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2019年10月21日 05:22:41

Fish Blind Dates鱼儿初次约会There are plenty of examples in nature of females being attracted to the biggest males. This is especially true for a species of fish called the Atlantic Mollie.自然界中有很多雌性动物被体积最大的雄性动物吸引的例子。这真实体现在一种叫做大西洋利的鱼身上。The Mollie wants to be as big a fish as possible, because the females show more interest in big fellows than little ones. Whats interesting, though, is what happens with Mollies that live in caves.利鱼想变得尽可能庞大,因为雌性利鱼对大的雄性鱼比小的更感兴趣。然而,有趣的是穴居的利鱼身上所发生的事。Why should they be any different?为什么他们会与众不同呢?Because the caves in question are pitch black. None of the female Mollies can see any of the male Mollies. That could be Arnold Schwarzen-Mollie swimming up next to you, or it could be Mini-Me Mollie; you cant tell by looking. So which males do you think the female Mollies spent most time around?因为所谈及的洞穴是漆黑一片。没有一只雌性利鱼能看见任何雄性利鱼。游到你身边的可能是阿诺德.施瓦岑利鱼,也可能是迷你小鱼,你不可能通过视觉辨认。所以你认为雌性利会花更多时间在哪只雄性利身边呢?I guess they will be random.我猜它们会随机选吧。Thats surprise. When researchers at Hamburg University in Germany studied sexual preference in Mollies that lived in caves, they found the same pattern as in Mollies living outside caves—the females preferred the larger males.真让人吃惊!当德国汉堡大学的研究者们研究穴居的利鱼的性偏好时,他们发现这些利鱼和洞外的利鱼有相同的取向——雌性利偏爱体积更大的雄性鱼。But how did the fish know?但鱼是怎么知道(哪只鱼更大)的呢?Researchers arent sure yet. A good guess, though, is that the cave-dwelling Mollies use organs that sense water displacement. Possibly first involve help them find food. Arnold Schwartzen-Mollie displaces more water than Bill Gates-e-Mollie, so hell do better—even on blind dates.研究者还不确定。但是有一种较好的猜测认为穴居的利鱼是使用器官来感知排出的水。也许还包括帮它们找到食物。阿诺德·施瓦岑利能比比尔.盖茨利排出更多的水。所以它们能做的更好,即使是相亲。 /201208/197418湖北省襄阳看前列腺炎好吗襄阳哪家医院看前列腺炎好Still in Books and Arts; Book Review; Joys of craftsmanship;Handy work文艺;书评;手工技艺的乐趣;手工劳动;Made By Hand: Searching For Meaning in a Throwaway World. By Mark Frauenfelder.《手工制作:在被抛弃的世界中寻找意义》:马克·弗劳恩菲尔德著;The Case for Working With Your Hands: or Why Office Work is Bad for Us and Fixing Things Feels Good. By Matthew Crawford.《动手干活的理由:为什么办公室工作与人无益而修理东西却感觉良好》:马修·克劳弗德著;Anyone who has taken an axe to a laptop battery and thrown the bits in a pond (they explode: wear goggles) will like Mark Frauenfelders book. Those who havent will find a tantalising whiff of what they are missing. The author takes a hands-on approach to suburban life in Los Angeles. He rewires his espresso machine to produce what he calls proper coffee, keeps bees and chickens, whittles spoons from scrap wood, makes a ukulele and a cigar box from toothpicks, grows his own vegetables and tries to teach his children maths at home.任何一个曾用斧子砍破笔记本电脑的电池并把碎片扔进水塘里(爆炸物:请戴护目镜)的人都会喜欢马克·弗劳恩菲尔德的书。那些还没这么做的人则会对他们错过的事感到蠢蠢欲动。作者对洛杉矶的郊区生活采取的是一种亲自动手的方式。他改接了意式咖啡机的电路以制作出他所谓的好喝的咖啡,饲养蜜蜂和鸡,把废木料削成勺子,用牙签做成夏威夷四弦琴和雪茄烟盒,自己种菜,还试着在家里教他的孩子们学数学。The lawn is the archetypal enemy. Why do Americans spend such huge amounts of time, money, water, fertiliser and fuel on growing a useless smooth expanse of grass? Much better to cultivate something useful, like tomatoes. But how to do it? Mr Frauenfelder considers using herbicide to kill his unwanted lawn, but settles for covering it thickly with newspaper and weeding any grass that grows through: as with many of his projects, it is fun to start with, but becomes laborious.