原标题: 盐城不孕不育医院检查QQ解答
The author, most recently, of “The Road to Little Dribbling” says he’s been ing “Anna Karenina” at such a glacial pace that “I have long since lost track of who most of the characters are.”前不久,《小溪之路》(The Road to Little Dribbling)的作者说,他曾以非常缓慢的速度阅读《安娜·卡列尼娜》(Anna Karenina),“我早就忘了大部分人物是谁”。What books are currently on your night stand?问:你的床头柜上现在放着什么书?I have so many books stacked beside my bed that I can’t be absolutely sure that there is actually a night stand in there. Those at the very top of the pile are: “The History of Modern France,” by Jonathan Fenby; “Life’s Greatest Secret: The Race to Crack the Genetic Code,” by Matthew Cobb; “The Planet Remade: How Geoengineering Could Change the World,” by Oliver Morton; and the one I am most actively immersed in at present, a funny, moving, very entertaining memoir called “Flesh Wounds,” by the Australian writer Richard Glover.答:我的床边堆了很多书,我都不太确定我真的有个床头柜在那儿。放在最上面的是乔纳森·芬比(Jonathan Fenby)的《法国现代史》(The History of Modern France);马修·科布(Matthew Cobb)的《人生最大的秘密:破解基因密码的竞赛》(Life’s Greatest Secret: The Race to Crack the Genetic Code);奥利弗·莫顿(Oliver Morton)的《再造的星球:地球工程学能如何改变世界》(The Planet Remade: How Geoengineering Could Change the World)。目前我最积极投入阅读的是一部有趣、感人、非常令人愉快的回忆录,名叫《肉体伤口》(Flesh Wounds),出自澳大利亚作家理查德·格洛弗(Richard Glover)之手。What’s the last great book you ?问:你读的上一本很棒的书是什么?While doing a short biography of William Shakespeare a few years ago, I all his plays over the course of one summer. (Actually, if I am honest, I didn’t “Timon of Athens.” I don’t think anyone ever has.) That was the last really ambitious ing I can recall.答:几年前,为了写一篇关于威廉·莎士比亚的短篇传记,我一个夏天读完了他的所有剧作(坦白地说,我没有读《雅典的泰门》[Timon of Athens]。我觉得谁也没读过)。那是我能想起来的最近一次最有雄心的阅读经验。Who are your favorite travel writers, and what is your favorite travel book?问:你最喜欢的旅行作家是谁?你最喜欢的旅行书籍是哪部?For their descriptive powers and command of material, I admire Paul Theroux, Jonathan Raban, Sara Wheeler and Colin Thubron, but for pure pleasure I don’t think you can beat the travel books of S. J. Perelman, though they are not so easy to find now. My favorite travel book of all is “In Trouble Again,” by the British writer Redmond O’Hanlon. It concerns a trek into a dangerous corner of Amazonia. It is sidesplittingly funny to begin with, but then grows increasingly dark and scary in a way that is both unsettling and unforgettable.答:从叙述能力以及对素材的使用上讲,我很喜欢保罗·泰鲁(Paul Theroux)、乔纳森·拉班(Jonathan Raban)、萨拉·惠勒(Sara Wheeler)和科林·休布伦(Colin Thubron),但是从纯粹的角度讲,我觉得谁也比不过S·J·佩雷尔曼(S. J. Perelman),不过,现在他的书不好找。我最喜欢的旅行书是英国作家雷德蒙·奥汉伦(Redmond O’Hanlon)的《再次陷入麻烦》(In Trouble Again)。它讲述的是在亚马孙地区一个危险角落的艰苦跋涉。一开始非常好玩,但是后来变得越来越黑暗吓人,让你既不安又难忘。Which genres do you especially enjoy ing? And which do you avoid?问:你特别喜欢哪些体裁的书?又会避免读哪些体裁?When I can what I want, I generally go for histories and historical biographies, though much of my ing is naturally dictated by research requirements. For escapist ing, I especially like the sea novels of Patrick O’Brian. I don’t consciously avoid any genres, but it is unlikely you would find me lingering in the section where they keep books like “Eat, Pray, Love” or memoirs of life with a pet.答:我能自己选择读什么书时,我通常选择历史书或历史传记,不过我读书大多是为了研究需要。如果是为了逃避现实而阅读,我特别喜欢帕特里克·奥布赖恩(Patrick O’Brian)关于大海的小说。我没有刻意避免阅读任何体裁的书,但我不大会浏览《美食、祈祷和恋爱》(Eat, Pray, Love)或与宠物生活的回忆录这类书。What is the last book that made you cry?问:上一本让你大哭的书是什么?I was one of the judges for last year’s Wellcome medical book prize, and the winning book, “The Iceberg,” by Marion Coutts, was the most moving book I have in some time. It is her account of the decline and death of her husband from a brain tumor. It is a harrowing , as you would expect, but also beautifully written and intensely powerful.答:我是去年惠康医学图书奖(Wellcome medical book prize)的评委之一。去年的获奖图书《冰山》(The Iceberg)是我在那段时间里读过的最感人的书。那本书的作者是马里昂·库茨(Marion Coutts),她讲述了丈夫得脑瘤后身体的衰弱直至最终的去世。你肯定能料到,这本书读起来令人痛心,但它同样写得很优美,很有力量。What was the last book that made you furious?问:上一本让你特别义愤填膺的书是什么?“The Ocean of Life,” by Callum Roberts, a marine biologist at the University of York in England. It is a very sober, nonpolemic look at how we are ruining the Earth’s oceans through overfishing and poor management. If nothing else, it will make you think twice before ordering mahi-mahi again.答:英国约克大学(University of York)的海洋生物学家卡勒姆·罗伯茨(Callum Roberts)的《生命的海洋》(The Ocean of Life)。它非常冷静地审视过度捕捞和管理不善在怎样毁坏地球上的海洋。至少,它会让你在点鲯鳅鱼之前再考虑一下。Tell us about your favorite poem.问:跟我们谈谈你最喜欢的诗歌吧。I am not a good er of poetry, but recently I happened upon “In Flanders Fields,” the celebrated poem of the First World War. I had never it all the way through and was astounded by how powerful and moving a few simple lines could be. I had always assumed that the author was British, but in fact he was a Canadian doctor named John McCrae, who wrote it just after the Second Battle of Ypres. McCrae died a short while later himself without ever seeing home again, which clearly adds to the poignancy of it.答:我不是很爱读诗,但是前不久我碰巧读到《在法兰德斯战场》(In Flanders Fields),它是关于第一次世界大战的著名诗歌。以前我一直没读过这首诗,所以我为如此简洁的诗句竟然有那么强大且感人的表现力而感到震惊。我一直以为作者是英国人,但实际上他是一名加拿大医生,名叫约翰·麦克雷(John McCrae),那首诗是他在第二次伊普尔战役(Second Battle of Ypres)之后写的。不久之后,他也死了,再也没能看上家乡一眼,这无疑增加了这首诗歌的辛酸。And your favorite movie adaptation of a book.问:你最喜欢哪部根据图书改编的电影?If by that you mean which movie is much better than the book (or books) on which it was based, I would instantly say “The Wizard of Oz.” If you mean which is most enjoyably faithful to the original, I would propose “The English Patient.”答:如果你是想问,哪部电影比它所依据的书还精,我会不假思索地说《绿野仙踪》(The Wizard of Oz)。如果你是想问,哪部电影最忠于原著,让人觉得享受,我会说《英国病人》(The English Patient)。Who is your favorite fictional hero or heroine? Your favorite antihero or villain?问:你喜欢的虚构主人公或女主人公是谁?你最喜欢的反派主角是谁?When I was young I had a period of ing J. D. Salinger’s books and wanting intensely to be a member of the Glass family, partly because they lived in a big apartment in Manhattan, which seemed terribly exciting to me as a boy from Iowa, and partly because their conversations struck me as so much more scintillating and profound than those we had in our house. I don’t think I especially identified with any of the characters, but just wanted to be taken into the family. I haven’t Salinger’s books since I was about 15, and I am pretty nearly certain I would find all the characters shallow and insufferable now, which is why I haven’t them again. The only villain that springs to mind for me is Captain Hook in the Disney cartoons of my childhood. He scared the daylights out of me. But I can’t think of a good literary choice offhand.答:我小时候有一段时间读J·D·塞林格(J. D. Salinger)的书,很想成为格拉斯家的一员。一是因为他们住在曼哈顿的一个大公寓里,对我这个来自艾奥瓦州的小男孩来说,这特别令人兴奋;二是因为我觉得他们的谈话比我们家里的谈话要精得多,深刻得多。我没有特别喜欢其中哪个人物,就是想生活在那个家庭里。大约15岁以后,我再也没读过塞林格的书,我现在肯定会觉得那本书里所有的人物都很肤浅,令人难以忍受,所以我再也没读过那些书。我唯一能想到的反派是童年时看到的迪士尼动画片中的钩子船长(Captain Hook)。他吓得我魂飞魄散。不过我一时想不起书中的哪个反派让我印象深刻。