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来源:医对话    发布时间:2019年08月23日 10:21:51    编辑:admin         

As 2014 drew to a close, I became one of the last baby boomers to turn 50. Or possibly, I became one of the first Generation Xers to reach that milestone. Depending where you draw the line, either I am about to enjoy the fruits of half a century of increasing affluence and entitlement, having climbed to the top of the hierarchy I help sustain; or I am entering a period of resentment about my smug elders’ lockhold on the best jobs and homes and the damage they have inflicted on the environment and humankind.到2014年年底,我成为了婴儿潮一代中最后一批步入50岁的人。或者说,我成为了X一代(Generation X)中首批到达50岁的人。根据不同的分界线,我或者是作为维持社会阶层结构并爬上了顶端的人,即将享受半个世纪以来日益增长的财富和福利的果实;或者是,对自命不凡的长者牢牢占据了最好的工作和房子、并对环境和人类造成损害,我开始步入一段愤怒的时期。I am part of Generation Cusp. Businesses that treat me as a boomer will vex me with advertisements for products intended for grumpy pensioners (the oldest members of the postwar birth bulge are now in their late 60s), while those that market to me as a Gen Xer will annoy me by assuming I have something in common with overambitious 30-somethings.我是处于交叉点的一代。把我视为婴儿潮一代的企业,会用针对脾气暴躁的退休老人的产品广告来烦我(战后出生率暴涨时期出生的人中年纪最大的一些人,现在将近70岁),同样让我恼火的是,那些把我当作X一代的企业则假设我和那些过于雄心勃勃的30来岁的人有一些共同之处。Such generational generalisations are only the crudest way companies decide what to sell and how to sell it. But much as I hate the stereotyping, there are good reasons why this will not be the year the personalised product and the personalised pitch come of age.这种对一代人的泛化不过是企业决定销售什么产品、以及用何种方式销售产品的最粗略的方式。尽管我很讨厌这种模式化,但仍有一些很强的原因,解释我们为何今年还不会迎来个性化产品和个性化销售策略的时代。Experts have long heralded the ability of manufacturers to use “mass customisation” to pimp my training shoes or your car. Insurers are eager to tailor their products to my personal driving habits. Personalised diagnostic tools and drug therapies —linked to patients’ DNA sequences — are on the horizon. With scant regard for our own privacy, we are aly volunteering enough information to companies to allow them to launch more precise attacks on our wallets.专家们早就预言制造商将有能力用“大规模定制”向我推销训练鞋,或者向你推销汽车。保险公司迫切地希望根据我的驾驶习惯量身打造产品。与病人的DNA序列相关联的个性化诊断工具和药物疗法在未来也可能出现。我们对自身隐私考虑甚少,已经自愿把足够的信息提供给企业,让他们对我们的钱包发起更精准的攻击。But the promise of personalisation has faded a bit since Chris Anderson got marketers all excited nine years ago with The Long Tail . In the book, he outlined the potential profit lurking in low-volume items at the end of the demand curve and warned that the 80/20 rule — the crude assumption that 20 per cent of products account for 80 per cent of sales — would “lose its bite”. Inspired, I spent some time in the late 2000s deliberately tweaking Amazon’s “recommended for you” lists, rating books I owned in the hope Jeff Bezos would find me the perfect novel — until I realised he did not care. Amazon, then as now, would rather sell me more of what I have just bought, or the latest bestsellers, than algorithmically analyse my taste in media and identify a handful of items at the underpopulated intersection of “Bill Murray movies” and “fiction by Richard Ford”.但自从9年前克里斯#8226;安德森(Chris Anderson)用一部《长尾理论》(The Long Tail)让所有的营销人员兴奋起来以后,个性化的前景就有些黯然失色。在书中,安德森概述了需求曲线末端销量较低的产品潜藏的利润,并警告“二八定律”(80/20 rule),也就是粗略假设20%的产品产生80%的销售额的定律将“部分失效”。受到启发后,我在2000年代晚期特意对我已在亚马逊(Amazon)上购买的书进行评分,好让它更换“相关推荐”清单,期望杰夫#8226;贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)能帮我找到最好的小说,直到我意识到,他根本不在乎这事。和现在一样,亚马逊更想向我兜售更多我刚刚买到的书,或者最新的畅销书,而不是利用算法分析我对媒体的品味,找出几本同时与“比尔#8226;默里(Bill Murray)的电影”和“理查德#8226;福特(Richard Ford)的小说”相关的小众书推荐给我。Amazon’s attitude makes sense. Most companies stick with mass production and common product configurations, for technical or commercial reasons. Even Google— which commands even more data with which to personalise its services — touts its Android mobile phone operating system under the slogan “Be together. Not the same”. Tilting gently at Apple, the advertising plays to the idea that each Android user is an individual, but also part of a like-minded crowd. In reality, Google has to ensure its software works across the greatest number and range of devices, safe from malfunctions, abuses and piracy. The paradox is neatly summed up in one poster showing a crowd of Android robots, each differently dressed and equipped. Underneath, however, they are all still the same robot.亚马逊的态度有其道理。许多企业出于技术或者商业的原因,坚持按照一般性产品配置进行大规模生产。即使是掌握了更多数据、因此可以据此对产品进行个性化的谷歌(Google),对其Android手机操作系统的宣传语也是“和而不同”(Be together. Not the same)。这条广告温和地对苹果(Apple)进行了抨击,展现的理念是每个Android用户不仅是个体,也是思想相似的群体的一部分。然而事实上,谷歌必须确保它的软件能在数量和款型最多的设备上正常运行,不会出现失灵、滥用和盗版问题。这其中的矛盾在一幅海报上得到了精妙的总结,海报上有一群Android机器人,每一个的穿着和装备都不同。然而,在外表之下,它们依旧是相同的机器人。Anita Elberse underlined in her recent book Blockbusters — which takes issue with the “long tail” thesis — that companies still mine a great deal of money from a few products that everybody wants to buy. “Because people are inherently social,” she wrote, “they generally find value in ing the same books and watching the same television shows and movies that others do.”阿妮塔#8226;埃尔贝斯(Anita Elberse)最近的著作《大片效应》(Blockbusters)对长尾理论提出了异议,认为企业依然能依靠人人都想购买的少数商品赚得盆满钵满。“因为人天生是社会性的,”她写道,“他们通常会从阅读其他人读过的书,观看其他人看过的电视剧和电影中寻找价值。”In fact, research suggests an over-tailored pitch turns customers off. Either they find it too spookily precise, or — as Stanford marketing professor Itamar Simonson has written — they sense that, because it is so bespoke, it will not be a good deal.事实上,研究表明过度定制的销售策略会让消费者望而却步。要么是他们觉得定位过于精确,所以心生畏惧,要么就像斯坦福大学(Stanford)营销学教授伊塔马尔#8226;西蒙森(Itamar Simonson)所写的那样,因为定制度太高,消费者感觉不划算。Generalisation will continue to be a useful business tool. More precise data will allow companies to generalise better. But the capacity for confusion will remain — in part because nobody fits neatly into just one category.泛化以后仍将是一个有用的商业工具。更精确的数据能让企业更好地泛化。但困惑还将继续存在,部分原因是没人能严丝合缝地被归入一种类别。One of my favourite stand-up comedy lines comes from a joke in which God toys with the human race he is creating: “I know! I’ll make seven sexes and tell them there are only two!” Lacking His omniscience, companies, generally speaking, would be wise to continue to rely on humans to do their own personalisation.我最喜欢的单人脱口秀台词来自一个笑话,上帝戏耍他创造的人类:“我知道啦!我会创造7种性别,然后告诉他们只有两种!”没有上帝的全知,通常来说,继续让人们自己进行个性化才是企业的明智之举。 /201504/369985。

