你是“冷血动物”。 Like everyone else we are affectionate to our friends and relatives, but perhaps we show our affection in public less than other peoples. Maybe the whole family as well as some friends will go to the railway station or the airport to see a person off, no matter whether he/she goes abroad to study or to another province for work. This may well strike many Westerners as very moving, yet they might be puzzled when they see that nobody will hug or kiss when the time comes for saying goodbye. Friends may shake hands with the person who is leaving and parents may hold his/her hand for a long time with tears in their eyes, but with no other physical contact. In fact hugging and kissing are seldom seen in public in China, no matter what the occasion is。 Top 5 鼓掌 当众发言的时候,如果别人给自己鼓掌,为了表达谢意,中国人通常都会暂停发言,而后随着听众一起鼓掌。 In this way he expresses his thanks to the audience. 可是老外就不理解为何要自己给自己鼓掌。自己给自己鼓掌,多不谦虚啊。Of course, when a Chinese speaker claps his hands as the audience is applauding, he is not applauding himself, but expressing his thanks to his audience. As noted earlier, Westerners feel puzzled when watching such a scene, since they think the speaker or the performer is applauding himself.所以,以后老外在场,发言的人不妨用鞠躬或者挥手代替鼓掌。当然,微笑站立也是一种选择。 Top 4 眼神 许多中国人在和别人说话,或者当众发言的时候,羞于和听众进行眼神的交流。Some of them, perhaps because of nervousness, like to bury their nose in their manuscript to their speech all the time. 这种做法其实是不礼貌的。 与人交流的时候,老外expects eye contact, though this does not have to be constant. 当众发言的时候,老外look at his audience now and then. 他们是不会把脑袋埋在稿子里面说话的。 Speaking in public is also a kind of two-way communication, which needs eye contact from both sides. The speaker will certainly feel embarrassed when he sees that his audience do not look at him. But if he doesn#39;t look at his audience now and then, his audience also has the right not to listen to what he is saying. 如果你发言的时候没有勇气看听众,那么你也无权要求你的听众会和你形成良好的互动。 Top 3 送礼 中国人送礼喜欢成双,比如说两瓶酒,两条烟。一是为了显示自己不是小气人,二是为了讨个吉利数字。去朋友或者亲戚家做客,拎点水果是非常普遍的情况。但是,在西方,人们送酒的时候都是只送一瓶。One is quite enough, two are of course welcome but unusual and not expected. 因为他们吃饭的时候要喝客人带来的酒,如果客人拿了两瓶,似乎表明客人是个酒鬼,主人恐怕一瓶酒不够喝。去朋友家做客一般也不送水果。水果一般是作为看望病人时候的礼物。看完此文,希望大家能避开误解的雷区,沟通无极限,交友无国界。而且,中国人接到别人的礼物,为了显示自己不是个贪财之人,习惯于把礼物悄悄放在一旁,然后等客人离开后再拆开包装;而老外则希望你当着他的面打开礼物,并对他的礼物赞美一番。 In the West , it is regarded as polite to open gifts as soon as they are given to express appreciation. In China, the situation is quite the reverse. Normally we Chinese feel that if you open the gift as soon as it is given, you might embarrass the person who gives the gift and you might be thought greedy. So Chinese people tend to open the gifts after the visitors have left. What is more, many people send gifts without wrapping them, and if they wrap them, they usually tell the receiver what is inside, and the receiver will thank the sender and put the gift aside without unwrapping them since they aly know what is inside. However, when we receive gifts from an English native speaker, in order to avoid misunderstanding, we may follow their custom by opening the gifts in front of him or her and express our appreciation。 Top 2 做客 中国人去别人家串门的时候都喜欢随处逛,到处看。可老外是怎么看待这些行为的呢?;I#39;m often taken aback by the way visitors come round to my flat and seem to feel free to take the place over, putting on the telly, pulling down books from my shelves, even peering at letters I#39;ve left lying around on the desk.; 虽说让客人感到宾至如归是好的待客之道,但老外还是忌讳你在做客的时候在他家里东逛西逛,甚至偷窥他的隐私。同样的,涉及到薪资、年龄等隐私问题我们也不要张口就问。 Top 1 吃饭 “人是铁,饭是钢。一顿不吃饿得慌。”我们和老外的交往许多时候都发生在饭桌上。中国人请老外去家里吃饭,可能会准备8-10道菜。你最好让老外有个心理准备,要么他们很可能根本没有肚子去吃后面的菜了。他们可能会觉得中国人hospitable, if anything too hospitable。 如果你去老外家吃饭,也许桌上仅仅就准备了一道菜!而且他们也喜欢说;The dishes are quite good; these dishes are quite famous;,绝对不像中国人喜欢说:“准备不周,凑合吃点吧。” 还有,中国人为了显示热情,喜欢给别人夹菜。但是老外却不喜欢要别人给自己夹菜。;I don#39;t think I#39;ll ever get used to the eating habits out here. You know, the way people put things on your plate...; 老外乐于让人自主选择喜欢的食物。They think to help yourself is the best way. Foreigners give guests the chance to choose what is their favourite。 和老外吃饭,中国人千万不要谦虚含蓄。;Chinese never seem hungry when they come round to my place. Whenever I ask callers if they#39;d like a bite to eat they always say no.; 大多数老外都是实在人。当他们问你要不要吃点什么的时候,如果你谢绝了,他们会尊重你的决定,真的不给你东西吃哦。所以说,饿了就喊出来吧。 一句话,外国人的表达及处世方式更为直接,而中国人则更显圆滑。Foreigners never pretend to be modest. They just tell others what they think. If a Chinese person is faced with the same situation, maybe he or she would say, ;I#39;m sorry. The restaurant is a little bit small and the dishes are just so so, but I hope you#39;ll enjoy yourself.;10大误会盘点完毕。希望今后你和老外相处的时候,能够避开雷区。沟通无极限,交流无国界。 /201312/269602泸州植发多少钱重庆十三院咨询

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