Which childhood books and authors stick with you most?问:童年的哪些书或者哪些作家陪伴你的时间最长?I was completely devoted to an imprint called Landmark Books when I was growing up. I don’t know whether anyone remembers this series anymore, but they were nonfiction hardback books, on historical subjects, written for children or adapted from adult books. They made you feel that you were taking part in a grown-up activity but at a level that you could handle. A good deal of what I know about American history came from Landmark Books. I used to spend nearly all my pocket money on either Landmark Books or, if I was feeling rakish, Hardy Boys books. I am hugely indebted to both.答:我在成长的过程中彻底迷上了一套名叫《里程碑图书》(Landmark Books)的书。我不知道还有没有人记得这个系列,它是非虚构类精装书,讲述的是历史主题,是写给孩子的或者是从成人图书改编来的。这套书让我感觉自己在参与一项成长活动,而这项活动的水平我应付得来。我对美国历史的很多知识来自《里程碑图书》。小时候,我几乎把所有的零花钱都花在这套书或《哈迪男孩系列图书》(Hardy Boys books,这套是放纵的时候买)上了。这两套书都让我受益匪浅。If you had to name one book that made you who you are today, what would it be?问:如果你必须说出是哪本书造就了现在的你,你会选哪本?Goodness, that’s a big question. I remember in early adolescence ing “The Sot-Weed Factor,” by John Barth, and being so enchanted with it that I wanted to become a writer, too. At about the same time I had a similar experience with “The Grapes of Wrath.” I have never written anything like either of those books — never attempted fiction at all — but there was something about the magic and possibility of the written word that captured me.答:天哪,这是个大问题。我在青少年早期读过约翰·巴特(John Barth)的《烟草经纪人》(The Sot-Weed Factor)。这本书让我特别着迷,产生了当作家的愿望。几乎在同一时期,《愤怒的葡萄》(The Grapes of Wrath)让我产生了类似的感觉。我从没写过任何跟这两本书类似的书,也从未尝试过虚构题材,但是文字的魔力和可能性迷住了我。What author, living or dead, would you most like to meet?问:在世或死去的作家中,你最想见哪一位?William Shakespeare, as long as I didn’t have to tell him that when we’d finished talking he’d have to go back to being dead again.答:威廉·莎士比亚。条件是我不必告诉他在谈话结束后,他得再次回去安息。What was the last book you put down without finishing?问:上一本你没看完就放下的书是什么?Nearly ever summer when we go away on vacation I pack an old copy of “Anna Karenina,” and every year I manage to move the bookmark about 20 pages along before it is time to go home. I have long since lost track of who most of the characters are or what their relationships are with one another. I can’t pretend that any of them have ever interested me. At the rate I am going, I estimate that I will need approximately 74 more vacations to finish the book.答:几乎每年夏天我们去度假时,我都会带上一本老版的《安娜·卡列尼娜》。每年回家之前,我都会把书签向前移动20页左右。时间隔得太久,我早就忘了大部分人物是谁以及他们之间的关系。我不能谎称里面有哪个人物特别吸引我。按照我的阅读速度,估计大概需要再花74个假期才能把它读完。Of the books you’ve written, which is your favorite?问:你写过的书里面,你最喜欢哪一本?I suppose that would have to be “A Walk in the Woods,” my account of a profoundly hopeless attempt to hike the Appalachian Trail in the company of an equally hopeless companion named (pseudonymously) Stephen Katz. The Appalachian Trail is physically very grueling, but it is also awfully hard to write about. Walking, even when it is going well, is an intensely repetitive experience. The whole time we were out there, I kept thinking: “All we are doing is walking every day. I don’t know how I am ever going to get a book out of this.” So the fact that it did eventually result in a book is to me a kind of permanent miracle.答:我猜是《林中漫步》(A Walk in the Woods),它讲述的是我在阿巴拉契亚山道(Appalachian Trail)的一次非常绝望的徒步旅行,我的旅伴是一个同样绝望的人,名叫斯蒂芬·卡茨(Stephen Katz,化名)。阿巴拉契亚山道非常折磨人,也同样很难描述。即便是在顺利的情况下,行走也是个重复乏味的过程。我们在那里徒步的时候,我一直在想:“我们每天做的事就是走路。我不知道这怎么能写成一本书。”所以,最后能够成书在我看来永远是个奇迹。Whom would you want to write your life story?问:你想让谁写你的人生故事?My wife. She is kind, and she was there.答:我的妻子。她很仁慈,而且见了一切。 /201601/424050Stroke patients are more likely to regain their cognitive functions if they speak more than one language, new research has discovered.最新研究发现,如果中风患者会说不只一种语言,那么他们更有可能恢复认知能力。A study of more than 600 stroke victims found 40.5% of those who are multilingual had normal mental functions afterwards, compared to 19.6% of patients who only speak one language.这项针对600多名中风患者的研究发现,会说多种语言的人中,有40.5%的人病后恢复了到了正常心智,而只会说一种语言的病人中,19.6%的人恢复了正常心智。The study was carried out by a team from the University of Edinburgh together with the Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad - with the Indian city chosen as the location for the study because its multi-cultural nature means many languages are commonly spoken.发布该研究的团队来自爱丁堡大学和印度海得拉巴市的尼扎姆医学研究所。之所以选择印度城市海得拉巴作为研究对象,是因为多元的文化使得多语人士在当地很常见。Researchers took into account other factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes and age to ensure results could not be attributed to having a healthier lifestyle.研究人员将其他因素也列入考虑范围,比如吸烟、高血压、糖尿病和年龄等,以确保该研究结果与更健康的生活方式无关。The study, published in the American Heart Association journal Stroke, found #39;results support the notion of a protective role of bilingualism in the development of post-stroke cognitive impairment#39;.研究发表在美国心脏协会的《中风》杂志上,研究发现:“该结果肯定了这一概念——双语对中风后认知障碍的发展具有保护作用。”It is the first time a study has been done looking at the relationship between the number of languages spoken and a patient#39;s cognitive outcome after stroke.这是首次有研究关注“会说几种语言”与“中风后患者的认知程度”之间的关系。#39;The percentage of patients with intact cognitive functions post-stroke was more than twice as high in bilinguals than in monolinguals,#39; the paper said.该论文称,“中风后认知功能未受损的双语患者的百分比数量是单语患者的两倍多。”#39;In contrast, patients with cognitive impairment were more common in monolinguals.#39;“相反,认知功能障碍在单语患者中更常见。”Researchers believe the study, which was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, suggests the mental challenge of speaking multiple languages can boost cognitive reserve - an improved ability of the brain to cope with damaging influences such as stroke or dementia.这项调查由印度医学研究委员会提供资金持。研究人员认为,该研究说明多语能力对神经构成一种挑战,该挑战提高了认知储备——进而改进了大脑功能,能应对像中风或痴呆这种疾病的破坏性影响。Co-author Thomas Bak, of the University of Edinburgh#39;s school of philosophy, psychology and language sciences said: #39;Bilingualism makes people switch from one language to another, so while they inhibit one language, they have to activate another to communicate.共同作者之一、爱丁堡大学哲学、心理学和语言科学学院的托马斯·鲍克说:“双语让人们从一种语言转换到另一种语言,所以当一种语言被抑制时,他们不得不用另一种语言去交流。”#39;This switching offers practically constant brain training which may be a factor in helping stroke patients recover.#39;“这种转换提供了几乎连续不断的大脑训练,这可能是帮助中风患者恢复的一个因素。” /201511/412158Baked Beans焗豆Baked beans is a dish containing beans, sometimes baked but, despite the name, usually stewed, in a sauce. Most commercial canned baked beans are made from haricot beans, also known as navy beans – a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris in a sauce. In Ireland and the ed Kingdom, a tomato and sugar sauce is most commonly used. They are commonly eaten on toast or as part of a full English breakfast.焗豆,也被称作烘豆、烤豆子。虽然是这样的名称,这道菜一般是和酱汁一起炖煮而成。大多数市面上的焗豆罐头使用白豆和番茄汁。白豆也被称为海军豆,是菜豆的一种。在爱尔兰和英国,经常用的酱汁是番茄甜酱。