Record sales in the American auto industry have left the biggest carmakers flush with cash, which they are pouring into new models on display this week at the annual North American International Auto Show here.美国汽车行业创下销售记录,为那些规模最大的汽车生产商带来大笔收入。它们将资金投入研发新车型,并在本周举行的一年一度的北美国际车展(North American International Auto Show)上进行展示。But even the smallest auto companies are flourishing in the booming American market, none more so than the tiny Chinese-owned, Swedish-run luxury brand Volvo.不过,就连规模最小的那些车企也在繁荣的美国市场蓬勃发展,尤其是由中国人拥有、瑞典人运营的小众豪华品牌沃尔沃(Volvo)。While General Motors, Ford Motor and others held lavish news conferences, Volvo showed off a new sedan, the S90, and won recognition for its flagship sport utility vehicle, the XC90, as the best truck introduced in 2015.通用汽车(General Motors)、福特汽车(Ford Motor Company)及其他一些品牌举行了奢华的新闻发布会,而沃尔沃则展示了新款轿车S90,其旗舰款运动型多功能车XC90也获得了2015年度最佳新款卡车大奖。It illustrated how even the littlest car companies — Volvo has just 0.3 percent of the American market — can succeed when demand soars.这说明了,当需求飙升时,即便规模最小的车企也能成功。沃尔沃在美国市场仅占0.3%的份额。Bought from Ford in 2010 as part of that automaker’s retrenchment during the financial crisis, Volvo has been expanding under its new owners, Geely Auto of China, whose ambitions include Volvo’s first factory in North America.2010年金融危机期间,福特将沃尔沃卖给中国吉利汽车集团,以此作为削减开举措的一部分。有了新东家后,沃尔沃不断扩展。吉利的目标包括建造沃尔沃在北美的第一座工厂。While overall industry sales increased about 6 percent last year in the ed States compared with the previous year, Volvo’s sales rose 24 percent to 70,000 vehicles, according to the research firm Autodata.调研企业汽车数据公司(Autodata)的报告显示,美国汽车市场去年的总销量同比增加了6%,而沃尔沃的销售量飙升了24%,增至七万辆。“We have always placed great significance on our presence in the U.S.,” Hakan Samuelsson, the company’s chief executive and president, said. “That is why we decided to present our S90 to the public for the very first time at the Detroit show and why we have begun to build a Volvo factory here.”“我们一直非常重视在美国市场的发展,” 沃尔沃首席执行官兼总裁哈坎·萨缪尔森(Hakan Samuelsson)说。“因此我们决定在底特律车展上首次公开展示S90,并且开始在这里建造沃尔沃工厂。”Other smaller brands that benefited from the surge in consumer demand included the Japanese automaker Subaru, which reported a 13 percent increase in sales, and Land Rover, the British maker of sport utility vehicles owned by Tata Motors of India, which posted a 37 percent increase.从消费需求激增中获益的其他小品牌包括日本汽车生产商斯巴鲁(Subaru)和英国SUV生产商路虎(Land Rover)。前者通报销量增加了13%,印度塔塔汽车(Tata Motors)旗下的路虎品牌的销售增长则达37%。“Those brands and their new owners have all gone on and have really started to flourish,” said Matt Degen, senior editor with Kelley Blue Book. “It took Volvo longer to do so, but we’re seeing it reimagine itself, and it’s really starting to connect.”“这些品牌及其新东家都取得了进步,真正开始蓬勃发展,”汽车调研公司凯利蓝皮书(Kelley Blue Book)高级编辑马特·德根(Matt Degen)说。“沃尔沃花的时间要长一些,但我们看到它对自己重新有了构想,的确开始良好运行了。”Under Geely, Volvo has emphasized the brand’s long reputation for safety and quality and its distinctive Swedish styling.归吉利所有后,沃尔沃强调该品牌长期以来在安全和质量方面享有的盛誉,以及它独特的瑞典造型。Geely was able to build on those attributes and prevent Volvo from joining discontinued brands like General Motors’ Saturn and Ford’s Mercury in the automotive graveyard.吉利能够在保持这些特性的基础上推动沃尔沃发展,防止它像通用土星(Saturn)和福特水星(Mercury)等品牌一样,从市场中消失。The hot-selling XC90 wagon and S90 sedan, for example, have given new momentum to the automaker’s transformation and return to core values, Mr. Samuelsson said.萨缪尔森表示,热卖的沃尔沃XC90货车和S90轿车为公司进行转型、回归核心价值带来了新动力。The S90, a four-door coupe that was unveiled at the show here, will go on sale this summer with a base sticker of around ,000.在北美车展上发布的S90四门轿跑车将于今年夏季开售,起步价在4.7万美元 左右(约合31万元人民币)。In another outgrowth of the automaker’s renewed ambitions, Volvo has broken ground on its first automotive manufacturing plant in North America, a 0 million facility in Ridgeville, S.C., that will build the next generation S60 sedan and employ 2,000 workers over the next decade.公司的新目标带来了另一项发展成果:沃尔沃投资五亿美元在北美地区的第一家汽车制造工厂破土动工。这家厂位于南卡罗来纳州里奇维尔,将生产下一代S60轿车,并计划在未来十年雇佣2000名员工。The plant will give Volvo a manufacturing presence in its three main regions of Asia, Europe and the ed States.它将让沃尔沃在三大主要市场——亚洲、欧洲及美国——拥有生产基地。“The turnaround is pretty remarkable,” said Jessica Caldwell, senior automotive analyst for Edmunds.com. “New designs and features are coming together to create more interest in the brand.”“这种转变相当出色,” Edmunds.com高级汽车分析师杰茜卡·考德威尔(Jessica Caldwell)说。“新设计和功能配合起来,使得这一品牌更具吸引力。”Volvo is also embracing its reputation for producing safe vehicles, joining what has been a rush by automakers to introduce technologies that enhance safety. With its latest technology, Volvo has articulated a goal of having no crash fatalities or serious injuries in a new Volvo by 2020.汽车生产商们纷纷引进能够提高安全性的技术,沃尔沃也加入这一行列,重拾自身注重安全的声誉。拥有最新技术的沃尔沃明确了目标,即到2020年实现旗下产品无致命或严重伤害事故。“At one point Volvo ruled the safety world,” Ms. Caldwell said. “They walked away from that a decade or so ago. Now, they’re pushing the safety element, but are more mainstream, a little less quirky.”“沃尔沃一度在安全领域独领风骚,”考德威尔说。“他们在大约十年前放弃了这一策略。如今,他们又在强调安全元素,但变得更为主流,没那么怪异了。”The safety technology in the S90 will, among other things, detect pedestrians, cyclists and, Volvo says, large animals.沃尔沃表示,除了其他特性外,S90的安全技术将能探测到行人、骑自行车的人及大型动物。The car also offers new autonomous features like steering assist at high speeds and a feature that automatically maintains a set speed or distance to the vehicle in front. The car will be available in gasoline and hybrid versions.这款轿车还提供了一些新的自主功能,比如高速转向辅助功能,以及自动保持设置的速度或与前面车辆的距离。