明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月23日 08:43:00
The global public health emergency involving deformed babies emerged in 2015, the hottest year in the historical record, with an outbreak in Brazil of a disease transmitted by heat-loving mosquitoes. Can that be a coincidence?2015年,全球出现了涉及婴儿畸形的公共卫生紧急情况。这一年也是有历史记录以来最热的一年。这种由喜热的蚊子所传播的疾病在巴西爆发,是否可能只是巧合?Scientists say it will take them years to figure that out, and pointed to other factors that may have played a larger role in starting the crisis. But these same experts added that the Zika epidemic, as well as the related sp of a disease called dengue that is sickening as many as 100 million people a year and killing thousands, should be interpreted as warnings.科学家称,要确定是否属于巧合需要进行多年的研究。他们指出这次危机可能另有原因。但是,这些专家还补充说,兹卡的疫情以及与之相关的登革热的传播应该被视为一种警告。后者一年最多能感染1亿人,并造成数以千计的人们死亡。Over the coming decades, global warming is likely to increase the range and speed the life cycle of the particular mosquitoes carrying these viruses, encouraging their sp deeper into temperate countries like the ed States.在未来几十年,全球变暖可能造成那些携带这些病毒的特殊种类的蚊子的活动范围扩大和生命周期加快,进而促使这些疫病向美国等温带国家扩展。Recent research suggests that under a worst-case scenario, involving continued high global emissions coupled with fast population growth, the number of people exposed to the principal mosquito could more than double, to as many as 8 billion or 9 billion by late this century from roughly 4 billion today.近期的研究表明,最糟糕的一种情况是,随着全球温室气体的大量排放和人口的高速增长,有可能接触这种蚊子的人口将翻番,目前是40亿左右,到本世纪末将多达80亿或90亿。“As we get continued warming, it’s going to become more difficult to control mosquitoes,” said Andrew Monaghan, who is studying the interaction of climate and health at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. “The warmer it is, the faster they can develop from egg to adult, and the faster they can incubate viruses.”“随着全球变暖,控制蚊子将越来越困难。”安德鲁·莫纳甘(Andrew Monaghan)说。安德鲁在科罗拉多州尔德的美国国家大气研究中心(National Center for Atmospheric Research)研究气候与健康的互动关系。“天气越热,蚊子从孵化到成年的速度就越快,病毒繁殖的速度也就越快。”Aly, climate change is suspected — though not proven — to have been a factor in a string of disease outbreaks afflicting both people and animals. These include the sp of malaria into the highlands of eastern Africa, the rising incidence of Lyme disease in North America, and the sp of a serious livestock ailment called bluetongue into parts of Europe that were once too cold for it to thrive.人们怀疑,气候变化是人畜感染一系列疾病的一个原因,尽管这一点尚未得到实。这些疾病包括东非高原地区的疟疾,北美莱姆病的发病率升高,欧洲部分地区的牲畜出现的严重的蓝舌病疫情,那些地区之前因为太冷,很少出现这些疾病。In interviews, experts noted that no epidemic was ever the result of a single variable.在访谈中,专家指出没有任何一种传染病是仅由一个变量引起的。Instead, epidemics always involve interactions among genes, ecology, climate and human behavior, presenting profound difficulties for scientists trying to tease apart the contributing factors. “The complexity is enormous,” said Walter J. Tabachnick, a professor with the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, a unit of the University of Florida in Vero Beach.相反,传染病常常涉及基因、生态、气候、人类行为等多种因素的互动,所以科学家很难把单个因素分离出来。“原因极为复杂。”佛罗里达大学(University of Florida)位于维罗比奇(Vero Beach)的佛罗里达医学昆虫学实验室的教授瓦尔特·塔巴奇尼克(Walter J. Tabachnick)说。The epidemics of Zika and dengue are cases in point. The viruses are being transmitted largely by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. That creature adapted long ago to live in human settlements, and developed a concomitant taste for human blood.兹卡和登革热就是典型的例子。这些病毒主要是由感染黄热病的伊蚊传播。这种生物早已适应了在人类聚居地生存,并因此喜好人类的血液。Cities in the tropics, the climate zone most favorable to the mosquito, have undergone explosive growth: Humanity passed a milestone a few years ago when more than half the population had moved to urban areas. But spending on health care and on basic public health infrastructure, like water pipes and sewers, has not kept pace. Mosquito control has also faltered in recent decades.热带是最适合蚊子生存的气候带,而那里的城市正在经历迅猛的增长:几年前人类就跨过了一个里程碑:一半以上的人口已迁居到城市地区。但是公共医疗和公共卫生基础设施的投入,比如水管和下水设施,仍是滞后的。近几十年对蚊子的控制也出现了放松。The mosquito lays its eggs in containers of water, of a sort that are especially common in the huge slums of Latin American cities. With unreliable access to piped water, people there store water in rooftop cisterns, buckets and the like. Old tires and other debris can also become mosquito habitat.