草坪就是个典型的敌人。为什么美国人要把如此大量的时间、金钱、水、化肥和燃料花在一大片平整却毫无用处的草地上呢?还不如栽培些实用的东西,比如西红柿。可是该怎么做呢?弗劳恩菲尔德先生也考虑过用除草剂来消灭那些无用的草坪,但他最终决定用报纸把草坪层层覆盖,然后再除去从中长出的任何一根草:这和他的很多方案一样,开头都很有趣,可随后就变得既耗时又费力。As the editor of Make, a magazine for American hobbyists, the author is well-placed to tap the nations vein of frustrated creativity and fiddling. Time was, he says nostalgically, when household equipment came with the expectation that the owner could and would wield the tools required to fix it: a wrench, pliers, screwdriver and hammer were all that was needed to keep an early Ford automobile on the road. That changed, he says, thanks to Sigmund Freuds nephew, Edward Louis Bernays, the pioneer of emotional advertising. He sold dreams of perfection instead of a partnership between man and machine. Now domestic appliances come with forbidding labels, such as “no user-serviceable parts” and “disassembly voids warranty”.本书作者作为美国业余爱好者杂志《动手做》的编辑,由他来开发这个国家未得施展的创造力和动手捣鼓东西的本事,正是再合适不过了。他怀旧地说道,曾几何时,家用设备的出现带着这样一种期望:其拥有者可以也愿意使用必要的工具对其进行修理。扳手、钳子、螺丝刀和锤子是保一辆早期福特车在路上行使的必备物品。这种情况已经改变了,他说,这都要“归功”于西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的外甥——爱德华·路易斯·伯奈斯——这位情感广告的先驱者。他用出售完美的梦想取代了出售人与机器之间的伙伴关系。现在的家用电器都带上了禁止标签,比如“不含用户可维修零件”和“拆开产品保修无效”。For the mechanically curious, that is no obstacle. And in some ways technology has made it much easier to fiddle and fix. You can find unofficial instruction manuals on the internet, and watch YouTube to see someone doing it properly. You may make mistakes, but that is the way you learn how things work and how to mend them. Doing so makes you a better person, Mr Frauenfelder argues: master, not prisoner, of your environment.出于机械方面的好奇心,这根本算不上什么障碍。科学技术也在某些方式上使这种拆拆弄弄更容易了。你能在英特网上找到非官方的操作手册,还能通过YouTube看看别人是怎么做的。你可能会犯错,但这就是你了解事物的工作原理并学习如何修理它们的方法。弗劳恩菲尔德先生声称,这样做会让你变成一个更优秀的人:一个外界环境的主人,而不是俘虏。The book echoes Matthew Crawfords masterly and reflective, “The Case for Working with Your Hands”, a bestseller in America which has just come out in Britain. Mr Crawford focuses on motorbikes, with doses of classical philosophy, rather than domestic gripes.这本书回应了马修·克劳弗德精巧娴熟、深思熟虑的新书《动手干活的理由》,一本刚刚在英国出版的美国畅销书。克劳弗德先生的重点集中在托车上,又加上几剂古典哲学的良药,以代替做家务活的满腹牢骚。Mr Frauenfelder rightly highlights the impotent fury aroused by tamper-proof tabs seals, and the joy of mastering recalcitrant gadgets. But his own literary craftsmanship is irritating too. An ill-planned attempt to start a new life in the South Pacific is irrelevant and tiresome. His prose is tinny, and the mentions of his children dull and cutesy. The er does feel sorry for his wife, though, when dead bees clog the light fittings and a coyote eats the favourite chickens. His motto is DIY. Hers is HAP (Hire a Pro). One can see why.弗劳恩菲尔德先生恰当地突出了被那些防止乱拆乱动的标签封条激起的无力的愤怒,以及自如地掌控那些难以驯的装置的乐趣。可是他自己笔下的手工技艺却同样令人抓狂。一次打算在南太平洋开始新生活却计划不周的尝试脱离了主题,令人厌烦。他的文笔不算好,提到他的孩子们时既无趣又做作。不过,当死去的蜜蜂堵塞了照明装置,郊狼吞吃掉心爱的小鸡的时候,读者确实会为他的妻子感到难过。他的格言是DIY(自己动手),而她的是HAP(雇个专家)。你能明白这是为什么。 /201303/229382枣阳市一医院看乳腺检查多少钱