焗豆常被夹在面包里吃,也可以作为英式早餐的一部分食用。British B英式面包British b is very good and if you go to the baker there are many different types of b to choose from. However, although the b is very good, the most popular type of b in Britain is sliced white b.英式面包非常优质。如果你去面包房的话,会有许多不同种类的面包可供选择,其中最著名的的一种是切片白面包。Cheddar切达奶酪Cheddar cheese is a hard, pale yellow to orange, sharp-tasting cheese originally (and still) made in the English village of Cheddar, in Somerset. It is the most popular cheese in the ed Kingdom, accounting for just over 50% of the country#39;s annual cheese market.切达奶酪很硬,从淡黄色到橙色都有,奶酪味很重,在英国桑莫塞郡切达村产出。在英国,切达奶酪是最受欢迎的奶酪,占到全国奶酪市场50%的份额。Chicken A La King皇家奶油鸡Chicken A La King, also called Royal cream of chicken, is an easy and elegant chicken dish. It#39;s a great way to use leftover chicken or turkey. Green pepper and red pimientos make this a pretty dish to serve at Christmas or anytime. Serve over cooked rice, toast, or noodles.鸡皇,也被称作皇家奶油鸡,是一道简单优雅的鸡肉菜肴。通常使用之前吃剩的鸡肉或火鸡肉来制作这道菜,之后再加上绿胡椒和红辣椒。人们经常在圣诞节准备这道菜,其他时间也会享用,可以用它来配米饭/面包或面条。English Lamb Chops英式羊排In Great Britain, the idea of a chop comes from the 17th century, when London chophouses started cooking individual portions of meat.英式羊排也是英国的传统美食。在英国,肉排这一概念在17世纪出现,那时伦敦的饭店才开始烹制个人分量的肉类食品。Fish and Chips炸鱼和土豆条Fish and chips is one of the most popular food in Britain. It#39;s fish covered with batter ( a mixture of flour, eggs and milk) and then fried and served with pieces of fried potato.Almost every visitors in Britain would like to try it.炸鱼和土豆条是英国最出名的食物之一,由涂着面粉、鸡蛋和牛奶的糊状物的炸鱼排和炸土豆组成,几乎每一个在英国的游客都会想要尝一尝这道名菜。Steak and Kidney Pie牛肉腰子馅饼Steak and kidney pie is a savoury pie that is filled principally with a mixture of diced beef, diced kidney (often of ox, lamb, or pork), fried onion, and brown gravy. Steak and kidney pie is a representative dish of British cuisine.牛肉腰子馅饼是由碎牛肉末、碎腰子(通常是牛腰子、羊腰子或猪腰子)、炒洋葱和棕色肉汁填充的咸味馅饼,是较有代表性的英国食物之一。Yorkshire Pudding约克郡布丁Yorkshire Pudding is not a dessert in spite of its name, although it is similar in some ways to a pancake made with flour, milk and eggs. It is usually eaten with roast beef and gravy as part of a traditional Sunday lunch.虽然名字叫约克郡布丁,但它其实不是一道甜点,而是有点类似于用面粉、牛奶、鸡蛋做出来的煎饼。这道菜通常会作为一道传统的周日午餐,和烤牛肉、调味肉汁一起食用。Parkin麦片姜饼Parkin or Perkin is a soft cake traditionally made of oatmeal and black treacle, which originated in northern England. It#39;s often eaten in tea time.传统的麦片姜饼是由麦片和黑色糖浆做成的姜饼,起源于英国北部。人们通常在下午茶时间享用它。 /201510/405542

It was about five miles from the Kudesa Homestay guesthouse in Keh village to the Gianyar Night Market, on the Indonesian island of Bali. So I asked my host, Mangku, whether I could make it on the bike he had available for rent. No problem, he said, he knew people who do it all the time.在印度尼西亚的海岛巴厘岛上,从位于克美奴(Keh)村庄的库德萨民宿(Kudesa Homestay)到吉安雅夜市(Gianyar Night Market)的距离,仅有5英里。于是我问我的房东——大家都叫他“师傅”(Mangku)——我能不能骑辆他提供租借的车去那里。他说没问题,他认识很多人一直都是这么去的。It was a miscommunication. I was asking about the bicycle, but he meant the motorbike, which made sense since motorcycles and scooters are the main form of transportation on Bali, the fourth, final, and by far most touristy stop on my Indonesia tour.他误解了我的意思。我问的是自行车,而他说的则是托车。这并不奇怪,重型机车和小绵羊本来就是巴厘岛上最常用的交通工具。在我此次的印尼之旅中,巴厘岛是第四站和最后一站,也是迄今为止我去过的一处普通游客最常去的地方。Alas, I don’t know how to ride them. Still, he reluctantly let me take the tough-looking red hybrid bicycle, warning me to stay out of the heavy traffic. I took his instructions literally, sticking just off the road in what I would call the anti-bike lane.唉,我根本不会骑托车啊。但他还是很不情愿地让我牵出了那辆造型粗犷的红色混合自行车,告诫我与繁忙的车流保持距离。我严格地执行了他的指示,始终远离干道,只在在我看来根本就不不适合自行车行驶的小巷里穿行。That meant bouncing over pebbly dirt shoulders and narrow sidewalks often blocked by parked cars and market stalls, edging onto the road only when there was a lull in the nearly constant scooter buzz.这意味着我要不断地跃过卵石与泥土砌成的路肩,还有总被停放车辆与集市小摊阻塞的狭窄人行道,只有在几乎不绝于耳的托车轰鸣声偶有间歇时,才能缓缓地驶上路面。It was worth it, for two reasons. First, it gave me easy access to the unadulterated Balinese food sold at market stalls — a spicy jumble of mixed vegetables called serombotan, a luscious goat satay (no beef, since the vast majority of Bali, unlike the rest of Indonesia, is Hindu).这么做还是值得的,原因有两点。首先,这让我很方便地在集市小摊上买到了地道的巴厘岛食物——辣味杂蔬serombotan,还有味道醇美的山羊肉沙爹(这里没有牛肉沙爹,因为和印尼的其他地方不一样,巴厘岛的大部分人都是印度教徒)。And, on the way back, drenched in sweat, I stopped to see a group of men scorching the hair off two slaughtered pigs and ended up with an invitation to spend the festival of Galungan with a new friend.而且,在回来的路上,浑身被汗浸透的我,中途还停了下来,观看一群男人烧掉两头宰杀的肉猪身上的鬃毛,并在最后收到了一位新朋友的邀请,与他一同欢度加隆安节(Galungan)。Three days and four nights is a ridiculously short stay for one’s first time on Bali. Ideally, I knew, getting away from the tourist crowd meant heading away from southern Bali’s two tourist epicenters: Kuta, which has a reputation as a depraved Cancun for young Australians; and Ubud, for those seeking the more spiritual Bali described in Elizabeth Gilbert’s “Eat, Pray, Love” without straying too far from a Starbucks.三天四夜的旅程,对于首次巴厘岛之旅而言,实在短得可笑。我知道,在理论上,远离熙攘的游客,就意味着要离开巴厘岛南部的两处游客聚集地。一处是库塔海滩(Kuta),在年轻的澳大利亚人当中被视作生活颓废的坎昆(Cancun);至于那些想要寻求伊丽莎白·吉尔伯特(Elizabeth Gilbert)在《一辈子做女孩》(Eat, Pray, Love)中所描绘的巴厘岛风情,但又不想离星巴克(Starbucks)太远的人,必去的地方则是乌布(Ubud)。Instead, I stayed outside Ubud in the village of Keh, which travelers visit for its woodcarving shops but not much else. Mangku himself was a retired woodcarver who became a village priest, which is what “Mangku” means.而我却留在了乌布外侧的克美奴村庄里,游客们常来游览这里的木雕工艺商店,但除此之外也就没什么了。师傅自己就是一位退休的木雕工人,现在则当上了乡村牧师,这也是“师傅”这一称谓的本意所在。His family still runs a shop nearby, Sembahyang Wood Carvers, that ships its intricate, mesmerizing woodwork around the world, with the prices for some of the larger mahogany pieces stretching into tens of thousands of dollars.他的家人仍在附近经营着一家商店“崇拜木雕”(Sembahyang Wood Carvers),将店内那些工艺复杂的精美木雕运往世界各地,其中部分体型较大的红木制品的价格,甚至能够冲到数万美元。The guesthouse is a complex of elegant buildings in traditional Balinese orange brick and adorned with carved sandstone as elegant as the sculptures, with one big difference between the two family businesses: the price. My room cost 125,000 rupiah, or .41 at 13,279 rupiah to the dollar.我所居住的宾馆由几栋造型优雅的建筑构成,它们用传统巴厘岛风格的橘红砖块砌成,并以砂岩雕刻加以装饰,其精美程度与雕像不相上下——这个家族的这两项产业,最大区别就在于价格。我所住的房间费用为12.5万卢比,按1美元兑换13,279卢比折算,约合9.41美元。But I had moved there only after spending a day in Ubud. On my first trip I had to at least see what the hype was about. (I did completely skip Kuta, with no regrets.)但我是先在乌布呆了一天后才到这里来的。既然是我的首次巴厘岛之旅,我好歹也得见识一下,炒作得天花乱坠的到底都是些什么。(我倒确实直接略过了库塔海滩,而且毫无遗憾。)So, arriving after midnight on an indirect flight from Papua, I checked into the very pleasant Odah Ayu Guest House, just off Ubud’s main strip, where a tasteful room cost me 400,000 rupiah.于是,我从巴布亚省(Papua)出发,经过转机,在午夜过后抵达巴厘岛,住进了环境宜人的鸥达阿玉宾馆(Odah Ayu Guest House),就在乌布的主要商业区对面,一间布置雅致的房间价格花了我40万卢比。