蚊子在盛水的容器中产卵,这种容器在拉丁美洲城市的大型贫民窟中尤其常见。由于没有可靠的管道用水,那里的人们会把水存放在屋顶的水箱、水桶和类似的容器中。旧轮胎和其他垃圾也可能成为蚊子的栖息地。Water storage near homes is commonplace in areas where Zika has sp rapidly, like the cities of Recife and Salvador in northeastern Brazil, and where dengue experienced a surge in 2015, like S漀 Paulo, Brazil’s largest state.在兹卡病毒迅速传播的区域,比如巴西东北部城市累西腓和萨尔瓦多,以及2015年出现登革热病例激增的巴西最大州圣保罗,都有在民宅附近存水的习惯。Altogether, dengue killed at least 839 people in Brazil in 2015, a 40 percent increase from the previous year. Worldwide, dengue is killing more than 20,000 people a year.2015年,巴西共有至少839人死于登革热,比上一年增加40%。而全世界一年有超过2万人死于登革热。 多名专家在访谈中称,疾病爆发的一个主要原因很可能是城市化、人口增长和跨国旅行造成受风险人口增加。他们认为气候变化只是压垮骆驼的最后一根稻草。Several experts said in interviews that a main reason for the disease outbreaks was most likely the expansion of the number of people at risk, through urbanization, population growth and international travel. They see the changing climate as just another stress on top of a situation that was aly rife with peril.多名专家在采访中说,疾病爆发的一个主要原因很可能是随着城市化、人口增长和跨国旅行,面临风险的人群扩大了。他们认为在已经有重重危险的局面中,气候变化只是其中的一重压力。While they do not understand to what degree rising temperatures and other weather shifts may have contributed to the outbreaks, they do understand some of the potential mechanisms.虽然他们并不知道气温升高和其他气候变化因素,对疫情爆发的作用有多大,但是他们明白其中一些潜在的机制。The mosquitoes mostly live on flower nectar, but the female of the species needs a meal of human blood to have enough protein to lay her eggs. If she bites a person infected with dengue, Zika or any of several other diseases, she picks up the virus.蚊子大多以花蜜为生,但是雌性蚊子为了产卵,需要吸人血来提供充足的蛋白质。如果它叮了已感染登革热、兹卡或其他几种病的人,它就携带了该种病毒。The virus has to reproduce in the mosquito for a certain period before it can be transmitted to another person in a subsequent bite. The higher the air temperature, the shorter that incubation period. Moreover, up to a point, higher temperatures cause the mosquitoes to mature faster.病毒需要在蚊子的体内繁殖一段时间,才能在下一次叮咬时传播给他人。温度越高,病毒繁殖所需的时间就越短。而且在某个限度以内,温度越高,蚊子的成熟就越快。With rising temperatures, “You’re actually speeding up the whole reproductive cycle of the mosquitoes,” said Charles B. Beard, who heads a unit in Fort Collins, Colo., studying insect-borne diseases for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. “You get larger populations, with more generations of mosquitoes, in a warmer, wetter climate. You have this kind of amplification of the risk.”温度上升“实际上会加速蚊子的整个繁殖周期,”查尔斯·B·彼尔德(Charles B. Beard)说,“人口增加了,在更潮湿、更炎热的气候里,存活的蚊子世代也增多了,这就放大了风险。”彼尔德领导着一个位于科罗拉多州科林斯堡的团队,为亚特兰大的疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta)进行昆虫传播疾病研究。In principle, the risk from continued global warming applies not just to temperate countries, but to cities at high altitude in tropical countries. Researchers are keeping a close eye on Mexico City, for instance.理论上,全球持续变暖所带来的风险,不仅涉及温带国家,还涉及热带国家的高海拔城市。比如,研究人员正在密切关注墨西哥城。With 21 million people in the city and its suburbs, Mexico City is the largest metropolis of the Western Hemisphere. While the lowlands of Mexico are plagued by yellow fever mosquitoes and the viruses they transmit, the country’s capital sits on a mountain plain that has — up to now — been too cold for the mosquitoes.墨西哥城的城区和郊区一共有2100万人,它是西半球最大的都市。虽然在墨西哥的低地,感染黄热病和其他病毒的蚊子到处肆虐,但是墨西哥的首都位于较寒冷的山顶平原,至少目前蚊子还无法在那里生存。But temperatures are rising, and the mosquitoes have recently been detected in low numbers near Mexico City.但是随着气温的升高,墨西哥城附近最近发现了少量的蚊子。“The mosquito is just down the hill, literally,” Dr. Monaghan said. “I think all the potential is there to have virus transmission if climatic conditions become a bit more suitable.”“蚊子已经来到山脚下了,”莫纳甘士说。“我觉得只要气候条件再合适一点,病毒就有可能开始传播。” /201602/427713WUERZBURG, Germany — The Islamic State claimed responsibility Tuesday for a rampage by a 17-year-old Afghan migrant who attacked passengers on a regional train in southern Germany with an ax, and then seriously injured a woman who was walking her dog, before he was killed by police.德国维尔茨堡——伊斯兰国(Islamic State)周二宣布对一名17岁的阿富汗移民的暴行负责。这名青年持一把斧头在德国南部的一列地区火车上袭击乘客,然后又重伤一名在遛的女子,最后被警方击毙。The train attack, around 9 p.m. Monday near Wuerzburg in Bavaria, wounded four visitors from Hong Kong, two of them critically. The woman walking her dog was hospitalized with serious injuries.列车袭击发生在周一晚上9点左右,地点在巴伐利亚州维尔茨堡附近。