它将拥有汽油版和混合动力版。Geely has left the management of Volvo to its Swedish executives and given Volvo the billions of dollars it needs to develop new vehicles and technology.吉利将沃尔沃的管理工作交给了瑞典高管,并为它提供了研发新车和技术所需要的大笔资金。“We’re now seeing the results of those investments,” Mr. Degen said.德根表示,“我们现在看到了投资成果。”By the end of this decade, Volvo will have renewed its entire lineup, better positioning it to compete with global competitors. Autonomous drive technologies will be a focus. The automaker also plans to develop its first all-electric vehicle and adopt a global small-car strategy.到2020年,沃尔沃将会完成所有产品线的升级工作,占据更好的位置来与全球对手展开竞争。自动驾驶技术将会成为重点。沃尔沃还计划研发第一款纯电动汽车,推行全球小型车战略。It is a starkly different look from 2009, when Ford did not even have a buyer for the flagging automaker. “They’ve come a long way from their lowest point,” Ms. Caldwell said, “when it was uncertain whether the company would continue to exist.”这与2009年的情况迥然不同。当时,福特甚至没有找到一个愿意购买这家陷入低迷的车企的买家。“他们挺过了最低谷,取得了很大进展,”考德威尔说。“那时候根本不知道公司是否还能继续走下去。” /201601/423176。

Leisure travelers have become used to controlling every step of a trip, from booking a flight or a car to making dinner reservations. Business travelers, less so; there has always been some corporate bean counter looking over their shoulders.休闲旅行者已经习惯于控制旅行的每一步,从订机票、租车到预订晚餐。而商务旅行者不太会这样。公司总会安排财务人员监督他们。But that is changing as business travel picks up and the overseers of company budgets permit the digital empowerment of traveling employees and tentatively embrace the sharing economy.但是情况在改变,因为商务旅行越来越多,公司成本的监督者们开始允许商旅员工使用数字工具,并尝试接受分享经济。Travel managers are calling this the age of traveler centricity, and apps from Uber, the ride-hailing service, and similar innovations are increasingly part of it. In the next few years, if company policies can keep up, the new era of personalized travel could lead to a host of new so-called intelligent services, delivered through apps and smartphones, that will automatically assist business travelers based on their profiles and preferences, potentially making what is typically a grind through traffic, airports and tight itineraries less stressful and more productive.旅行经理们说,如今是以旅行者为中心的时代,叫车务Uber等应用程序及类似的创新正越来越多地参与其中。在未来几年里,如果公司政策相应改变,那么个性化旅行的新时代将催生很多所谓的新型智能务,它们通过应用程序和智能手机,根据商务旅行者的档案和偏好自动提供帮助,届时,交通、机场和紧张行程等一系列苦差事也许会变得不那么沉重,而且会更成效。“There is a shift away from the command-and-control perspectives of the past,” said Greeley Koch, executive director of the Association of Corporate Travel Executives. “The focus now is more on the traveler and the productivity of each trip, so that travelers can have the greatest return on investment on each trip.”“现在情况发生了转变,不再是过去那种命令与控制的模式,”公司旅行管理协会(Association of Corporate Travel Executives)的执行主任格里利·科克(Greeley Koch)说,“目前人们更关注旅行者本身,以及每次旅行的效率,让旅行者能在每次旅行中获得最大的投资回报。”The environment is much changed from that of a few years ago, after the Great Recession froze much of business travel. Since then, a revolution in mobile technology has taken firm hold. The business travel market seems ripe for the kind of disruption that has transformed retailing, entertainment and other areas, offering technological solutions to make cumbersome transactions more intuitive and seamless.几年前,经济衰退导致商务旅行大为减少,如今环境改变了很多。自那时起,移动技术革新已牢固生根。商务旅行市场似乎已经成熟,能够经受移动技术的冲击,这种技术已经改变了零售和等行业。它提供技术解决方案,让繁琐的交易变得更易于理解和使用,而且更严密周到。But while most business travelers have a smartphone and, according to a study by Expedia, 78 percent of them have used it in some travel-planning capacity, corporations still make it hard for their traveling employees to use current technology and integrate their own travel management tools with company programs. In part, this is a result of travel managers’ reluctance to give employees too much control over purchasing decisions, fearing that doing so will erode cost controls.根据便利旅游公司(Expedia)的研究,虽然大部分商务旅行者拥有智能手机,但是只有78%的人用手机规划旅行,公司政策仍让商旅员工很难使用当今技术,很难把自己的旅行管理手段与公司的程序结合起来。其中一个原因是,旅行经理们不愿给予员工太多购买决定权,担心这样做会影响成本控制。“There is a general dissatisfaction with the corporate travel technology,” said Mark Hollyhead, the senior vice president for Egencia Americas, a travel management company owned by Expedia. “In the 10 to 15 years the Internet has grown, travel management has been driven by corporations. Compliance and reporting have been the bedrock of these policies.”“人们普遍对公司的旅行技术感到不满,”旅行管理公司易信达(Egencia Americas)的高级副总裁马克·霍利海德(Mark Hollyhead)说。该公司隶属于便利旅游公司。“在互联网发展的10至15年里,旅行管理由公司驱动。从和汇报一直是公司旅行政策的基础。”Only one in four companies had a policy governing mobile devices as they related to employee travel, according to research by the travel distribution service Travelport and the Association of Corporate Travel Executives. But some are beginning to recognize the need for greater flexibility. They are acknowledging that their employees who travel on business are behaving the way they do on their leisure trips — looking for information online and gaining insights from a variety of sources.据旅行务公司Travelport和公司旅行管理协会调查,只有四分之一的公司设立了关于员工旅行中利用移动设备的管理规定。但是有些公司开始意识到,有必要给予员工更多灵活性。它们认可员工在进行商务旅行时也采用休闲旅行的方式——在网上寻找信息,通过各种渠道获得深入了解。They also recognize that a new generation of young employees and managers who grew up in a digital age are moving up the ranks, and they are used to dealing with technology more directly on handsets.这些公司也意识到,在数字时代成长起来的新一代年轻员工和经理们的职位在不断上升,他们习惯于更直接地在手机上运用技术。Travel policies traditionally focus on rules, enforcement and compliance. They typically run 50 or 60 pages and are written to deter a minority of travelers from doing the wrong thing rather than to encourage the majority who are doing the right thing, Mr. Koch said.科克说,过去的旅行政策注重规则、执行和从。政策文件一般长达五六十页,目的在于阻止一小部分商旅员工做错事,而不是为了鼓励大部分正确行事的员工。“These policies were all-encompassing, from how you travel to who took care of your dog in your absence,” he said. “But people realized that when you have 60-page documents, no one knows what the policy contains anymore.”