The next day was packed full of attractions. First, the Puri Lukisan Museum (85,000 rupiah), which offers an introduction to Balinese art on lush grounds. Many paintings depicted scenes from Hindu epics I knew nothing about; I struggled to understand them but still found their elegant floral style absorbing.我在第二天的行程里,排满了各式各样的旅游景点。首先是画宫物馆(Puri Lukisan Museum)(门票售价8.5万卢比),在一片绿意盎然的土地上初步了解了一下巴厘岛的艺术。许多油画作品中所描绘的风景,都出自我一无所知的印度教史诗,我极尽所能去理解当中的内涵,但还是觉得优雅的花草造型最为迷人。I paused at “Just Punishments in hell,” an intricately detailed depiction of “all the different kinds of punishments suffered by the dead that fit the misdeeds of their lives.” Characters were impaled on trees or partly submerged in a pool of flames; others were being pushed into dragons’ mouths or had their genitals set on fire.我在《地狱里的公正处罚》(Just Punishments in hell)前驻足片刻,这幅作品用十分复杂的细节,描绘了“亡者因自身生前罪行所遭受的各种不同类型的相应处罚”。画中的角色有的被钉在树上,有的被半埋在火盆里,还有的正被送往巨龙的口中,或者正被灼烧着他们的生殖器。Then it was on to Ibu Oka, renowned (as in, featured by Anthony Bourdain) for babi guleng, or roast suckling pig, for a 55,000-rupiah plate with meat so moist I’d call it swampy, doused with a peppery sauce and much ballyhooed pork skin that I found a bit too chewy. (I prefer my crackling a bit more, um, crackling.)然后我去了Ibu Oka,这间小店专以babi guleng也就是烤乳猪闻名(美国大厨安东尼·波登(Anthony Bourdain)也对其盛赞有加),一盘售价5.5万卢比,里面的猪肉松软多汁,被我戏称为“沼泽”,浇上胡椒酱,配搭很大程度上宣传过度、在我看来有点太过难嚼的猪肉皮。(我更喜欢更脆一些的肉皮,嗯,脆脆的那种。)Then there was the famed Sacred Monkey Forest Sanctuary, which is on lovely temple grounds and certainly worth the 30,000 rupiah fee, especially if you’ve never before had monkeys eat bananas out of your hands.接着则是大名鼎鼎的圣猴森林避难所(Sacred Monkey Forest Sanctuary),它坐落在一片风景迷人的神庙之中,3万卢比的票价绝对物有所值,尤其是你从来没有喂过猴子吃你手里的香蕉的话。And I was intrigued by online raves about the Sari Organik Warung Bodag Maliah, depicted as an organic restaurant in a pristine location amid rice fields. It wasn’t quite as pristine as promised: A pedestrian (and motorbike) path ran through it, dotted with souvenir shops and cafes. I’d call them not so much rice fields as “Rice Fields,” framed as a destination for travelers. Few agricultural features I’ve seen have signs directing you toward them.我也对网上众人追捧的餐厅Sari Organik Warung Bodag Maliah兴趣浓厚,据说这家有机餐厅位于稻田中的一处质朴之地。那里其实并没有宣传所说的那么质朴:一条步行道(也是托车道)从中穿过,路边点缀着几家纪念品商店和咖啡馆。要我说,这里的稻田并没有多到可以被称作“稻田”,最多就是一处面向游客的旅游景点罢了。而我很少看到哪些农业特色地点会有明确的标识引导你抵达目的地。I get the appeal, but a week earlier, I had clambered over rice fields on Sulawesi for miles and miles, without a tourist in sight. In Papua, I had hiked hours to villages without seeing a single sign, let alone one directing you to the local sweet potato plantations.我能了解当地所想要传达的诉求,但就在一周前,我刚刚在苏拉威西岛(Sulawesi)上翻过了连绵数英里的稻田,途中可连一名游客都没见着。在巴布亚省,我曾徒步数小时前往不同村庄,路上连一个标志都没看到过,更别说能够引导你前往当地红薯种植园的标志了。Still, the cafe was lovely. My salad was so fresh it tasted as if I were picking it directly from the earth, and with some surprising ingredients, with greens like leaves of both guava and soursop. At 48,000 rupiah, it was a bargain.尽管如此,这里的咖啡馆还是很可爱的。我点的沙拉用料新鲜,口感仿佛刚刚从地里直接采摘回来的一般,里面还用到了一些罕见的食材,例如番石榴叶、红毛榴莲叶等绿叶菜。一盘只需4.8万卢比,实在是物美价廉。As was my day in Ubud, which cost me, astonishingly, something like . But halfway through the day I paused and went to Booking.com, the site I turn to for lodging not listed elsewhere, and found Kudesa. (I didn’t even find it on TripAdvisor.)以上就是我在乌布的一天,总共竟然才只花了我20美元左右。但在那天中午,我一度暂停行程,访问网站Booking.com,试图寻找一间在其他网站上看不到的住宿地点——我就是这样找到的库德萨民宿。(我甚至在TripAdvisor上都没有看到过这家的信息。)During my stay at Odah Ayu, I had met Komang, a member of the family that owns it; as I checked out, he offered to drive me to Kudesa. Thirty minutes later, we passed through a lavish carved gate and entered what looked like a palace or temple: buildings made of that orange brick, their doors shrouded in ornate sandstone carving. Komang was impressed. “This is maybe rich family,” he said.暂住鸥达阿玉期间,我认识了克曼(Komang),他是这家旅馆主人家族的一员;当我退房时,他提出愿意开车送我到库德萨民宿。30分钟后,我们穿过一扇奢华的雕花大门,进入了一处仿若宫殿又像是神庙的地方:橘红色砖块砌成的建筑物,门扇上包着一层华美无比的砂岩雕刻。这让克曼眼界大开。“这户人家大概很有钱,”他说。Perhaps, but one that charges less than for a single. The place had undergone an expansion recently, and now included a handful of fancy-looking rooms along a reverse infinity pool. (That’s my new term for when the infinity edge points in the wrong direction — to the rooms themselves).或许,但是单人间的收费也才不到10美元而已。这里不久前刚刚经过扩修,如今拥有好几间设计精美的客房,沿着一座反向无边缘设计的泳池一路排开。(这是我创造的一个新名词,指称那些池边朝向一反常态,朝着客房一侧的无边缘泳池。)I never got to see my single; the place was nearly empty, so I was upgraded to one of the older doubles (regular price, 180,000 rupiah.) It was a no-nonsense room, with a single sheet and blanket on the bed, an air-conditioner that leaked, and acoustics that allowed me to diagnose sleep apnea in the guest next door. Considering the elegant surroundings (and the dinner they served me by the pool the next night, no charge), it was still a deal.我从头到尾都无缘得见我预订的那间单人间;这间民宿在当时几乎空无一人,于是我直接被升等到了一间年头更久的双人间(常规标价为18万卢比)。这间客房的状态简直写满了故事:床上铺的是单人被和毯子,空调在漏水,隔音效果足以让我诊断出隔壁客人是否患有睡眠呼吸暂停中止症。考虑到优雅别致的周边环境(还有他们次日晚上为我安排的池边晚餐,免费的哟),我觉得还可以接受。That dinner was lovely, a standard plate of rice, meat and spicy homemade sambal, but did not compare to that first night I ate at the market, after parking my bike among dozens of scooters.那顿晚餐还算开心,一客标准份量的米饭、肉和辣口的自制叁巴酱,但是跟我第一天晚上将自行车停在一堆小绵羊里后在集市上吃的那顿,还是没法比。No taxis wait at the market, making it difficult for travelers to get there on their own, and English is a rarity, so those not willing to get on two wheels may wish to consider a tour offered by the Casa Luna cooking school for 400,000 rupiah to tame the chaos and choose the right dishes.集市附近没有候客的出租车,很不方便游客自己前往,会讲英语的人也很少,因此那些无意自己骑车出行的游客,不妨考虑参加烹饪学校Casa Luna举办的美食游,收费40万卢比,帮你抚平所有混乱,选择万无一失的佳肴。I tried a more D.I.Y. solution. On the ride over from Ubud, I asked Komang to list a few Balinese dishes I should try. He gave me three: serombotan, betutu and sate langwan. I jotted them down (having no idea what they were) then asked him how to say “Where is the most delicious _________?” in Indonesian. “Di mana ________ yang enak?” was his suggestion. He also gave me the phrase in Balinese, just in case.我则尝试了一种更为自力更生的办法。在驾车前往乌布的路上,我让克曼为我推荐几道必尝佳肴。他对我说了三道:serombotan、betutu和sate langwan。我用笔记了下来(但对于这些到底是什么东西毫无头绪),然后问他“哪里有最好吃的_________?”用印尼语怎么说。他教导我说:“Di mana ________ yang enak?”他还教了我一句巴厘语,以防我万一有用得着的时候。It worked brilliantly. First, I tried asking for the serombotan, and was pointed to a woman standing at a no-name cart behind an array of plates and bowls loaded with vegetables, bean sprouts, soybeans and more. She piled them all together for me, dashed on a combustible sauce and charged me 5,000 rupiah, a delicious, crunchy, tongue-numbing bargain.这句话真是派上大用场了。我先是试着问了一下serombotan,结果被指向了站在一辆无名推车旁的女人,她置身在一堆碗盘的后面,里面装着蔬菜、豆芽、黄豆还有许多其他的东西。她将所有这些东西堆成一盘,摆在我的面前,浇上一种可燃的酱料,然后收了我5,000卢比,真是一道香脆美味、令人舌头发麻的平民美食。