鱼梁洲开发区妇幼保健中医院有失败的案例吗襄樊市中心医院男科预约Science and technology.科技。Scientific publishing科技出版业Brought to book好书来了Academic journals face a radical shake-up学术期刊面临彻底改变IF THERE is any endeavour whose fruits should be freely available, that endeavour is surely publicly financed science. Morally, taxpayers who wish to should be able to about it without further expense. And science advances through cross-fertilisation between projects. Barriers to that exchange slow it down.如果有人试图把成果免费公开的话,那他一定是科学资助者,确实,纳税人都希望不再花额外的钱来阅读科学著作,并且科学的进步也是通过各个学科之间的相互促进吸收,而其间的交流障碍使这种进步慢了下来。There is a widesp feeling that the journal publishers who have mediated this exchange for the past century or more are becoming an impediment to it. One of the latest converts is the British government. On July 16th it announced that, from 2013, the results of taxpayer-financed research would be available, free and online, for anyone to and redistribute.在过去一个世纪,期刊出版商给人广泛的感觉就是他们调停了这种交流,甚至阻碍了这种交流。而最新的改变发生在英国政府身上,它在7月16宣布,从2013年开始,由纳税人资助的科研成果都会在网上免费公开,并且任何人都可以阅读和转发。Britains government is not alone. On July 17th the European Union followed suit. It proposes making research paid for by its next scientific-spending round-which runs from 2014 to 2020, and will hand out about 201208/193466枣阳市第二人民医院治疗慢性肠炎多少钱Science and Technology Intelligence testing Who are you calling bird-brained?科技 智力测试 叫谁是笨蛋呢?An attempt is being made to devise a universal intelligence test人类正尝试设计一种通用的智力测验WHAT is the IQ of a chimpanzee? Or a worm? Or a game-show-winning computer program? Or even an alien from the planet Zaarg who can learn any human language in a day, can beat grandmasters ten at a time and can instantly factor the products of large prime numbers?黑猩猩、蠕虫或用于智力竞赛的计算机程序,甚至是来自Zaarg星球的外星人(外星人能在一天内学会任何一门人类语言,每次都能赢棋类大师10分,能立即分解出大质数的因子),它们的智商是多少呢?At the moment it is impossible to say.当问到这类问题,没有人能回答出来。IQ tests depend on language, and even Watson, a computer program that beat two human contestants in a special edition of ;Jeopardy!; (an American quiz show) on February 16th, does not have a perfect command of English.IQ测试依赖于语言,而且就算是Watson系统对英语也不是了如指掌(2月16日,Watson系统在美国智力竞赛;Jeopardy!;的特别节目中击败了两名人类对手)。In any case there is, at the moment, no meaningful scale on which non-human intelligence can be compared with the human sort.但不管怎么样,现在还没有一个有意义的标尺能用于任何非人类和人类智商的比较。The most famous test for artificial intelligence is that devised by Alan Turing, a British computing pioneer.最著名的人工智力测试是由英国计算科学先驱阿兰图灵(Alan Turing)设计的。To pass the Turing test, and thus be considered intelligent, a program must fool a human being into believing that it is another human being.为了通过图灵测试,机器中的程序必须使对方(人类)误以为它也是一个人类,且如果机器通过了测试,该机器就被认为是人工智能。But the Turing test still requires the program to share a language with the tester and, because it is all or nothing, cannot be used to rank different forms of artificial intelligence against one another.但图灵测试仍要求程序和测试者使用相同的语言。并且由于测试的结果是;是;或者;否;,因此不能用于不同形式人工智能间的评级。Jose Hernandez-Orallo of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, in Spain, and David Dowe of Monash University, in Australia, think they can do better than this. They believe not only that a universal scale of intelligence can be devised, but also that it can be assessed without reference to language.If they are right, an insult like ;bird-brained; will, in the future, be finely calibrated.