袭击造成四名香港游客受伤,其中两人伤情危重。遛的那名女子因重伤入院治疗。The attack intensified fears in Germany that the huge influx of migrants and refugees could pose a security threat.此次袭击加剧了德国国内的恐慌情绪。民众担心,大量涌入的移民和难民可能会构成安全威胁。“The brutality and unrestrained iness to use violence that is reflected by this act has shocked me deeply,” said Horst Seehofer, the governor of the southern state of Bavaria and an ally but occasional critic of Chancellor Angela Merkel, at a Cabinet meeting. Justice Minister Heiko Maas called on Germans ;to fight radicalism, regardless of where it comes from.”“此举反映出的残忍以及肆无忌惮的暴力,令我深感震惊,”德国南部巴伐利亚州的州长霍斯特·泽霍费尔(Horst Seehofer)在一次内阁会议上说。他是德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)的盟友,但偶尔也会对其持批评态度。德国司法部长海科·马斯(Heiko Maas)呼吁德国民众“与激进主义战斗,不管它来自哪里”。On Tuesday afternoon, the Islamic State released a with Arabic subtitles of a young man, who appeared to be the one who carried out the attack, reciting a jihadi manifesto.周二下午,伊斯兰国公布了一段配有阿拉伯语字幕的视频。视频中,一名年轻男子背诵了一段圣战宣言,看上去就是那起袭击的歹徒。In the , the young man said in Pashto, one of the major languages of Afghanistan, “I will do a martyrdom operation in Germany today,” and pledged allegiance to the Islamic State. He said that Islamic State fighters had settled in “infidel” countries and vowed: “God willing, you will be targeted in your villages, in your cities, in your airports, in your streets. The Islamic caliphate is strong enough to target you everywhere, even in your parliament.” He also urged Muslims to “wake up and support the caliphate,” and to pledge allegiance to the Islamic State’s leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.在视频中,这名年轻男子用阿富汗主要的语言之一普什图语说,“我今天会在德国执行一次殉难行动,”并宣誓效忠于伊斯兰国。他说伊斯兰国战士已在“异教徒”国家安顿下来,并发誓:“有朝一日,你们会在自己的村庄、城市、机场和街道上成为目标。伊斯兰哈里发强大到足以在各个地方,包括在你们的议会里,对你们发起攻击。”他还呼吁穆斯林“醒过来,持哈里发”,并承诺效忠于伊斯兰国领导人阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪(Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi)。Erik Ohlenschlager, the chief prosecutor in Bamberg, said at a news conference in Wuerzburg that authorities were examining the to determine if the young man in the was the teenager who carried out the attack.班伯格的首席检察官埃里克·奥伦施拉格尔(Erik Ohlenschlager)在维尔茨堡的新闻发布会上表示,当局正在检查视频,以确定视频中的年轻男子是否就是制造此次袭击的青年。Hours earlier, in a bulletin issued in Arabic and English via its Amaq News Agency, the Islamic State claimed responsibility for the ax attack. It called the Afghan teenager an “Islamic State soldier,” using language similar to its claim of responsibility for the Bastille Day attack in Nice, France, that killed 84 people on Thursday.几个小时前,在通过自己的通讯社“阿玛克新闻社”(Amaq News Agency)发布的一则阿拉伯语和英语简讯中,伊斯兰国宣布对袭击负责。伊斯兰国称那名阿富汗青年是一名“伊斯兰国战士”,它在宣布对周四巴士底日发生在法国尼斯的那场袭击负责时,使用了类似的语言。尼斯的袭击造成84人死亡。The statement added that he had acted in response to the Islamic State’s call to target members of the U.S.-led coalition that is fighting the group in Iraq and Syria.声明还表示,那名男子是响应伊斯兰国的号召而采取行动的。伊斯兰国呼吁将目标对准参加美国领导的联盟的国家。这个联盟正在伊拉克和叙利亚打击伊斯兰国。German authorities said that investigators had found a hand-drawn flag of the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, in the room of the Afghan teenager, along with notes in Pashto indicating that he might have been self-radicalized.德国当局称,调查人员在那名阿富汗青年的房间里找到了一面手绘的伊斯兰国(又称ISIS)旗帜,以及一些用普什图语做的笔记。它们表明,他可能是自行走向激进化的。Approximately 1.5 million migrants have applied for asylum in Germany in the past 18 months, but the enthusiastic welcome they initially received has given way to one of increasing concern as the euphoria of generosity is overshadowed by the difficult reality of integration.过去18个月里有大约150万移民在德国申请庇护,但随着慷慨待人的喜悦被融合这个现实难题的阴影所笼罩,他们最初受到的热烈欢迎也被日渐加剧的忧虑所取代。Although the flow has slowed, Merkel has been under increasing pressure, especially after North African migrants were linked to hundreds of sexual assaults in Cologne on New Year’s Eve.尽管移民和难民涌入的速度放缓,但默克尔面临的压力却在加大,特别是元旦前夕科隆发生的数百起性侵事件被认为和北非移民有关后。According to the Bavarian State Criminal Police, the teenager entered Germany on June 30, 2015, without his parents and was registered in Passau. He received a temporary residence permit.据巴伐利亚州刑事警察局(Bavarian State Criminal Police)介绍,2015年6月30日进入德国并在帕绍登记时,这名青年未与父母同行。他获得了临时居住。Four of the victims were visiting from Hong Kong: a father, 62, and mother, 58, their 26-year-old daughter, and her boyfriend, 30. The older couple’s 17-year-old son was unhurt.