Next, two other women argued before sending me to Warung Carmayani for betutu, slow-roasted poultry (chicken, in this case) with rice, for 22,000 rupiah. Nice, but rather bland.接着,另外两位女士在送我前往Warung Carmayani品尝betutu前争论了一番,这道美食是用家禽(这里用的是鸡)慢慢烤制而成,配上米饭,一客要价2.2万卢比。味道不错,但还是平淡无奇了些。Finally, sate langwan (which turned out to be a fish satay) was sold out. So I compromised at a stand labeled Sate Kambing Juprianto, which specialized in goat satay. A man tossed 10 two-bite sticks of meat over glowing coals and whipped together a rich, surprisingly savory peanut sauce for me on the spot for 20,000 rupiah. I finished it off with some es campur, shaved ice and crazily colorful gelatins, fruit and coconut milk for an additional 6,000 rupiah.最后是sate langwan(似乎就是一种鱼肉沙爹),但是店里卖完了。于是我做出了妥协,改去了一间标着“Sate Kambing Juprianto”,专卖山羊肉沙爹的小摊。一个男人当场将10块两口大小的肉块丢到灼热的木炭上方,然后与一种厚重粘稠但风味极佳的花生酱搅拌在一起,总共收了我2万卢比。最后,我又另外花了6,000卢比,点了一份es campur,这是一种浇有一堆五颜六色的明胶啫哩、水果切块和椰奶的刨冰。On the way back, in Blahbatuh, the village before Keh, I saw a group gathered around the slaughtered pigs and pulled over.返回宾馆的途中,我在克美奴前面的一个村庄布拉巴度(Blahbatuh)看到一群人围着几头宰杀完毕的猪,便将车靠边停了下来。“Where are you from?” boomed a voice. “你是从哪儿来的?”一道嗓门震天响的声音问道。I immediately took a liking to Widi, perhaps in part because he reminded me, in both looks and boisterously welcoming manner, of a friend in New York. He explained that he and a few others had killed two pigs to divide among his extended family, to be used in dishes for Galungan, during which ancestral spirits are believed to visit.我立刻就喜欢上了威迪(Widi),或许有部分原因是因为,无论他的样貌还是他热情待人的方式,都让我想起了我在纽约的一位朋友。他向我解释道,他和其他几个人刚刚宰了两头猪,准备分给他的家族亲戚们,用来制作成菜肴,为当地人民认为会有祖先魂魄来访的加隆安节做准备。He invited me over the next morning for a breakfast of lawar, made of minced pork and vegetables and grated coconut, jumbled together with a spicy sambal.他邀请我在次日清晨与他共进一种名为lawar的早餐,这道菜肴用切碎的猪肉和蔬菜混合椰丝,再拌上一种辣口的叁巴酱制成。I had planned a tour of island temples and other attractions with Mank Jay, a driver and guide who was Mangku’s nephew, so I stopped by early and met Widi’s family, who lived in a traditionally structured family compound.我已经计划好,要与师傅的外甥,司机兼导游曼克·杰(Mank Jay),结伴游览岛上的神庙与其他景点,于是我早早拜访,见到了威迪一家,一个拥有着传统家族结构的大家庭。I had that every Hindu family in Bali had its own temple, or sanggah, but I hadn’t imagined an entire section devoted to shrines representing different manifestations of the gods and the family’s ancestors. Offerings of rice and flowers had been laid in front of each; Widi himself prays there three times a day when he can, two times when he is working as a bus driver.我曾经在书上读到过,巴厘岛上的每一个印度教家庭都拥有自己的神庙,这在当地的语言里叫作sanggah,但是我完全想象不到,他们会开辟出一整块区域来陈设神龛,里面供奉着不同的神灵及家族祖先们的化身。每一尊神像前,都摆放着米饭和鲜花作为祭品;威迪自己在条件允许的情况下,每天会在这里拜上三次,做大巴司机的时候则是一天两次。I was invited back to spend the first day of Galungan with Widi’s family (more on that next week). But that day I still had my tour with Jay, for which he charged 600,000 rupiah, including gas. You may find others willing to do it for 400,000 or 500,000, but it’s worth extra for a guide you like, and I recommend Jay (62-812-3739-8422).我受邀在加隆安节当天再次来访,与威迪全家共度佳节首日(下周再讲述更多详情)。但是那一天我也已经计划好,要与杰一同出游,这趟行程杰总共收我60万卢比,包括汽车的油费。你或许发现其他人通常只愿意出到40万或50万卢比,但能请到自己喜欢的导游,多花点钱也是值得的,在此我要强烈推荐一下杰(62-812-3739-8422)。We motored around to numerous temples and historic spots, the highlight of which was Kerta Gosa, a partly restored complex that had served as a royal home and hall of justice for the Balinese king. Two elegant, typically Balinese buildings remain, one set dramatically in the middle of a pond, as if it were a ship connected to the shore by a sculpture-lined gangplank.我们开着汽车,参观了大量的帝庙与古迹,其中值得一提的是司法亭(Kerta Gosa),这座经过部分修缮的建造原本是一处皇家住宅,也是巴厘岛国王主持公义的审判大厅。这里还保留着两栋造型优雅、典型的巴厘岛风格建筑,一栋引人注目地矗立在池塘中央,有如一艘轮船停泊在此,靠一块边缘雕刻着花纹的跳板,与池岸相连。Inside, the ceilings are painted with mesmerizing depictions of the Hindu epics, most notably the Bhima Swarga story, in which a man enters the underworld to rescue his parents. In a scene now familiar to me, sinners were depicted being punished in hell — in this version, for example, hanging from trees over a pit of fire as rats gnawed on the ropes.建筑内部,天花板上描绘着引人入胜的印度教史诗画卷,最值得注意的是怖军天堂(Bhima Swarga)的故事,讲述了一个男人进入冥界营救自己父母。这个场景我倒有些熟悉,描绘的就是罪人们在地狱中受罚的情景——譬如在这里,就是被绳索吊在树上,下方是一个火坑,上面则有老鼠在啃噬着绳索。“We believe in karma,” Jay said. “When you do a bad thing in your life, and the gods call you, your time is up. And then you see what they’re going to do to you.” “我们相信因果报应。”杰说,“如果你在活着的时候做了坏事,当神灵召唤你的时候,你的大限就到了。然后你就会看到你以前的作为带给你的报应。”I had asked Jay if there was a traditional rural village we could visit to get away from the temples and monuments. So he took me to Penglipuran, a beautiful village with an odd twist.我曾经问过杰,有没有什么传统的乡村村落可以参观,让我们摆脱那些神庙和纪念碑的。于是他带我去了彭力布南(Penglipuran),一处美丽又带着几分古怪的村庄。Along its main street of beautifully laid-out stone, families live in homes that date back centuries to pre-Hindu Bali. One catch: You pay 15,000 rupiah at the ticket booth to enter, where you are handed a scrap of paper with a number, referring to the house you have been assigned to visit.在用石头精心铺就的大路两旁,村民们所居住的房屋可以一直上溯到几个世纪以前,印度教尚未进入巴厘岛的时期。有一点要注意:在售票处付1.5万卢比的入村费,你会拿到一张写有号码的纸片,指定一栋房屋供你游览。The houses and people were lovely, but it felt as if I had entered a human zoo that was an apt metaphor for the island as a whole, particularly the more touristed parts: traditional families living traditional ways, as travelers pay to wander through their lives.这里的房屋和村民都很可爱,但是会给我一种误入了某间人类动物园的感觉,就这座岛而言,这的确是个十分恰当的比喻,尤其是那些十分旅游化的部分——这里的传统家庭沿袭着传统的生活方式,而游客们付费入场四处参观。 /201509/401147

5.The Left-Handed Biblical Warriors5.《圣经》中的左手武士We#39;ve talked a bit about how someone left-handed may have an advantage in combat, and that#39;s certainly been well-known throughout history. In fact, the Bible makes special mention of left-handed warriors, which has led to an interesting debate. Needing to free Israel from the rule of the Moabites, God sent Ehud, a left-handed assassin, to carry out one of the most gruesome Biblical assassinations. A big deal is made of left-handed Ehud sneaking his double-bladed dagger into the king#39;s presence by hiding it on his right thigh. Ehud is far from the only left-hander that the Bible mentions. These Biblical left-handers were warriors that came from a tribe called the Benjamites.上文中我们提到过,左撇子在战斗中会有许多优势——这在历史上广为人知。事实上,《圣经》中在一场著名的斗争中特别提及了左手武士。为了帮助以色列人摆脱押人的统治,耶和华派出了他的左撇子暗杀者——以笏来实施一场最恐怖的暗杀计划。这位左撇子武士将他的双刃匕首藏在右腿的裤管里去面圣。以笏也并不是《圣经》中提及的唯一的左撇子,这些《圣经》中的左手武士大多来自于本杰明部落(Benjamites)。