来自西班牙瓦伦西亚理工大学的Jose Hernandez-Orallo和澳大利亚莫纳什大学的David Dowe认为他们能设计出比图灵更完善的测试。他们相信不仅能设计出可通用的智商标尺,而且测试可以与语言无关。如果真能如他们所说,那么将来就可以精确计算出;愚蠢;的程度了。Dr Hernandez-Orallo and Dr Dowe, both computer scientists, propose to make their measurement by borrowing a concept called Kolmogorov complexity from information theory, a branch of computer science.Hernandez-Orallo士和Dr Dowe士都是计算机科学家,他们提出:借用信息论(计算机科学的一个分)中的Kolmogorov复杂度概念来实现测量。The Kolmogorov complexity of a computers output is the shortest possible program (measured in the binary digits that lie at the bottom of all computer code) that could produce that output.计算机输出的Kolmogorov复杂度是指能产生该输出的可能最短程序(基于计算机代码的二进制位数)。On this measure, an entitys intelligence would be measured by the Kolmogorov complexity of the most complex tests it can solve—a clear, numerical value.在这种设计下,可以通过最复杂测试的Kolmogorov复杂度来测量一个实体的智商。In practice, calculating the true Kolmogorov complexity of a system is almost impossible.实际上,要正确计算出系统的Kolmogorov复杂度几乎是不可能的。But an approximation can be made. And that, the researchers reckon, will be good enough.但可以计算出它的近似值。而对研究人员的估算工作而言,近似值也就足够了。The actual tests would employ the well-honed methods of operant conditioning, developed initially on pigeons, in which the test subject has first to work out what is going on by trial and error.实际的测试会采用精确的操作性条件反射方法,测试对象首先要清楚实验的过程和错误。As in operant conditioning, correct responses would be ewarded—by money, perhaps, for a human being; by bananas for a chimpanzee or by the numerical value itself for an appropriately programmed computer.在操作性条件反射中,正确的反射响应将得到奖励——对人而言可能是金钱,对黑猩猩而言是香蕉,对可编程计算机而言则可能是数值本身。If the test were noughts and crosses, the test-taker (if it had never seen the game before) would first have to work out that the game is won by getting three in a row on a 3-by-3 grid, before actually going on to play.如果测验是画圈叉游戏,则在进行游戏之前测试参与者(假定他们从没听说过圈叉游戏)首要要弄懂在3X3的网格中,3个格连成一行就赢得游戏了。A chimpanzee might not manage a test of this level of complexity, but could, maybe, work out the idea of three-in-a-row when only a single row was involved.黑猩猩可能没办法理解这种复杂度等级的测验,但当只有一行时,它们也许就可以明白;3格-1行;的概念了。Chess, though, would surely be beyond it (and probably beyond most people, too, if they did not aly know the rules).而象棋的难易度远超过黑猩猩的理解程度(可能也超过大多数人的理解,如果他们并不知道象棋规则的话)。Games like draughts and dominoes would lie somewhere in between.西洋跳棋和多米诺骨牌这类游戏的难易程度则介于圈叉和象棋之间。In fact Dr Hernandez-Orallo and Dr Dowe do not plan to use existing games. Instead they are employing a computer to enerate novel games and patterns.实际上,Hernandez-Orallo士和Dowe士计划采用计算机产生的新游戏和新花样来代替已有的游戏。Their approach eliminates human bias.他们的方法消除了人类的偏见,It also allows them to generate tests with any level of complexity they like—even ones that are far beyond the ability of humans to complete.同时也允许产生任何复杂度等级的测验——甚至可以是远超过人类能力的。When it comes to testing the tests, then, aliens from the planet Zaarg will be particularly welcome to apply.当可以进行测试时,特别欢迎来自Zaarg星球的外星人。 /201212/217795襄樊哪家湿疹医院治疗龟头敏感好

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