受害者中,有四人是来自香港的游客:62岁的父亲、58岁的母亲、26岁的女儿和她30岁的男友。这对年长夫妇的17岁儿子逃过一劫。Hong Kong’s chief executive, Leung Chun-ying, condemned the attack and sent officials to Germany to provide assistance to the family.香港行政长官梁振英(Leung Chun-ying)对袭击表示谴责,并派官员前往德国,为那一家人提供帮助。“The two men are more heavily injured, particularly in their heads and torsos,” Kenneth Tong, a senior immigration officer, said before leaving Hong Kong for Frankfurt with three colleagues and four relatives of the family. “It remains to be determined whether we’d transfer them to Hong Kong.”“两名男性伤者伤势更严重,尤其头部和腹部的伤,”高级移民官员汤敬轩(Kenneth Tong)在和三名同事及四名受害者亲属离开香港前往法兰克福前说。“还没决定是否将他们送回香港。”The mother and daughter are in stable condition, he said.他说,母亲和女儿伤情稳定。 /201607/455630




  HONG KONG — The woman credited with creating the so-called burkini said the controversy over efforts to ban the full-body bathing suit worn by some Muslim women has helped bolster demand for her invention, which she said was not meant to be a political statement.香港——被认为发明了所谓“布基尼”的女子说,那些试图禁止“布基尼”的争论,已帮助增加了对其发明的需求,这种泳衣覆盖全身,由一些穆斯林妇女所穿,她说,布基尼本来并不是一个政治声明。Aheda Zanetti, the Lebanese-Australian inventor of the swimsuit, said officials in more than a dozen French beach towns seeking to prevent women from covering up have misconstrued the purpose of the bathing suit.泳装发明者、黎巴嫩裔澳大利亚人阿海达#8226;萨内蒂(Aheda Zanetti)表示,法国十几个海滩小镇的官员试图阻止妇女遮盖全身的做法,误解了这种泳衣的目的。“They’ve misunderstood the burkini swimsuit,” Ms. Zanetti, 49, said in a telephone interview from Sydney. “Because the burkini swimsuit is freedom and happiness and lifestyle changes — you can’t take that away from a Muslim, or any other woman, that chooses to wear it.”“他们误解了布基尼泳衣,”49岁的萨内蒂在悉尼接受电话采访时说。“因为布基尼泳衣代表自由、幸福和生活方式的变化,你不能从选择穿它的穆斯林或任何其他女性那里把它夺走。”Ms. Zanetti said she designed the garment in 2004 for women who wanted to show less skin while bathing or exercising.萨内蒂说,2004年,自己为那些想在游泳或锻炼时暴露少一些的妇女设计了这种装。“I wanted to introduce a full range of clothing to suit a Muslim woman — or any woman — that wanted a bit of modesty and wanted to participate in any sporting activities,” said Ms. Zanetti, who is a Muslim and wears her own swimwear products. “我希望推出满足穆斯林女性、或任何女性需求的全套装,这些装是为那些在参加体育活动时想保留一点端庄的人设计的,”萨内蒂说,她是一名穆斯林,也穿自己设计的泳装产品。“It was also my aim for them not to be judged for who they are, or where they’re from, and who people think they’re representing.”“我的目的也是让她们不因自己的身份、来自哪个国家,以及人们认为她们代表什么而被评头论足。”A fashion designer and former hairdresser, Ms. Zanetti coined the name “burkini,” a blend of the words burqa and bikini, but said that the swimsuit was not intended to exclude non-Muslims and was not meant to be a political statement.现为时装设计师、曾经当过美发师的萨内蒂创造了“布基尼”这个名字,它是布卡(burqa)和比基尼(bikini)的组合,但她说,这种泳衣并不把非穆斯林排除在外,也没有想成为一个政治声明。The French “burkini” bans, and the news reports about the ensuing debate, have been good for business, she said, with online sales rising about 200 percent in recent days. Most demand is coming from Australia, Europe and Canada, she said, and some new customers include skin-cancer patients who are looking for ways to shield their skin from the sun.她说,法国的“布基尼”禁令,以及对随之而来的辩论的新闻报道,对她的生意有好处,最近几天网上的销售量上升了约200%。她说,大部分需求来自澳大利亚、欧洲和加拿大,新客户中有些是皮肤癌患者,他们在寻找不让皮肤暴露在太阳光下的方法。Ms. Zanetti said that her company, Ahiida, has sold 700,000 swimsuits since 2008. The company sells its products in stores in Australia, Europe, the Middle East, the ed States and Southeast Asia.萨内蒂说,自2008年以来,她的公司Ahiida已经售出了70万件泳衣。公司在澳大利亚、欧洲、中东、美国及东南亚地区的商店销售产品。Ms. Zanetti, who moved to Australia from Lebanon as a 2-year-old, said that she did not feel comfortable wearing traditional swimsuits as a young girl. She and her friends would sometimes swim in full clothing, she said, but they did not linger in the water because they were embarrassed.萨内蒂两岁时从黎巴嫩移民澳大利亚,她说小时候不喜欢穿传统的泳衣。她说,她和她的朋友们有时会穿着平时的衣游泳,但她们在水里待的时间不长,因为会害羞。Years later, she said, her teenage niece wanted to play netball, a game similar to basketball that is played mostly by women, but was prohibited by her local Sydney league from playing while wearing a hijab. Ms. Zanetti said her sister wrote a letter of complaint to league officials, who reversed their decision.她说,好多年后,她的一个十几岁的侄女想打投球,那是一种主要由女性参与的运动,与篮球类似,但因为她戴着哈吉布打球,悉尼当地的球赛联盟曾禁止她参赛。萨内蒂说,她给赛联官员写信抗议,赛联推翻了其决定。