According to Judges, the Benjamites were incredible warriors that could hit a single human hair with a sling and used a bow with unparalleled ambidextrous skill. There is debate as to how this warrior tribe developed the left-handed fighting style. One theory states that the Benjamites were simply predisposed to being left-handed, much like the abovementioned Kerr family. Another theory focuses on the translation. The words used to describe their left-handed fighting style didn#39;t just mean ;left-handed; but also, quite literally, ;restricted in his right hand.; Some think that this translation hints at the tribe taking great lengths to retrain right-handed people to use a left-handed fighting style, giving them an edge in battle. It#39;s also possible that the Bible took special note of specifically left-handed Benjamites because of the humor in their name: ;Benjamin; translates as ;son of my right hand,; so the left-handed Benjamites were, ironically, ;left-handed right-handers.;从书中来看,本杰明武士所向披靡,他们可以用弹弓打中一根头发丝,双手都能够灵活操控弓箭。但是这么一个武士部落如何成为了后来的左撇子武士团依旧是个广为争论的话题。其中一个理论认为本杰明部落本身就有变成左撇子的倾向,就像上文中的科尔家族一样。而另一理论坚持;转变说;。它认为书中描述他们左手作战的文字事实上表达了另一种意思——他们有意识地限制自己使用右手。有人认为这种转变暗示了这个武士军团在很长的一段时间内都致力于训练惯用右手的士兵使用左手来提高战争中的优势。也有人认为《圣经》中之所以着重描写了左撇子本杰明是因为他们的名字;Benjamin;寓意着;右手之子(son of my right hand);,所以那些惯用左手的本杰明部族就令人啼笑皆非的变成了;惯用左手的右手之子;。4.King George VI And Retraining Of Left-Handed Children4.乔治六世和左撇子儿童的后天训练The bias against left-handed children has resulted in some pretty extreme measures. A Zulu child who ate his porridge with his left hand could expect to have that hand burned in the hot porridge as a lesson. Even in 20th-century Britain children could expect to have their left hand tied down to make them use their right one. British child psychologists that supported this retraining method also preached that children who used their left hand were simply demonstrating—and developing—a defiant personality that needed to be corrected as soon as possible.人们对左撇子儿童的偏见导致了一些极端残酷的刑罚。如果一个祖鲁小孩用左手喝了粥,那么他的左手会被浸到滚烫的热粥里以示惩戒。即使在20世纪的英国,家长还是会把小孩的左手绑起来以迫使他们使用右手。英国儿童心理学家认为这种后天训练的方法表明了那些左撇子孩子大多拥有一种叛逆个性,需要尽早纠正。Even kings weren#39;t exempt from this; tutors struggled to get the young Duke of York (later George VI) to start using his right hand instead of his left, along with working on his well-known stutter. This, along with other children developing stutters after similar retraining, gave rise to the idea that the two were somehow connected. A number of medical works were presented on how retraining children to become right-handed would lead to the development of a stutter, as well as conditions like dyslexia and other ing difficulties. It was put forth that switching dominant hands led to a struggle for dominance between the two sides of the brain, which in turn manifested itself in a stutter. This theory led to a massive rethinking of the whole retraining idea, and the practice began to die out. Nowadays, it#39;s thought that there#39;s a different reason that children forced to change their hand of choice can develop a stutter: It has more to do with being put in a stressful situation than with the two sides of the brain arguing with each other.即使国王也不能免于这种后天训练。家庭教师曾经试图让小约翰公爵(即后来的乔治六世)使用他的右手而非左手,同时试图矫正他的口吃。然而其他孩子在这种训练下也产生了口吃的毛病,人们不得不开始思考两者间的联系,包括诵读困难和其他阅读困难问题。有人提出,改变惯用手强行转变了大脑的左右半叶的控制区块,从而导致口吃等毛病的出现。这个理论让人们开始反省转变惯用手的利弊,这种后天训练也逐渐不了了之。不过如今,人们普遍觉得后天训练导致口吃也许有不同的原因——后天训练让孩子们面临了巨大的压力,从而左右脑难以协调。3.Cesare Lombroso#39;s Theories On The Left-Handed3.切萨雷·龙勃罗梭的左撇子理论Since Lombroso was a physician who lived at the turn of the 20th century, you#39;d expect his opinions on the matter of left-handed people to have been a little more clinical and forgiving . . . but we#39;ll let his words speak for him: ;Man advances in civilization and culture; he shows an always greater right-sidedness as compared to . . . women and savage races; [who] even when they are not properly left-handed have certain gestures and movements which are a species of left-handedness.; In case that leaves any doubt as to his position on the matter, he went on to explain it.作为20世纪末的一名医生,我们也许期望龙勃罗梭对于左撇子现象做出更为客观的评判……但是事实并非如此。;人类文明和文化不断的进步,他给我们展示了更美好的右边一面……相较于妇女和那些未开化的野蛮种族;即使是那些并不算严格意义上的左撇子的人,也有偏向于左手派别的特定的手势和行为;。这番话也许让我们对他对于左撇子的态度感到疑惑,龙勃罗梭随即解释了这一切。Lombroso thought that there was a higher part of the brain that was connected to logic and reason, while the lower part of the brain was responsible for governing man#39;s baser urges and emotions. It was this lower brain that dictated the lives of the left-handed, as well as of criminals, lunatics, and the generally wicked. He also said that while a person who#39;s left-handed wasn#39;t necessarily bad, left-handedness was one of the traits that he had found to be present in ;the worst characters among the human species.; Lombroso pointed to a long history of bias against the left-handed in support of his theory, which, at the time, was viewed as medical fact and pretty new, revolutionary science. Weirdly, his ideas haven#39;t gone away. Scientists as recently as the 1990s have used his work as a basis for their studies that have concluded that left-handed people were more prone to genetic disorders and had shorter lifespans.他认为逻辑与理性占据了大脑中极大一部分区块,剩下的一小部分与欲望和感性相关联,而左撇子的生活正是由这一小部分配,包括罪犯、精神病人和一些极端分子。龙勃罗梭还称,即使左撇子并不一定都是坏人,他们也展现了;人性中最丑陋的一面;。他认为历史上人们对左撇子根深蒂固的偏见恰恰实了他的理论。这在当时看来是个颇具革命性和科学性的研究理论。然而奇怪的是他的理论并没有随着时间淡出人们视线。20世纪90年代的科学家们在龙勃罗梭的调查基础上进行了更进一步的研究,发现左撇子相较于常人更易出现精神混乱,寿命也更为短暂。2.Debunking The Myth Of Shorter Lifespans2.揭开短寿传言背后的真相Speaking of the myth that left-handed people don#39;t live as long as right-handed ones, let#39;s take a look at that oft-repeated statistic. According to a study published between the late 1980s and early 1990s, a survey of 2,000 people living—and dying—in Southern California led researchers to conclude that left-handed people were, on average, nine years younger when they died. Researchers then went on to speculate that the cause of death had something to do with living in a world designed for right-handed people; statistics like left-handed drivers being about five times more likely to die in a car accident seemed to support this theory. Sort of. They also looked at the number of other types of accidents left-handed people were involved in and chalked it all up to them having to deal with the daily difficulties of using things designed for right-handed people, like knives and power tools. Sounds . . . almost right?传言说左撇子的寿命比正常人要更为短暂。让我们来看看这一份被多次借鉴的统计数据:在1980年到1990年间,南加利福尼亚州曾对2000人做了一份调查,统计结果表明左撇子人群的平均寿命比常人少了9年左右。研究员猜测在这个为右手量身定做的世界里生活也许和他们的死因有些许联系。比如说,左撇子驾驶员在交通事故中的死亡率是正常人的将近5倍。他们还统计了其他事故中左撇子的死亡率,最终将其归咎于日常生活设施都是为惯用右手的人设计的因而左撇子在使用上有一定难度,像道具和一些危险器具之类的。这听起来似乎有一些道理。