“这些政策无所不包,从如何旅行到离家后小的看护,”他说,“但是人们发现,如果文件长达60页,那么谁也不知道里面到底有哪些规定。”Now, with the emphasis shifting toward flexibility, policies are getting shorter. At the same time, companies are also loosening travel budgets after the relative austerity that accompanied the recession. With the economy growing and fuel prices low, the Global Business Travel Association expects total ed States business travel spending to grow by 3 percent this year to about 0 billion, and by 6 percent in 2016.如今,旅行政策变得越来越灵活,政策文件也越来越短。与此同时,在经济衰退时期的相对紧缩之后,公司也放松了对旅行成本的控制。随着经济发展,油价降低,全球商务旅行协会(Global Business Travel Association)预计,今年美国的总商旅费可能会增长3%,达3000亿美元,2016年会增长6%。As a side benefit in this environment, corporations now have the opportunity to use travel policies to attract new employees — for example, by offering them the ability to travel in business class during longer trips or on international flights. “The talent war is back,” said Caroline Strachan, a vice president at American Express Global Business Travel. “If companies are starting to be challenged in finding new talent, then a shift in policy is a good thing.”这种经济环境的一个附带益处是,现在公司有机会用旅行政策来吸引新雇员——比如,允许他们在长途旅行时或在国际航班上乘坐公务舱。“人才争夺战又开始了,”美国运通全球商务旅行部(American Express Global Business Travel)副总裁卡罗琳·斯特拉汉(Caroline Strachan)说,“如果公司在寻找新人才方面出现困难,那么改变政策是个好办法。”“What has been really interesting, in the past couple of months, is seeing a shift where clients are understanding that their business travel policies are also an acquisition tool for talent,” she said, particularly for younger employees and among tech firms. In the changed economic climate, many companies are moving their travel departments away from finance or procurement and into human resources.她说,“非常有趣的是,在过去几个月里,我们看到了这种变化,客户们发现,商务旅行政策也是吸引人才的一种手段”,特别是对年轻雇员和技术公司来说。在经济环境改变的情况下,很多公司把旅行部从财务部或采购部分离出来,挪到人力资源部。Norm Rose, the president of Travel Tech Consulting, said travelers were the big winners as technology moved faster than corporate policies.旅行技术咨询公司(Travel Tech Consulting)总裁诺姆·罗斯(Norm Rose)说,技术发展快于公司政策改变这种局势让商旅者成为。“When you talk about mobile technology, what you’re really talking about is empowerment,” Mr. Rose said. “We are in an environment where the very fact that mobile technology is holding so strongly has shifted the balance of power toward travelers. For managed business, that’s a growing challenge.”“我们在讨论移动技术时,其实是在讨论权力分配问题,”罗斯说,“在我们所处的环境中,移动技术十分强大,这改变了公司与商旅者之间的力量平衡。对商务管理来说,这个挑战越来越大。”Continuing innovation in mobile technology offers the prospect of a future in which interactive software will automatically be able to guide travelers through their journey, helping schedule and coordinate flights, hotels and rental cars.随着移动技术不断创新,未来的互动软件将能够自动引导旅行者完成旅程,帮助规划和协调机票、酒店预订和车辆租赁。“The more intelligence there is, the more behind-the-scenes activity can happen if there is a disruption or a change in flight,” Mr. Rose said. “This should make it easier for travelers. By 2020, we should begin to see the impact of this.”“未来的技术会更加智能,在航班中断或更改时,会有更多幕后活动得以实现,”罗斯说,“这会给旅行者带来便利。到2020年,我们应该就会开始看到它的影响。”Airlines and airports are aly relying on sensors in airports to track the flow of passengers and identify bottlenecks in traffic between the curb and the gate. And they alert passengers either through text messages or emails if a flight is delayed.航空公司和机场已经在依靠机场感应器追踪乘客流量,找出乘客入口和登机口之间的交通瓶颈。如果航班延误,他们通过短信或邮件告知乘客。But technology in the future will allow them to see travelers’ positions — through the GPS device on their phones — to track their movements. If a passenger is late for a flight, for instance, an airline might decide to rebook the passenger on the next flight automatically. The car rental service or taxi service would know of the delay, and the hotel might be notified of a late arrival — all seamlessly.不过,未来的技术能通过旅行者手机上的GPS看到他们的位置,追踪他们的行动。如果乘客没赶上飞机,航空公司可以决定自动为他改签下一个航班。租车公司或出租车公司以及酒店也会得到消息——一切都能实现无缝衔接。“Today, this stuff is very manual and only happens primarily with the top executives of a company, who have someone who monitors their travel and takes care of them,” Mr. Koch said. “But in the future, that will all be linked together. All these things will trickle down and happen.”“如今,这些事务还得人工操作,通常只有公司高层能享受这样的待遇,有人照看他们的行程,处理这些事务,”科克说,“但是将来,所有这些都被联系起来。所有这些事情会自动关联,自动进行。”What is missing, however, is for a tech innovator like Apple or Google to come up with software and technology that integrate all the disparate flows of information that are collected and make them work together.不过,现在需要的是苹果(Apple)或谷歌(Google)这样的技术创新公司设计出软件和技术,把所有分散的信息整合起来,使之协同运作。“This is kind of the holy grail,” Mr. Koch said. “We have all this power in our smartphones, but all the individual apps are not talking to each other yet.”“这是最高目标,”科克说,“这些功能我们的智能手机都有,但是所有这些独立的应用程序还没有相互联系起来。”For now, there are more prosaic apps. Airlines have long sought to develop more direct relationships with business travelers. Through their mobile travel apps, they can aly offer more personal service and provide easy check-in options and electronic boarding passes to passengers.目前,大多数应用程序较为平庸。长期以来,航空公司一直想与商务旅行者建立更直接的关系。通过他们自己的旅行应用程序,航空公司已经能够为乘客提供更个性化的务、更便捷的登机手续办理方式,以及电子登机牌。Going one step further, these apps also let passengers quickly find new options if their flights are canceled or delayed. And they also serve as a retail platform for airlines to offer other services, upgrades, car rentals or hotels.再进一步,如果航班取消或延误,这些应用程序还能让乘客很快找到新选择。它们也是零售平台,航空公司可以通过它们提供其他务、发布最新消息、租车或订酒店。One of the consequences of this new technological ecosystem is a fragmentation of the travel market. In practical terms this means travelers need dozens of different apps to manage their trips — airlines, hotels, rental cars and travel groups all have their own apps for smartphones, and all seek to create unique relationships with travelers that are generally invisible to corporate travel managers.这种新技术生态系统的一个结果是旅行市场碎片化。通俗地讲就是,旅行者需要几十个不同的应用程序来管理行程——航空公司、酒店、租车公司和旅行社都有自己的智能手机应用程序,都在努力与旅行者建立独一无二的关系,而公司旅行经理们往往看不到这些。