Even so, Ms. Zanetti said that her niece’s hijab was “completely unsuitable” for athletics.萨内蒂说,尽管如此,她侄女戴的哈吉布对运动员来说“完全不合适”。Ms. Zanetti said she designed the “burkini,” which covers everything except the face, hands and feet, so that women like her niece could cover and still participate comfortably in sport. She also created the hijood — headwear attached to the “burkini,” to look like the hood of a sweatshirt.萨内蒂说,她设计的“布基尼”让像她侄女那样的女性可以遮盖全身,同时仍能舒地参加运动,布基尼遮盖了脸、手和脚以外的身体所有部分。她还发明了一个叫“哈吉帽”(hijood)的东西,这种帽子可以像运动衫的兜帽那样,附加在“布基尼”上。Ms. Zanetti said that her four children, who once “rolled their eyes” over her swimwear innovations, have recently become more interested as they follow the news from France.萨内蒂的四个孩子曾经对她的泳装创新“不以为然”,她说,最近因为注意到来自法国的新闻,他们对这种泳装有了更大的兴趣。She said that her children have noticed “that I have a strong voice on behalf of women, for freedom of choice, ” she said. “I can feel how proud they are, more than they’ve ever been.”她说她的孩子们已注意到,“我能代表女性、代表选择自由强力发声,”她说。“我能感觉到他们是多么地自豪,比他们以往任何时候都自豪。” /201608/463602The Federal Reserve has defied a string of weak inflation figures as it lifted short-term rates by another quarter point and set out detailed plans for paring back the size of its balance sheet later this year.美联储(Fed)不顾一连串疲软的通胀数据,将短期利率再次上调25个基点,并阐明了今年晚些时候缩减资产负债表规模的详细计划。Fed chair Janet Yellen and her colleagues boosted the target range for the federal funds rate of 1 to 1.25 per cent on Wednesday, reiterating that they expect inflation to return to target but stressing they are watching low inflation numbers “closely” after a series of disappointing ings.周三,美联储主席珍妮特?耶伦(Janet Yellen)及其他官员将联邦基金利率的目标区间上调到1%至1.25%,重申他们预计通胀将回到目标水平,但强调称,在一系列令人失望的数据后他们正在“密切”关注偏低的通胀数据。Fed policymakers stuck with forecasts pointing to further rate increases in the coming years, including a further quarter-point increase by the end of 2017.美联储政策制定者维持了指向未来几年进一步加息的预测,包括在2017年底前再次加息25个基点。Ms Yellen said in a press conference that the rate rise reflected the “progress the economy has made and is expected to make towards the maximum employment and price stability objectives assigned to us by law.” She added that economic growth appeared to have rebounded from earlier this year. “We continue to expect that the economy will expand at a moderate pace in the next few years.”耶伦在记者会上表示,此次加息反映了“经济已经取得的进展,以及朝着最大就业和法律规定的价格稳定目标预计将会取得的进展。”她补充称,今年早些时候经济增长似乎已经反弹。“我们继续认为未来几年经济将以温和速度扩张。”Mr Yellen also acknowledged the weaker inflation ings of late, but insisted they were significantly driven by one-off reductions in categories of prices such as wireless telephone services and prescription drugs. “The committee still expects inflation to move up and stabilise at around 2 per cent in the next couple of years,” said Ms Yellen.耶伦也承认近来出现了较为疲弱的通胀数据,但她坚称,这些数据在很大程度上受手机务和处方药等价格类别一次性下调所推动。“委员会仍然预期未来两年通胀将会上扬,并在2%左右企稳。”“We continue to expect the ongoing strength of the economy will warrant gradual increases in the federal funds rate to sustain a healthy labour market and stabilise inflation around our 2 per cent longer-run objective.”“我们继续预期,持续的经济强劲程度将持联邦基金利率逐渐上调,以维持健康的劳动力市场,并使通胀在我们的长期目标2%左右企稳。”For the first time the Fed’s post-meeting statement confirmed that policymakers expect to begin a “normalisation” programme that will reduce the size of a balance sheet that was swollen during crisis-era interventions. In a separate document the Fed for the first time gave detailed figures for how it plans to phase out reinvestments of the proceeds of maturing securities on its .5tn balance sheet.美联储会后声明首次实,政策制定者预计将启动“正常化”计划——缩减在危机时代实施干预期间不断扩大的资产负债表。在另一份文件中,美联储首次给出了详细数据,说明其计划如何分阶段停止对其4.5万亿美元资产负债表上到期券的所得进行再投资。 /201706/513975

  China#39;s State post bureau announced on Monday that it will start a nationwide campaign to crack down on illegal activities by enforcing real-name registration for senders.中国国家邮政局在周一宣布将在全国范围内启动快递寄件人实名制登记以打击违法犯罪活动。Starting Monday, the campaign launched by the State Post Bureau of China (SPB), which manages both post offices and private delivery companies, will conduct inspections and implement new rules, in a crackdown that will run until March 2016.从周一开始,这项制度由国家邮政局发起,中国邮政和私营快递公司共同实施,这次整顿将把新规则的检查和实施持续到2016年3月。