Our left-handed ers will be glad to know that the theory has since been debunked as total garbage. The numbers might work and the method might have been theoretically sound . . . so where#39;s the discrepancy? The problem is a weird one. Throughout history, left-handed people have been forced to become right-handed, and that practice has only really recently begun to change. So when researchers took a look at how many people had died, their results were skewed. To collect data for their study, they called the families of the deceased and asked them whether their loved ones had been right-handed or left-handed; given the age of the people the survey was investigating, there was undoubtedly a large number of left-handed people who had grown up in a world where being left-handed was discouraged and frowned upon. So not only would they have tried to hide their left-handed tendencies, but their families would have identified them as largely right-handed. Those who admitted to being left-handed tended to be younger, having grown up after the stigma went away. This made it seem like the young deaths of left-handed people were representative of the whole.想必我们的左撇子读者看到这里会很开心,因为这么看来所谓的短寿传言就是废话。这些言论理论上看来似乎很行得通,可是问题出在哪里呢?关键在于,历史上许多左撇子都被强迫训练使用他们的右手,直到现今这种后天的右手训练才渐渐消失。因此,当研究员调查左撇子死亡率时,他们的结果就存在一定的偏差。为了收集数据,研究员联系了那些有病史的家庭,询问他们的近亲是否是左撇子。考虑到研究对象的年龄问题,毫无疑问他们中的大多数都生活在一个排斥左撇子的时代。所以不光他们自己会否认自己是左撇子,他们的家人也会帮他们隐瞒真相。因而,那些大方承认自己是左撇子的多半是一些年轻人,他们生活在一个左撇子不再象征着耻辱的年代。这使得这些年轻一代的死亡率无意间代表了所有左撇子群体。1.Being Left-Handed Might Help You Survive The Apocalypse1.左撇子也许能成为世界末日幸存者The end is nigh, society is crumbling, and civilization is falling apart. People are scrambling for whatever supplies they can find in order to make it through the night. Chances are, you#39;ve been part of (or at least overheard) a conversation about what you#39;d require to get you through the apocalypse. You probably have never heard someone say that they#39;d like to be left-handed, but perhaps that should actually be the first answer they think of. If you#39;ve seen Rocky, you know how much of an advantage left-handed fighters have, and studies have shown that the more lawless the society, the greater that advantage is.末日将临,社会分崩,文明瓦解。人们慌乱的企图抓住任何可以帮他们度过这场劫难的东西。唯一的出路只有你设法参与(或至少无意间听到)到一场讨论如何在世界末日逃生的谈话。你也许从没听到过有人说希望成为一个左撇子,但可能这是他们第一个能想到的了。如果你看过《洛奇》(Rocky),你就会知道一个左撇子拳击手是多么的强大。并且有研究表明,当社会越无序混乱,左撇子的优势就越明显。The baseline for the population#39;s percentage of left-handed people is around 10 percent, but in some societies that number is far greater. Among Venezuela#39;s Yanomami tribe, about 5 in every 1,000 people are murdered yearly—and about 23 percent of the population is left-handed. For the Eipo in Indonesia, the murder rate is 3 in 1,000, and they#39;re about 27 percent left-handed. And then there are the people of Jimi Valley in Papua New Guinea, who have a murder rate of 5.4 in 1,000 and an above-average instance of left-handed people at 13 percent. The study, conducted by the Institute of Evolutionary Sciences, University Montpellier, shows a measurable difference between the most violent societies and the most peaceful ones. For instance, the Dioula from West Africa have a murder rate of 0.013 in 1,000 murder and a left-handed rate of only 3 percent. Researchers conjecture that the advantage of being left-handed in a violent society isn#39;t just a matter of survival, it#39;s a matter of natural selection and allowing one generation to pass its left-handed traits on to the next.世界人口中左撇子大约占10%左右,不过在一些社会中这个比率会高上许多。在委内瑞拉的亚诺玛米部落中,每年平均每1000个人中就有5个人被谋杀——该部落中23%的人口是左撇子。印度尼西亚的电子统计平台显示,印尼犯罪率大约在3‰,其总人口中左撇子占比大约27%。巴布亚新几内亚的吉米峡谷中的族人犯罪率高达5.4‰,他们的左撇子占比也高于平均水平,大约在13%。蒙彼利埃大学的进化科学研究会的一项调查研究发现,相较于这些犯罪率最高的社会结构,那些安定的社会结构显得截然不同。例如西非的迪乌拉犯罪率仅有0.013‰,同时他们的人口中左撇子占比仅3%。研究员们推测,在混乱的社会中,一个左撇子并不仅仅意味着可以在暴力冲突中幸存,这其实是一种自然选择,使得一代人中惯用左手的一族得以连绵相传。翻译:周予星 来源:前十网 /201509/397852Liao Dynasty辽朝Culture文化Culturally, the Liao achieved mainly in astronomy, the calendar, medicine and architecture.文化上,辽朝在天文学、历法、医药和建筑学方面取得了主要成就。Not only did the Liao calendar keep the best parts of the Central Plain Han calendar,辽历不仅是中原地区汉历的重要组成部分,but also retained some of the special traits of the Khitan people.还保留了契丹人的一些特点。Important achievements were made in acupuncture, pulse-feeling diagnosis, gynecology, obstetrics and preservation of corpses.针灸、号脉问诊、妇科、产科和尸体的保存也取得了重要的成就。The Book of Acupuncture and Pulse-Feeling, written by a celebrated doctor named Zhi Lugu, enjoyed wide popularity at the time.由直鲁古编写的《针灸书》和《脉诀》广受欢迎。The Liao architecture, influenced by the Tang style and accommodating the Khitan customs, achieved its own unique style.辽朝的建筑,一方面受到唐朝风格的影响另一方面又与契丹的风俗相配,形成了自己独特的风格。The Liao honored Confucian philosophy but the rulers patronized Chinese Buddhism.辽尊崇儒家学说,但是执政者却资助中国的佛学。The Khitan dialect and the Han language were the main languages used by the Liao.契丹语和汉语是契丹人的主要语言。 /201511/406487

OTTAWA — Steamed, sauted or stir-fried, cauliflower is standard fare on many dinner tables. In Canada, it is a luxury.渥太华——蒸、嫩煎或煸炒的花菜,在许多地方的餐桌上是一道家常菜。在加拿大,却是一种奢侈。A head of cauliflower there now goes for around 8 Canadian dollars, a tripling in price, the strange foodie fallout from the low price of oil and other commodities.如今一个花菜在那里可以卖到大约8加元(约合38元人民币),价格是原来的三倍,这是石油和其他大宗商品价格走低连累“吃货”的一个古怪案例。The recipe for high-priced cauliflower starts with the currency.天价花菜的出现,首先要从汇率说起。As prices for commodities have dropped, the value of the Canadian dollar has fallen, a direct link to an economy that is dependent on oil and other resources. It makes imports, like fresh American vegetables during the dark Canadian winter, look especially costly.随着大宗商品价格下跌,加元出现贬值,对于一个依赖石油和其他资源的经济体来说,这是一种直接的联动。这就导致进口商品的价格显得格外夸张,比如在天昏地暗的加拿大隆冬时节从美国进口的新鲜蔬菜。Two years ago, one Canadian dollar was worth 93 American cents. On Wednesday, it stood at 69 American cents.两年前,一加元相当于93美分。在本周三是69美分。The drought in California, where Canadians get most of their vegetables in the off-season, just compounds the sticker shock. With less bounty in the fields, farmers’ prices, in American dollars, are higher than normal.而加拿大的非时令蔬菜大多来自加州,那里的旱情也加剧了价格的暴涨。由于收成不佳,以美元计的农产品价格要高于正常水平。As a result, fresh vegetables feel more like a splurge for Canadian consumers.这样一来,新鲜蔬菜在加拿大消费者眼里就成了奢侈品。Iceberg lettuce sells for 3 Canadian dollars, up from the typical 90 Canadian cents. One head of broccoli goes for , compared with .50 for two in the past. Last winter, a head of cauliflower was selling for 2.50 Canadian.圆生菜售价从平常的90加分涨到了3加元。一个西兰花卖到4加元,在过去1.50加元可以买到两个。去年冬天,一个花菜的价格是2.50加元。“We’ve gone through this cycle before with the dollar,” said Jim McKeen, owner of McKeen Metro Glebe, a grocery store in downtown Ottawa. “But there were issues on prices anyways because of supply in addition to this whole fiasco with the Canadian dollar. It’s a perfect storm.”“这些汇率的事以前全都经历过,”渥太华市中心食品杂货店McKeen Metro Glebe老板吉姆·麦基恩(Jim McKeen)说。“但是供应不足决定了价格本来就会有问题,再加上加元惨成这样,就成了一场完美风暴。”The Canadian dollar, in part, reflects the trouble in the country’s economy.加元一定程度上反应了该国的经济困境。For years, Canada rode the global commodities boom. The rapidly growing Chinese economy — and its seemingly insatiable appetite for commodities — helped increase the price of oil, potash, nickel and the other Canadian resources.加拿大多年来得益于全球大宗商品的繁荣。快速增长的中国经济——及其看上去永无止境的大宗商品需求——推高了石油、钾盐、镍和其他加拿大资源的价格。