Dealing with this growing complexity is fast turning into a major concern facing travel managers, according to Ms. Strachan of American Express.据美国运通的斯特拉汉说,处理这些越来越复杂的应用程序正迅速成为旅行经理们最主要的担忧。Still, travel managers see many benefits to this new technological environment. The ubiquity of smartphones, for example, is improving a company’s duty of care, a term that refers to its legal obligation to ensure the well-being of its traveling employees. It is now easier to track people on the road and ensure their safety.不过,旅行经理们也看到了这种新技术环境的很多好处。例如,智能手机的普遍存在有利于公司履行关照义务(duty of care),它指的是公司确保商旅员工安全的法律义务。现在,追踪旅途中的员工、确保他们的安全变得更容易了。“It’s gone beyond efficiency. It’s really about effectiveness,” said Eric Bailey, the corporate travel manager at Microsoft, who oversees about 5,000 traveling employees. “It’s not just about cost. It’s also about risk and liability reduction.”“它不仅有效率,而且确实有效果,”微软公司(Microsoft)的旅行经理埃里克·贝利(Eric Bailey)说。他负责监管约5000名商旅员工。“它不仅能降低成本,还能减少风险和责任。”Travel managers and business experts all acknowledge that these trends raise concerns about traveler privacy.旅行经理和商务专家们都承认,这些趋势增加了人们对旅行者隐私的担忧。“If you’re a business traveler, are you entirely comfortable giving up some privacy in return for better convenience and ease of travel?” said Michael W. McCormick, the executive director of the Global Business Travel Association.“如果你是商务旅行者,你是否非常乐意放弃部分隐私,以获得旅行的便利和舒适?”全球商务旅行协会的执行主任迈克尔·W·麦考密克(Michael W. McCormick)说。“If you are provided with a company device, the expectation is that you will leave it turned on,” Mr. Koch said. “But the concern is, what if you are going out for dinner or on a date or whatever? Where is the limit? That is being debated currently.”“如果公司给了你一个设备,公司是期待你一直开启它的,”科克说,“但问题是,如果你是外出用餐或约会呢?也要开着它吗?界线在哪里?这是目前讨论的重点。”“People have no problem posting pictures of themselves on Facebook,” he said. “But there is always a level of concern that they don’t want their companies to know where they are.”“人们不介意在Facebook上发布自己的照片,”他说,“但他们多少还是不想让公司知道自己身在何处。”About 75 percent of travel and expense budgets, including airfare and hotels, fall under some kind of managed budget. The rest, such as ground transportation, food, fuel and other incidentals, is generally outside what corporations can control. That’s a sector ripe for technological change, said Mr. Bailey of Microsoft.约有75%的旅行和出预算,包括机票和酒店,是受到成本控制约束的。其他的,比如地面交通、食物、燃料和其他杂费,通常是公司控制不了的。微软公司的贝利说,针对后面这一部分进行技术改造的时机已成熟。The best example of this is Uber, the ride-hailing service that has fast become the choice for business travelers, in the ed States and abroad. Uber’s ease of use and technology have changed expectations about ground transportation during business trips, which had long been a major challenge for travelers.最好的例子是叫车软件Uber,它已经很快成为商务旅行者的首选,不管是在美国还是其他国家。Uber的使用便捷性和技术已经改变了人们在商旅中对地面交通的期待。长期以来,地面交通一直是旅行者的主要难题之一。The transformation has been swift. According to one estimate by Certify, an expense management company, Uber has nearly overtaken taxis in major American cities in terms of expensed business travel. Uber rides accounted for 47 percent of all expensed rides as of this March, up from just 14 percent in January 2014.这种转变非常迅速。据出管理公司Certify估计,在美国的主要城市中,Uber在商务旅行消费方面几乎已经超过出租车。今年3月,使用Uber乘车的消费占全部乘车消费的47%,2014年1月,这个比例仅为14%。The share spent on taxis, limousines and hotel shuttles dropped to 52 percent, from 86 percent, in the same period. Lyft, a rival service, accounted for 1 percent of ground transportation expenses.出租车、豪华轿车和酒店班车的消费从2014年1月的86%降至今年3月的52%。Uber的竞争对手Lyft在地面交通消费中所占的份额为1%。“It’s exciting — and somewhat shocking — to see their growth and how they’ve captured corporate spend,” said Bob Neveu, chief executive of Certify, of services like Uber and Lyft. “They have solved the whole ground transportation piece.”“它们的增长以及它们所占的公司出份额令人兴奋,也有点令人震惊,”Certify的首席执行官鲍勃·内沃(Bob Neveu)在提到Uber和Lyft等叫车软件时说,“它们解决了整个地面交通问题。”The rise of the sharing economy presents a new challenge to corporate managers. It raises new questions about liability — Uber cars, for instance, do not always meet all local licensing and insurance requirements. Similar questions, too, are being raised by other services like Airbnb, the online home rental service.分享经济的崛起给公司经理们提出了新的挑战。它带来了新的责任问题。例如,Uber的车辆并非都符合所有的当地许可和保险要求。其他务也存在类似问题,例如在线租房务Airbnb。“This is one of the big battles in the industry around these services, and what insurance or liability questions arise,” Mr. McCormick said. “Who is liable if something goes wrong?”“这类务的一个大问题是,它们会产生哪些保险或责任问题?”麦考密克说,“如果出了问题,谁来负责?”“We talk about this like this is new, but the fundamentals are still the same,” he added. “Everybody wants to be effective, everyone wants to get business done, and everybody wants to get home safely.”“我们说的好像都是新问题,但是基本的东西没变,”他补充说,“大家都想提高效率,都想完成业务,都想平安回家。” /201505/376856。

In the digital age, one way for a brand to make itself relevant is to get social media traction. By that measure, plus-size retailer Lane Bryant Inc. is succeeding.在数码时代,一个品牌要想获得知名度,在社交媒体上攒人气是个非常好的方法。从这个角度来看,大码女装零售商Lane Bryant公司正走在成功的路上。Lane Bryant Inc., which sells women’s clothing size 14 to 28, became a hot topic in social media after the company released an ad campaign featuring vamping, slightly-large supermodels in slinky lingerie, a not-so-subtle jab at Victoria’s Secret 2014 ads where ultrathin “angels” wore wings.Lane Bryant公司主营加大码女装,最近该公司发布的一则广告成为美国社交网络的热门话题。在这则广告中,一排“微胖界”女模特穿着清凉内衣,热辣出镜,矛头直指内衣品牌“维多利亚的秘密”2014年的广告“天使”。Hashtagged #ImNoAngel, the salvo from Lane Bryant’s CEO and President Linda Heasley aims to revitalize the flagging brand by cashing in on the growing “body-positive” movement.琳达o西斯里是Lane Bryant公司的CEO兼总裁,她之所以推出这则名为“我不是天使”的广告,就是为了利用时下正在兴起的“身材正能量”活动,以提振低迷的品牌形象。In one day, #ImNoAngel garnered 30,000 Facebook and Twitter mentions, 85% of them positive, according to Folke Lemaitre, CEO and founder of Engagor, an analytics firm monitoring social media. Twitter followers were growing 4 percent a day. Activity was 80% women 25 to 44. The terms used most often: “redefining body image,” and “celebrates women.”