The nation#39;s new rules, which took effect on Sunday, require senders to present official ID, especially when sending from a public place, such as hotels or train stations. The rules also stipulate that packages should go through an X-ray machine for a security check.这项新政策将在周日开始正式实施。寄件人将出示自己的身份明,尤其是从公共场所,如宾馆和火车站寄出的快递。这项政策也规定包裹必须要经过x光机器的安全检查。China began to mull a real-name registration policy in the industry after parcels tainted with toxic chemicals killed a man in East China#39;s Shandong Province and poisoned seven others in December 2013.在2013年9月中国东部山东省的一起包裹杀人事件中,一个携带有毒化学物质的包裹杀死了一个人并且让另外7个人受到感染,这使得中国开始考虑启动快递业的实名制政策。A staff member surnamed Chen working in a post office in Hohhot in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region told the Global Times that senders must take their original ID card to the post office, and showing a photo of their ID card is not acceptable.一位在内蒙古自治区呼和浩特市邮政局工作的陈姓工作人员告诉《环球时报》,寄件人必须使用他们本人的身份原件,复印件是不被认可的。;The couriers will scan and record your ID information. Senders don#39;t need to worry about personal information being secure. There will be follow-up measures to guarantee the safety of senders#39; information. For instance, there will be specially-assigned personnel to keep and manage all this information,; Chen said.陈姓工作人员说,“快递员会扫描登记你的身份信息。寄件人不必担心自己的个人信息安全。我们会采取一些后续措施来确保寄件人的信息安全。比如说,我们有一个专门的员工管理和处理这些信息。”However, many Net users still expressed concern over the leak of personal information in real-name registration.然而,很多网民仍然对实名制是否会泄露个人信息表示了担忧。Zhu Hong, an associate professor at the Ningbo Institute of Technology under Zhejiang University, told the Global Times in a previous interview that whether the real-name registration system would hold back packages containing illegal or hazardous goods is not clear. ;We can trace the senders now with phone numbers. Registering ID cards might only speed up the process a bit,; Zhu said.浙江大学宁波科技学院的教授朱宏早前在《环球时报》的采访中说,实名制是否能够确保包裹里面不含违法和危险物品还不得而知。他表示,“我们可以通过联系电话来追查寄件人。登记身份信息只是把这个过程加快了一点而已。” /201511/408388

  A shift in Beijing’s priorities away from production targets has allowed Chinese oil companies to halt output in maturing oilfields, a previously politically unpalatable decision that leaves them better placed for an eventual recovery in oil prices.北京方面降低对产量指标的注重,使中国石油企业得以停止开采成熟油田。这个以往在政治上行不通的决定将使它们处于更有利的地位,以迎接油价的最终复苏。International majors routinely scale back production from high-cost fields when oil prices fall, but in China, for decades, the government mandate has been to increase domestic supply and ensure energy security.大型国际石油企业经常在油价下跌时缩减高成本油田的产量,但在中国,几十年来政府下达的任务是增加国内供应,确保能源安全。In years past, they were under pressure to produce higher numbers every year, even if they were producing uneconomically. 往年它们承受逐年提高产量的压力,即使这种生产在经济上不划算也在所不惜。Now that pressure is gone, said Laban Yu, head of Asian energy research with Jefferies.现在这种压力消失了,杰富瑞(Jefferies)亚洲能源研究主管Laban Yu表示。In the past week both PetroChina and Sinopec reported declines in oil production for the first half of the year. 过去一周,中石油(PetroChina)和中石化(Sinopec)都报告今年上半年石油产量下降。Sinopec said domestic crude oil output fell 13 per cent versus a 3 per cent drop in its overseas operations, while PetroChina reported a 4 per cent decline in domestic production.中石化表示,国内原油产量下降了13%,而海外产量下降了3%,而中石油报告国内产量下降4%。Both managed to turn a profit in the first half, though PetroChina just barely remained in the black, reporting a 98 per cent plunge in first-half net profit to Rmb531m (m) while revenue fell 16 per cent to Rmb739bn. 两家公司在上半年都实现盈利。尽管中石油勉强保持盈利,上半年净利润暴跌98%,至5.31亿元人民币(合7900万美元),而营收下降16%,至7390亿元人民币。Sinopec, whose refining arm benefits more from low crude prices, said net profit declined 22 per cent to Rmb20bn as revenues fell 37 per cent to Rmb880bn. 中石化——其炼油部门从低油价中获得更多好处——报告净利润下降22%,至200亿元人民币,营收下降37%,至8800亿元人民币。China’s third oil major Cnooc, which had told analysts it would likely cut output by as much as 5 per cent this year, said oil and gas production crept up by less than 1 per cent in the first half and is expected to see crude output fall in the second half of the year. 中国第三家大型石油企业中海油(CNOOC)此前告诉分析师,今年很可能减产高达5%。该公司现在表示,上半年石油和天然气产量微升不到1%,预计今年下半年原油产量将会下降。The company lost Rmb7.74bn in the first half, reversing from a profit of Rmb14.73bn a year ago.该公司在上半年亏损77.4亿元人民币,去年同期实现147.3亿元人民币利润。In the first seven months of the year, Chinese crude oil output dropped 5 per cent compared with the same period of 2015, with production in July falling to levels last seen in late 2011.