With China’s demand now faltering, commodity prices have reversed course. Oversupply of oil has similarly devastated its price. Both factors are taking their toll on the Canadian economy. The gross domestic product increased just 0.6 percent in the third quarter of 2015, after six months of negative growth.随着中国的需求增长放缓,大宗商品价格急转直下。石油的供过于求也对价格造成了类似的冲击。这两个因素都在危害加拿大经济。在经过六个月的负增长后,其国内生产总值在2015年第三季度只增长了0.6%。Since October, the decline in the Canadian dollar, aly looking shaky against a surging American currency, has picked up speed.自去年10月以来,加元加速贬值,与强劲的美元相比,加元显得摇摇欲坠。In many ways, a weaker currency is helpful to the economy. The ed States is overwhelmingly the largest market for Canadian exports, which are now less expensive across the border because of the currency’s fall.从很多方面来看,走软的货币对经济有利。美国是加拿大最大的出口市场,远超其他国家。由于货币贬值,加拿大出口商品的价格有所降低。And commodity exports are almost all priced in American dollars. So foreign exchange gains have helped cushion some of the blow to Canadian oil producers and mining companies, which largely sell their resources elsewhere.出口大宗商品的价格几乎都是以美元定价。因此,外汇收益在一定程度上缓和了加拿大石油生产商和矿业公司遭受的冲击,这些企业开采的资源主要销往其他地区。“From a household point of view, what Canadians see is that their dollar isn’t going as far,” said Craig Alexander, vice president of economic research at the C.D. Howe Institute, an economic analysis and policy group “But it’s good for Canadians, it’s good for jobs. The primary driver for economic growth going forward has to come from nonresource export sectors.”“普遍看法是,加拿大人认为加元不会一路跌下去,”经济分析及政策研究机构C·D·豪研究所(C.D. Howe Institute)负责经济分析的副所长克雷格·亚历山大(Craig Alexander)说。“但这对加拿大人有利,对就业有利。经济继续增长的主要驱动力来自非资源型出口领域。”Canada’s tourism industry and other service sectors, which had been suffering, are aly experiencing gains from the currency drop. Luke Azevedo, the film commissioner for Calgary Economic Development, said there had been a notable rise in production in Alberta, where large portions of the movie “The Revenant” and the television series “Fargo” were filmed last year.步履艰难的加拿大旅游业及其他务行业,已经从货币贬值的形势中受益。卡尔加里经济发展局(Calgary Economic Development)电影专员卢克·阿塞韦多(Luke Azevedo)表示,艾伯塔省的制片活动显著增多。去年,电影《荒野猎人》(The Revenant)和电视剧《冰血暴》(Fargo)的很多场景都是在卡尔加里拍摄的。“It’s across the country and the dollar plays a fairly significant role,” Mr. Azevedo said.阿塞韦多说,“全国都是这样,加元汇率发挥了重要作用。”Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on Wednesday, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau emphasized Canada’s strengths in technology and education rather than its ailing natural resource sector.周三,加拿大总理贾斯廷·特鲁多(Justin Trudeau)在瑞士达沃斯举行的世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)发表讲话时,强调了加拿大在技术和教育方面的优势,并未多谈状况欠佳的自然资源行业。“Our natural resources are important and always will be,” Mr. Trudeau said. “But Canadians know that growth and prosperity is not only based on what’s under our feet but particularly on what we have between our ears.”“我们的自然资源非常重要,将来也是如此,”特鲁多说。“但加拿大人知道,发展和繁荣不仅仅是基于我们脚底下的资源,还尤其要依靠我们的头脑。”Consumer costs are creeping up in a number of areas.在一些领域,消费者的购物成本在逐渐提高。The turnover in the grocery aisle, compared with, say, a clothing store, is faster, meaning changes in currency are more quickly reflected. And profit margins are thin, so grocery stores are less willing to absorb the losses.例如,与装店相比,食杂店的价格上涨得更快一些,这意味着杂货店更快速地体现了汇率波动。由于利润空间非常微薄,食杂店更不愿承受这种损失。The current collapse of the country’s dollar could have a more significant impact in supermarkets than it did in the early 2000s, according to Sylvain Charlebois, a professor at the University of Guelph in Ontario and one of the authors of an annual study of Canadian food prices.安大略省圭尔夫大学(University of Guelph)教授西尔万·沙勒布瓦(Sylvain Charlebois)表示,与2000年代初期的情况相比,目前加元汇率暴跌的形势可能会给超市带来更为显著的影响。沙勒布瓦跟其他人合著了一份关于加拿大食品价格的年度研究报告。Professor Charlebois estimated that about 140 Canadian food processing plants have closed in recent years. Many were owned by multinationals that have replaced Canadian production with imports from their larger American plants. Kellogg’s ended a century of production in London, Ontario, just over a year ago.据沙勒布瓦教授估计,近些年来约有140家加拿大食品加工厂关门。很多加工厂归跨国公司所有,这些公司用规模更大的美国加工厂生产的进口产品,代替加拿大本地生产的产品。一年多以前,氏(Kellogg)停止了该公司在安大略省伦敦市已经持续百年的生产活动。The result, Professor Charlebois said, is that price increases will be seen throughout grocery stores and not just in their fresh produce aisles. Aly, he said, some breakfast cereals have hit 10 Canadian dollars.沙勒布瓦教授表示,结果就是,不仅新鲜农产品的价格会上涨,食杂店商品的价格也会抬高。他表示,一些谷类早餐的价格已经达到10加元。Fishermen in Prince Edward Island now send most of their oyster harvest to the ed States to capitalize on the currency difference. That’s leading to shortages at Canadian fishmongers, forcing some restaurant owners to reimport from the ed States.爱德华王子岛的渔民现在将收获的大多数牡蛎都运往了美国,以便利用汇率差价获利。这导致加拿大鱼贩缺货,迫使一些餐厅老板从美国再进口牡蛎。“It’s mind-boggling that I have to buy Malpeque oysters from my American importer in Boston,” said David McMillan, the co-owner of Joe Beef and two other restaurants in Montreal, adding that the cost of the oyster from Prince Edward Island had risen to 120 Canadian dollars a box from about 90 Canadian dollars. “That’s a lot of money for not a special oyster.”“我得从美国波士顿的进口商那里购买莫尔佩克产的牡蛎,这真是令人难以置信,”戴维·麦克米伦(David McMillan)说。麦克米伦在蒙特利尔与别人合开了Joe Beef及其他两家餐厅。他还表示,爱德华王子岛出产的牡蛎价格从一箱90加元上涨到了120加元。“对于并不特别的牡蛎来说,这个价格太高了。” /201601/424085

Jin Dynasty金朝Kaifeng as the Jin Capital迁都开封In 1153, Jin Emperor Wanyan Liang (完颜亮)moved the empire’s capital from Huining Fu in northern Manchuria (south of present-day Harbin) to Zhongdu (now Beijing).1153年,金朝皇帝完颜亮将都城从北方满洲的会宁府(今哈尔滨)迁到了中都(今北京)。Four years later in 1157, he razed Beijing, including the nobles’ residences,四年后,他将北京夷为平地,包括贵族的住宅,and moved the Jurchen “southern” capital from Beijing to Kaifeng, former seat of the Song Dynasty,然后将“南”都城迁至宋朝的旧都开封,and began to reconstruct it (since its sack in 1127).并开始了对其的重建(从金朝掠夺的1127始)。Emperor Wanyan Liang attacked the Southern Song in 1161.完颜亮在1161年攻打了南宋。Meanwhile, two simultaneous rebellions of Jurchen nobles, led by soon-to-be crowned Jin Emperor Wanyan Yong (完颜雍),期间,由之后继位的完颜雍领导女真贵族进行的叛乱以及满洲地区契丹族人的暴乱同时发生,and Khitan tribesman erupted in Manchuria, forcing the Jin Dynasty to withdraw its troops from southern China to quell the uprisings.这使得金朝不得不将它的军队从中国南方撤回以镇压这些反叛。The Jin navy was wiped out by a smaller Song fleet because of their use of gunpowder, the first recorded use in military history.金朝的海军因为火药被宋朝的小舰队击败,这也是火药在历史记录中首次被用于作战。Emperor Wanyan Liang failed in taking the Song and was assassinated by his own generals in December of 1161.完颜亮没能打败宋朝,在1161年的12月被他自己的将军刺杀。His son and heir was also assassinated in Kaifeng.他的儿子和继位者也在开封被刺杀。Although crowned in October, Emperor Wanyan Yong was not officially recognized as the 5th successive Jin Emperor until the murder of Wanyan Liang#39;s heir.尽管完颜雍在10年几位,但他直到杀死完颜亮的继承者后才被官方承认是金朝的第五任皇帝。 /201512/406495

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