社交媒体分析公司Engagor创始人兼CEO福尔克o勒迈特雷表示,在短短一天内,“我不是天使”就在Facebook和Twitter上被提到了3万次,其中85%的都是正面的。该公司在Twitter上的粉丝一天就上涨了4%。80%的回应者是25到44岁的女性,出现频率最高的词就是“重新定义了身材形象”和“祝贺女性”。The ad’s four supermodels, wearing the Cacique lingerie line, suggestively whisper lines such as, “I mean honey, have you seen all this?” It aims at Victoria’s Secret’s “Perfect Body” campaign, which sparked petitions opposing the images. #ImNoAngel ads show some small rolls of flesh, and one model’s abdominal scar from ovarian cancer surgery.广告中出现的四名超模身穿Cacique系列内衣,暗示性地低声说出“亲爱的,你看见了吗?”。这针对的是“维多利亚的秘密”的“完美身材”广告,后者一经推出就遭到不少网民炮轰,甚至有人请愿要求将其撤下。而“我不是天使”中的超模们人人腰间都缀着“游泳圈”,一名模特的腹部甚至还有卵巢癌手术留下的疤痕。“Our brand has begun to change the conversation of traditional notions of beauty,” CEO Heasley crowed in a press statement.CEO西斯里在一份媒体声明中骄傲地宣称:“我们的品牌已经开始转变人们对美的传统观念。”CEO of the Columbus, Ohio-based company since 2013, Heasley has brought a few designer “sub-brands” to Lane Bryant, and chic athletic wear. (Lane Bryant is a unit of Ascena Retail group, with 767 stores and 7,900 U.S. employees.) For decades, Lane Bryant was derided as a down-market mall staple selling outdated, stretchy, dowdy coverups. “It’s a new Lane Bryant,” Heasley told industry journal Racked. Previously at the Limited, she added Eloquii, a fast-fashion, runway-inspired line similar to Zara’s, in large sizes.Lane Bryant公司的总部位于俄亥俄州哥伦布市。自2013年就任CEO以来,西斯里先后为公司带来了几个“子品牌”和运动女装。(Lane Bryant公司是Ascena Retail集团的子公司,在全美拥有767家商店和7900名员工。)几十年来,一直有许多人嘲笑该公司销售的低档老式胸罩。不过西斯里对行业杂志《Racked》表示:“现在我们已经是一家全新的Lane Bryant公司了。”在此前Lane Bryant供职于“维多利亚的秘密”的母公司Limited集团期间,她还推出过一个名叫Eloquii的平价女装品牌,亲民的价格与Zara有些类似,只不过它也是专门针对微胖界的大码产品。Capitalizing on the the “body-positive”movement is a good move for Lane Bryant, contends Ruth Bernstein, co-founder of YARD advertising agency, whose clients include Henri Bendel and Banana Republic. The campaign, after all, arrives as the the plus-size market is growing. Trendy, new entrants include Forever21, Hamp;M, and Wet Seal. Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, Tommy Hilfiger and Michael Kors license their names to plus-size lines. Yet other big names, including Saks Fifth Avenue, have exited; plus-sizebrand Avenue went bankrupt.广告公司YARD的联合创始人露丝o伯恩斯坦认为,抓住“身材正能量”运动的机会进行宣传,是Lane Bryant公司走出的一步好棋。毕竟如今大码女装的市场正在增长。且不说Forever21、Hamp;M和Wet Seal等品牌都开始做大码女装,就连Calvin Klein、拉夫劳伦、Tommy Hilfiger和Michael Kors也开始进入大码女装市场。其他一些知名品牌,比如Saks Fifth Avenue,则退出了大码女装领域,它的专业大码女装品牌Avenue也宣告破产。The problem is not a lack of large women: 64% of U.S. women are overweight, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says. Half of U.S. women wear size 14 or larger, and they hold about one-third of women’s overall apparel purchasing power—about .5 billion a year, says retail analysts NPD Group. Small niche companies addressing this market have seen sales rise 31% in the past two years, helped by a tidal wave of plus-fashion bloggers — some with branded clothing lines.美国其实并不缺女胖纸:根据美国疾病控制与预防中心的数据,64%的美国妇女都不同程度的体重超标。零售分析公司NPD集团的数据显示,半数美国女性都穿14码以上的衣,她们的装购买力占全体美国女性的三分之一,约为每年175亿美元。在过去两年里,瞄准这个小众市场的公司的销售额增长了31%。当然这也离不开一些做大码女装的网络红人推波助澜,一些网络红人还有自己的大码装品牌。Lane Bryant’s CEO has noticed. “I love going on bloggers’ sites,” Heasley told Biz Journal. “They teach me every day how we should be thinking about this.” And perhaps selling like this: curvy blogger Gabbi Gregg’s “fatkinis” – large two-piece suits — went viral in 2013 and 2014 and sold out in an hour.Lane Bryant公司的CEO也注意到了这一点,她对《Biz Journal》表示:“我喜欢看客网站,她们每天都在教我应该怎样考虑这件事。”以美国的客达人加比o格雷格为例(她自己就是个女胖纸),她推出的“肥基尼”(即肥版比基尼)曾在2013和2014年红极一时,上架不到一小时就被抢购一空。Fatkinis and #ImNoAngel are the latest wave in the body-positive movement, built on decades of feminist researchshowing the harmful effects of media images of rail-thin women. Dove’s landmark “Real Beauty” campaign, begun in 2004, took it mainstream, posing non-professionals in their underwear, eventually getting 65 million YouTube views.“肥基尼”和“我不是天使”只是“身材正能量”运动的最近一次发力。女权主义者几十年来的研究早已表明,媒体大力宣传的那种超瘦的“麻杆型”身材是有害的。多芬公司2004年推出的“真正的美”广告将身材正能量运动带入了主流,这则广告让非专业模特穿着内衣上镜,最终在YouTube上收获了6500万次的点击量。Still, Lane Bryant might have a tougher road. Studies show, for instance, that larger models don’t actually make womenfeel better. And some in the curvy community bemoaned the cat fight aspect of the campaign. “I don’t believe that as plus size women we must be pitted against mainstream ideals to be seen as beautiful,” plus-size fashion blogger Sarah Conley said.不过,摆在Lane Bryant公司前面的路也许依然不好走。研究显示,大码女装并不会令女性感觉更好。有些微胖界人士也对Lane Bryant利与“维多利亚的秘密”勾心斗角表示遗憾。大码女装主萨拉o康利就表示:“我不认为作为胖女人,我们必须与主流的审美理念作斗争。”It remains to be seen whether Lane Bryant can parlay this social media buzz into sales. “Consumers are intrigued,” says Engagor’s Lemaitre. “But it will be up to the company to deliver.”Lane Bryant公司能否利用此次社交媒体上的良好反响扩大销量,目前还有待观察。Engagor公司的勒迈特雷认为:“消费者的确被这则广告吸引了,但结果还要看该公司能拿出什么产品。” /201504/371651。

The computer networks for Microsoft’s Xbox and Sony’s PlayStation 4 game consoles were off line for most of Christmas Day, possibly because of an attack by a group of hackers with a history of targeting games.圣诞节当天大部分时间,微软公司的Xbox、索尼公司的PlayStation4平台的电脑网络断线,可能是一群有攻击历史的黑客所致。The hackers who call themselves the “Lizard Squad” claimed responsibility on Twitter for the shutdown, which essentially rendered the gaming devices unusable, but neither company confirmed the source of its problems. A Microsoft spokesman on Friday said the Xbox network was back up, but he declined to comment on the cause. Press officials for Sony did not immediately respond to requests for comment.这些自称“蜥蜴小组”(Lizard Squad)的黑客在Twitter上称对此次故障负责,它导致游戏设施无法使用,但两家公司都没有实问题的起因。周五,微软的一位发言人说,Xbox的网络恢复了,但他拒绝对起因发表。索尼公司的新闻发言人没有立即回应要求发表的请求。