今年头七个月,中国原油产量同比下降了5%,7月份产量降至2011年末以来未见的水平。That comes as refinery expansions and relaxed regulations on independent teapot refineries importing crude oil has turned China into a net exporter of oil products, easing Beijing’s fears of an oil supply shortage.与此同时,炼油设施扩建和对以进口原油为原料的独立茶壶炼油厂放松监管,使中国成为一个成品油净出口国,也缓解了北京方面对于石油供应短缺的担忧。The language from Sasac has changed, said Thomas Hilboldt, head of energy research for Asia at HS, referring to the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, which is in charge of state-owned companies. 国资委的措辞发生了变化,汇丰(HS)亚洲能源研究主管托马斯#8226;希尔伯特(Thomas Hilboldt)表示。他指的是负责国有企业的国务院国有资产监督管理委员会(SASAC)。The top-down guidance is no longer targeting production thresholds but supply thresholds. 自上而下的指导不再瞄准产量门槛,而是瞄准供应门槛。In simple terms, if all-in oil production costs are to a barrel to get oil out of the ground, and it can be purchased in the marketplace for , then you should just buy crude for , he said简单来说,如果开采石油的全部成本是每桶50美元至60美元,而在市场上用25美元就可以买到,那么你就应该以25美元的价格买入原油,他说。That marks a sea change for China, where increasing production year after year was the top political priority regardless of the cost. 这对中国是一个巨大变化;在中国,逐年提高产量而不计成本曾是最高政治任务。Low oil prices and a supply glut have given oil companies the mandate to shut maturing fields and reduce workforces, even in northeastern provinces and the coal heartland where unemployment is aly a big problem.低油价和供应过剩使石油企业获得了在成熟油田停产和减少劳动力的授权,即便在失业已经是一大问题的东北省份和煤炭腹地也是如此。It’s not likely that the oil companies would close down oilfields on a large scale, but certainly they would use the chance to close down those old oilfields that produce little but cost a lot to operate, said Zhu Chunkai, oil analyst at Chem99.com.石油企业不太可能大规模关闭油田,但可以肯定它们会利用这个机会关闭那些产量很小、但作业成本很高的老油田,卓创资讯(Chem99.com)石油分析师朱春凯表示。Cuts in high-cost production beginning in 2015 helped PetroChina and Sinopec stay profitable, said Mr Yu of Jefferies, adding there was a lot of fat to cut.杰富瑞的Laban Yu表示,2015年启动的削减高成本生产的努力帮助中石油和中石化保持盈利。他补充说,有大量脂肪可以切除。 /201609/464147



  A federal program meant to encourage investment in the ed States from wealthy foreigners is increasingly supporting large luxury real estate projects, not the development in the rural and downtrodden districts that some say were the original targets of the program.目前,一个旨在鼓励富有的外国人在美国投资的联邦项目愈来愈倾向于持大型豪华房地产项目,而不是用于乡村和穷困地区的发展,虽然在一些人口中,后者才是该项目的初衷。With billions of dollars flowing in, mostly from wealthy Chinese, the program faces an uncertain future. 数以十亿美元计的资金已通过该项目流入美国,大多是来自富裕的中国人,但如今它面临着不确定的未来。In September, Congress reset the expiration date on parts of the so-called EB-5 program to Dec. 9.9月,国会将这个名为EB-5的项目的部分截止日期重新设为12月9日。The program grants permanent residency in the ed States to those who are willing to immigrate and invest 0,000 in a business that creates at least 10 jobs. 该项目向愿意移民的投资者提供美国的永久居留权,此人需要向一个至少创造10个工作机会的企业投资50万美元。Many of the projects that have received money have been in real estate, though investments have also gone to charter schools, medical centers and manufacturing plants. 尽管也有投资流向特许学校、医疗中心和制造厂,但许多获得该项目投资的都是房地产。Some billion of investments have been made through the program since 2005, according to the EB-5 Coalition, an industry group in Washington.根据华盛顿行业组织EB-5联盟(EB-5 Coalition)的说法,从2005年以来,该项目大约吸引了150亿美元的投资。Critics have derided the program as essentially a legal way for immigrants to buy their way into the country.批评者嘲笑该项目本质上是为移民提供购买美国身份的合法途径。Donald J. Trump’s election adds a new wrinkle. 唐纳德#8226;J#8226;特朗普(Donald J. Trump)的当选增加了一个新的变数。He campaigned heavily on immigration reform, pledging to build a wall on the Mexican border and increase the deportation of criminal noncitizens. 他竞选时大力主张移民改革,承诺在墨西哥边境上修建围墙,并将更多犯罪的无公民身份者驱逐出境。He also said he wanted to reduce legal immigration and ensure jobs are offered to Americans first.他还说他想减少合法移民,保优先向美国人提供工作。Whether President-elect Trump will actually follow through on these pledges remains to be seen, said Stephen W. Yale-Loehr, a law professor at Cornell University and an immigration lawyer. 侯任总统是否会真正恪守这些承诺,还有待观察,康奈尔大学法律教授与移民律师史蒂芬#8226;W#8226;耶尔-勒尔(Stephen W. Yale-Loehr)说:It is always difficult for Congress to enact significant immigration changes because immigration is so complex and controversial.在移民方面,国会总是很难实行重大的变化,因为移民问题太复杂,太有争议。The ed States is not alone in offering residence for investment. 美国不是唯一一个为投资者提供居留权的国家。Germany, Australia and Canada have versions of the program, as do several small countries. 德国、澳大利亚、加拿大及一些小国都有类似的项目。Competition among Caribbean nations is rising for their citizenship-by-investment programs, with St. Lucia being the most recent to revamp its program.目前,加勒比国家正在竞相实施投资移民计划,圣卢西亚是最新修订类似项目的国家。Foreign interest is growing. 来自外国的关注在增长。According to an analysis by professors at New York University, investments in the program are increasingly financing large-scale, luxury or entertainment-oriented real estate developments. 根据纽约大学的教授们分析,该项目吸引的投资愈来愈多地用于大型、豪华或型房地产开发项目融资。Among them: nearly billion gathered in the last year from 2,000 investors to build a Chinese-style casino in Las Vegas, 0 million from 1,200 investors for New York’s mixed-use Hudson Yards project and 0 million from 300 investors to construct the Beverly Hills Waldorf Astoria.举例来说,去年,来自2000名投资者的近10亿美元被用于在兴建一座中式风格的;来自1200名投资者的6亿美元被用于在纽约兴建多用途的哈德逊广场(Hudson Yards);来自300个投资者的1.5亿美元被用于建造比佛利山华尔道夫-阿斯托里亚酒店。The program was intended to reward people for putting money into the ed States. 该项目旨在奖励那些把资金投入美国的人。Projects that raised more than billion were practically nonexistent in the program before 2010, Prof. Jeanne Calderon of New York University’s Stern School of Business wrote in a March report on the program. 纽约大学斯特恩商学院教授让娜#8226;卡尔德隆(Jeanne Calderon)在3月发表了关于该计划的报告,其中写道,在2010年之前,几乎没有什么建设计划通过该项目筹集到超过10亿美元的资金。But when banks turned off the credit spigot around the 2008 financial crisis, developers started getting more creative in finding alternative financing.但是,在2008年金融危机时期关闭信贷渠道后,开发商便开始寻找更有创意的替代融资方案。N.Y.U. tracks 27 projects across the ed States that have raised more than .6 billion from foreign investors.纽约大学跟踪调查了美国境内27个项目,它们从外国投资者那里募集了超过56亿美元。Many of these projects are run by large commercial developers who could proceed without any foreign investment but are reaching out to foreign investors for cheaper financing than they would receive from banks.它们当中有许多是由大型商业开发商经营,就算没有任何外国投资也可以运作下去,但开发商们寻觅外国投资者是为了获得比更便宜的融资。Reformers from both political parties are calling for a much tighter definition of the areas eligible for investment through the program to remove the tracts in prosperous urban areas and get money to underserved ones. 来自两党的改革者们都呼吁对有资格获得该项目投资的地区做出更加严格的定义,让这些资金不再用于繁华都市地带的大片土地,而是用于欠发达地区。They are also looking at raising the investment minimum to 0,000.他们还考虑将投资最低限额提高到80万美元。In addition, they hope to make the projects more accountable by requiring better disclosures to protect potentially vulnerable immigrants from fraudulent schemes. 此外,他们希望该项目具备更好的透明度,保护可能处于弱势地位的移民免受欺诈性计划之害,令该项目更加负责。Federal securities regulators have filed several enforcement actions against people committing fraud through the program in recent years.联邦券监管机构已经针对近年来通过该项目实施欺诈的一些人采取了若干执法行动。The issue has friends and foes on either side of the political aisle. 这个问题在政界的左右两方都有朋友和敌人。Senators from rural parts of the country want more development dollars coming to their districts, while those from large cities want to maintain the status quo. 来自农村地区的参议员希望更多的发展资金进入自己的选区,而来自大城市的议员想保持现状。As for the immigrants themselves, they are entering the program mostly in an effort to gain permanent residency in the ed States, which gives project developers more power.至于移民们自己,他们参与该项目主要是为了在美国获得永久居留权,因此会令开发商拥有更多的权力。The Wanda Group, which is the largest commercial developer in China and is owned by the nation’s richest man, is said to be seeking foreign investment program financing for its Wanda Vista Hotel in Chicago. 万达集团是中国最大的商业开发商,其所有者亦是中国最富有的人,据说该集团正在为其芝加哥万达文华酒店寻求外国投资项目融资。The city approved the project last November. 芝加哥于去年11月批准了该酒店建设项目。The Wanda Group is also developing One Beverly Hills Hotel next to the new Waldorf in that city.万达集团目前还在开发新的比佛利山一号酒店(One Beverly Hills Hotel),它就在该市那座新的华尔道夫酒店旁边。All of this investing has created a backlog of uncertain futures. 所有这些投资令不确定的未来积压如山。Currently, 22,000 petitions are pending with the Citizenship and Immigration Services, which is directed under the Department of Homeland Security.目前,2.2万份申请书正在等待国土安全部领导下的公民及移民务局批准。 /201611/478962


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