The attack on the Sony and Microsoft gaming networks comes after a recent hacking of Sony Pictures’ computer network that law enforcement officials have linked to North Korea. There is no current evidence that the game system attack and the earlier hacking are connected.前不久,索尼影业的电脑网络遭到攻击,执法人员认为朝鲜与此事有关。目前没有据表明,这次对游戏系统的攻击与那次攻击有关。On Thursday, the Lizard Squad claimed to have taken down Sony’s PlayStation Network and Xbox Live, Microsoft’s online game services.周四,蜥蜴小组声称攻破了索尼的PlayStation网络和微软的在线游戏务Xbox Live。Gamers complained that they could not use their accounts. Both Sony PlayStation and Xbox Live acknowledged that they were having service problems through their Twitter accounts and service pages. On Twitter, Lizard Squad took credit, claiming that the attacks were its biggest yet.游戏玩家们投诉无法使用自己的账户。索尼PlayStation和Xbox Live通过Twitter账户和务网页承认出现故障。蜥蜴小组在Twitter上称对此事负责,称这些攻击是它最大型的攻击。Lizard Squad said earlier that it planned to attack the gaming services on Christmas with a distributed denial of service, or DDoS, attack, in which servers are flooded with Internet traffic until they collapse under the load.之前,蜥蜴小组称,它计划采用分布式拒绝务攻击(或称DDoS)在圣诞节攻击游戏务公司,这种方式会导致务器用量大增,直至不堪重负而瘫痪。Lizard Squad appeared to have made good on its threat. Some PlayStation and Xbox users reported issues connecting with servers for the consoles. The support pages for both Sony and Microsoft reported server issues.蜥蜴小组似乎兑现了自己的威胁。有些PlayStation和Xbox用户报告了一些与平台务器有关的问题。索尼和微软的技术持页面都报告了务器故障问题。On Thursday, a man who has had his own brushes with the law appeared to have intervened. Kim Dotcom, the Internet entrepreneur accused of mass copyright theft and a self-proclaimed Xbox gamer, said on Twitter that he had an offer for Lizard Squad: If it stopped attacking the Sony and Microsoft servers, it could receive free access to his new privacy service Mega.Kim Dotcom did not immediately respond to a request for comment. The group claiming to be LizardSquad later said it had accepted Mr. Dotcom’s offer and stopped the attacks. Soon after, Xbox’s service went back up, and some PlayStation users reported that their service had been restored. However, the PlayStation Network was still down Friday morning, according to Sony’s support webpage.周四,一个自己也是一身麻烦的人介入此事。互联网企业家金姆·多特康姆(Kim Dotcom)曾被指控大量复制盗版。他自称Xbox玩家,在Twitter上向蜥蜴小组提议:如果该小组停止攻击索尼和微软务器,他们将可以免费获得他的新隐务Mega。金姆·多特康姆没有马上回应要求的请求。“蜥蜴小组”后来说,它接受了多特康姆的提议,停止了攻击。不久之后,Xbox的务恢复了,有些PlayStation用户报告说,他们的务也恢复了。不过,索尼公司的技术持页面称,周五早上,PlayStation的网络仍未恢复。 /201501/351626。

Very few things represent summer more than a lemonade stand. I was reminded while visiting my niece#39;s lemonade stand the lessons all business owners can learn from this first step into the entrepreneurial journey。在我看来,这个夏天就是路边的汽水摊。我之所以这么说,是因为我去侄女的汽水摊逗留了一会,惊讶于她的成功创业,而这也是值得所有企业家学习的。Location, Location, Location位置,位置,还是位置!The first thing my niece did well is she put her lemonade stand on the corner of a very busy street。首先,我的侄女把她的汽水摊成功定位于一条非常繁华的街道的拐角处。When starting your business, location is everything. If selling a physical product, you need to ensure an adequate number of physical locations and your product must be visible and easily accessible. Don#39;t make the mistake of believing the hard part is getting a product on the shelf--it#39;s just as difficult (and important) to get the product off the shelf and into your customer#39;s hands。这就好比,当你决定开始创业时,你规划的经营地点则是你成败的关键。如果你打算做实体产品的生意,你就得确保你选的实体店位置,能充分展现你的实体产品的特点并吸引合适。千万别觉得只有把产品放在货架上的什么位置才是最难的一步,而店面的位置场所这同样也很重要,你要确保能够吸引顾客走进店中把你的产品从货架上买走。If you are planning to sell a service, picking a city and location within that city is equally as important. When I started my research company, I placed it in the Perimeter area of Atlanta because it is central to the 5 primary business centers. This location made it easy to travel to customers and have them travel to my location. Atlanta is a good market because of the number of large companies as potential customers。如果你打算开务公司,那么最重要的就是要物色好可行的城市并在该市找到合适的商业场所。当年,我之所以选择在在亚特兰大周边地区开调查公司,是因为它位处5大商业中心核心,方便我同顾客相互往来。而且亚特兰大市场潜力巨大,新兴的大型企业都有可能成为合作伙伴。Timing is Everything时机决定商机!Lemonade stands are in high demand in the summer, but don#39;t have much success in the winter。我们都知道汽水在夏天比较好卖,在冬天就少有人问津。Do some research and know your market. Learn what types of products and services sell best and when. Very few companies I work with are immune to some type of cycle--based on fiscal calendars, seasonal factors or even vacation schedules. You must time entering the market and survive the ebbs and flows that are a natural part of running a business。因此在你决定开始创业时,你要做一些调查,熟悉你要经营的市场。你需要了解到哪种产品和哪种务何时卖得最好。大多数公司都会在不同的季度受到如财政日历、天气因素或是假期等因素的影响。所以你要规划好时间,抓住市场商机,占领市场,也要做好准备应对淡季——做生意总归是有起有伏的。Give a Sample提供样品My niece is very quick to offer up a sample before letting her patrons know the .00 price tag。在让她的顾客知道1美元的价格标签之前,我的侄女飞快的拿出一个样品。You should plan to give away free samples of your products or services. Daniel Lubetzky, creator of the Kind bar, increased his sampling budget from 0 in 2008 to a massive increase in 2009 of 0,000. He credits this increase to the success that Kind is experiencing and now spends upwards of million on efforts to get people to try Kind bars。你必须制定一个计划,宣传你即将发行的产品或务的免费样品。肯德坚果能量条(Kind bar)的创始人,丹尼尔鲁比兹基(Daniel Lubetzky)在2008年投入了800美元的样品预算,而到了2009年则提高至80万的预算。他坚信这将使得肯德更为成功,而随后增加到1000万美元的预算会让更多的人尝试并选择肯德坚果能量条。Who is Selling the Product Matters销售人员至关重要There is no better salesperson for lemonade than my niece. She is enthusiastic about flagging cars down and hustles to get the product in her customers#39; hands。这世上没有比我的侄女更好的汽水摊销售员了。她总是热情地挥舞她的小旗子让汽车停下,穿过车水马龙将产品交到她的顾客手上。Make sure your sales team is just as excited about the product being sold as you are. You need cheerleaders promoting your product or service - not someone who is just there to collect a paycheck. A sales team that understands the product and is enthusiastic about selling it yields higher sales, takes on larger markets and creates more demand. They are willing to attend networking events, promote your product via social media and their efforts will ultimately lead to the greatest success。类似地,你要确保你的销售团队与你一样对产品充满热爱与。你需要的是不断宣传你的产品或务的拉拉队长,而不是只会站在那里等薪水的人。一个好的销售团队不仅对产品十分熟悉,还坚信销售才能创造更高的销售量,占有更多的市场份额,引起更大的需求。因而他们热衷于加入网络营销,通过社会媒体宣传你的产品,而他们的努力最终会带来巨大的成功。Always Have Something to Upsell推广套餐增加盈利My niece had chocolate chip cookies available for upsell and she pushed them to everyone that bought a drink。我的侄女用巧克力薄片饼干作为促销,推销给每一个买饮料的人。When growing a business, don#39;t limit yourself to just one product or service. You may find that your initial product is the giveaway or must be discounted to gain the customer. It#39;s in the upsell that you make the most money. This is especially true in the restaurant space. A burger joint makes very little on the burger. Their profit is found in the milkshakes and fries added to the order。同样地,你的业务会逐渐扩大,你不能只将业务局限在某种产品或务上。你或许会发现你的主打产品逐渐脱离市场或是你必须通过打折来吸引顾客。通过促销,反而赚更最多。尤其是餐饮业如汉堡店,他们销售的汉堡的利润很小,但利润主要来源于汉堡套餐中的奶昔和菜单上的油炸食品。The hardest part is getting your customer in the door; increase your profit by adding on to their sale. What else can you offer?其实销售最难的部分便是吸引你的顾客上门,推销套餐商品,获取更多的利润。除了这些你还能提供别的什么吗?Some of the most important lessons in sales can be learned from the simplicity of a lemonade stand。如果你还是不知道的话,可以来参观我侄女的汽水摊,从最平凡不过的汽水摊上学到一些重要的销售课程。 /201508/392659。

Nobody likes being monitored. But even if you suspected your company is following your activities on the iPhone, would you know where to check?没有人喜欢被监控。但即使你怀疑你的公司正在监控你在iPhone上的操作,你知道该去哪里检查吗?In the next iteration of its smartphone operating system, iOS 9.3, Apple is looking to make this an easier task. According to Reddit user MaGNeTiX, the latest beta of iOS 9.3 has a message telling users their iPhone is being supervised. The message is as prominent as can be, both on the device#39;s lock screen and in the About section.苹果iPhone的下一代操作系统iOS 9.3将会让这件事变得简单。根据Reddit网站上的MaGNeTiX透露,最新的iOS 9.3测试版能够推送消息,告知用户他们的iPhone正被监控中。该消息提示会尽可能的醒目,在设备的锁屏界面和行程上都能显示。;This iPhone is managed by your organisation,; the message on the lock screen says. And in the About screen, you get a little more detail, with a message saying your iPhone#39;s supervisor can monitor your Internet traffic and locate your device.锁屏上的消息是这样显示的:;这台iPhone由您的公司管理。;而在行程界面上,你会看到更多的细节。消息会这样显示:监控你手机的人能够监控你的网络流量、定位你的设备。To be clear: It doesn#39;t look like this feature will let you turn off company supervision or increase your privacy in any way. It#39;s merely there as a warning, providing more transparency to users, some of which might not even be aware their employer is monitoring their iPhone.需要明确的是,这个消息推送功能并不能让你关闭公司的监控或者加强隐私保护。这仅仅是一种警告,向用户透露更多信息。毕竟一些人也许根本没有意识到雇主正在监控他们的iPhone。The news comes amidst a legal battle between Apple and the FBI, which seeks Apple#39;s help in decrypting the iPhone of one of the terrorists responsible for last year#39;s attack in San Bernardino, Calif. More precisely, the FBI wants Apple to create a new version of iOS that would be used specifically on the shooter#39;s iPhone, disabling some of its security features. So far, Apple stood firm in its decision not to yield to the government#39;s demands, claiming it would affect ;everyone who owns an iPhone.;在这些新消息释出之际,苹果公司和FBI正有法律上的纠纷。FBI希望苹果能够帮助破解参与去年圣贝纳迪诺袭击案的恐怖分子的iPhone。更准确地说,FBI希望苹果能够为该射击者的手机特地开发一个新的iOS版本,从而使其中的一些安全功能失效。截止目前为止,苹果坚持不从政府的要求,他们表示如果这么做,会给;每一位拥有iPhone的人;带来负面影响。 /201603/430321。

The Clepsydra漏壶The clepsydra is an instrument for time calculation in anaent China.The ancient people, upon finding that water in a pottery often leaked out drop by drop, made a pottery kettle with a small hole. Water filling the kettle would leak out through the hole, and another kettle was used to collect the leaking water. A marked arrow, like the dial of todays watch, was placed inside the second kettle through the hole of the kettle lid, floating on top of the water with the support from a bamboo flake or a wooden plate. The keftle was known as an “arrow kettle”.As the water level increased, the arrow also moved upwards,and people could know the exact time through looking at the marks on the arrow.漏壶是中国古代的一种计时工具。最初,人们发现陶器中的水会从裂缝中一滴一滴地漏出来,于是专门制造出一种留有小孔的漏壶,把水注入漏壶内,水便从壶孔中流出来,另外再用一个容器收集漏下来的水。在这个容器内有一根刻有标记的箭杆,相当于现代钟表上显示时刻的钟面,用一个竹片或木块托着箭杆浮在水面上,容器盖的中心开一个小孔,箭杆从盖孔中穿出,这个容器叫做“箭壶”。随着箭壶内收集的水逐渐增多,箭杆也慢慢地往上浮,古人从盖孔处看箭杆上的标记,就能知道具体的时刻。As the clepsydra was passed on from generation to generation, it gradual-ly evolved into a set of four pots. These are placed in order on a four-level wood-en stand, the one on the highest level called the Sun Pot, and below.the Moon Pot, Sfar Pot and Water-receiving Pot, respectively. The Sun Pot, Moon Pot and Star Pot all have an opening at the bottom for water to drop, and the Water-receiving Pot has a gauge inside. The water drops from the Sun Pot into the Moon Pot and then into the Star Pot and at last into the Water-receiving Pot. As more and more water drops into the Wa-ter-receiving Pot, the gauge gradually in-creases with the buoyancy of water. And thus people could tell the time through the scale above the water. The more levels the clepsydra has, the more accurate it is to measure time. Now, the four-level clepsydras of the Yuan and Qing dynasties are preserved respectively in the Muse-um of Chinese History and the Palace Museum in Beijing.漏壶历代相传,由单只逐渐发展成为后来四只一套的漏壶。人们把四只漏壶依次放在一个四级木架上,上面的一只叫日壶,下面的三只分别叫月壶、星壶、授水壶。日壶j月壶、星壶的下面各有一个滴水的铜嘴,授水壶内有一个标尺。水从日壶滴人月壶,再到星壶,最后滴入授水壶。授水壶内的水越来越多,标尺受到水的浮力作用逐渐上升,人们通过标尺浮出水面的刻度,就可以知道时间了。漏壶的级数越多,计时就越准确。现在,在北京的中国历史物馆和故宫物院里还分别保存着元代和清代的四级漏壶,供人们参观。The copper clepsydra is the crystallization of ancient Chinese wisdom and cre-ativeness. It not only tells us how ancient Chinese measured time, but also pro-vides precious materials on the development of science and technology in ancient China.漏壶是中国古人聪明才智的结晶,它不仅告诉了我们古人计时的方法,也留下了中国古代科学技术发晨的宝贵资料。 /201512/410730。