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2019年10月19日 00:40:11 | 作者:百科助手 | 来源:新华社
Researchers have provided fresh evidence of a growing gap between vehicle emissions in laboratory tests and their performance on the road, as questions mount about the carmakers’ conduct in the wake of the Volkswagen scandal.研究人员提供的最新据表明,汽车在实验室检测中得出的尾气排放值与它们在实际道路上行驶时的排放值之间差距越来越大。大众汽车(Volkswagen)尾气造假丑闻发生后,汽车制造商的操守受到越来越多的质疑。One of the research groups that helped uncover the VW case published new data on Friday, claiming that carbon dioxide emissions in European road tests were on average 40 per cent higher than the official laboratory results advertised in car sales literature.曾帮助揭穿大众造假案的一家研究机构周五发布最新数据,称欧洲道路检测中得出的二氧化碳排放量比汽车销售宣传册中公布的官方实验室检测结果平均高出40%。The International Council on Clean Transportation, the environmental research body that led the research, said the figure was an “all-time high” and compared with a gap of just 10 per cent in 2003, though there was no suggestion that defeat devices were to blame.领导此次研究的环境研究机构——国际清洁交通委员会(International Council on Clean Transportation,简称ICCT)表示,这一数字创下了“新高”,2003年两者之间的差距仅为10%,但该机构没有将之归因于欺骗装置。The ICCT aggregated research from six countries on almost 600,000 vehicles from at least nine carmakers to draw its conclusions.ICCT汇总了对来自6个国家的至少9家汽车制造商的近60万辆汽车的研究合后得出了上述结论。“About three quarters of the gap between laboratory test results and real-world driving is explained by vehicle manufacturers exploiting loopholes in the current regulation,” said Peter Mock, managing director of the ICCT in Europe.ICCT驻欧洲的董事总经理彼得莫克(Peter Mock)表示:“就实验室检测结果与实际道路表现之间的差距而言,约四分之三缘于汽车制造商在利用当前监管的漏洞。”Carmakers are known to “game” an outdated laboratory regime using perfectly legal methods such as overinflating tyres to reduce rolling resistance or fully recharging a vehicle’s battery before testing.很多人都知道,汽车制造商会利用完全合法的手段来钻过时的实验室检测系统的空子,例如给轮胎过量充气来减少滚动阻力,或者在检测前重新给汽车电池完全充电。The rest of the gap is explained by technologies that have a greater effect in the lab than on the road, such as stop-start systems that turn off the engine in stationary traffic. Equipment that tends to increase fuel consumption, such as air conditioning, is also turned off during lab tests.实验室检测与实际道路检测结果差异的其余部分,缘于一些技术在实验室中的效果优于在实际道路行驶时,例如在交通堵塞时关闭引擎的“启停”系统。一些会增加油耗的设备,比如空调,在实验室检测中也会被关闭。European regulators are pushing to bring in a new test regime from 2017. They also plan to introduce real-world testing for Nox emissions in the same year.欧洲监管机构正推动从2017年起引入新的检测系统。他们还计划在同一年推出针对氮氧化物排放的实际道路检测系统。While the VW case centred on diesel engines and Nox emissions, the latest research from ICCT focuses on CO2 and includes both petrol and diesel variants.大众案的核心是柴油引擎和氮氧化物排放,ICCT的最新研究则关注的是二氧化碳排放,研究对象既包括汽油车也包括柴油车。The European manufacturers’ body, Acea, did not immediately respond to a request for comment on the figures.欧洲制造商机构——欧洲汽车制造商协会(ACEA)没有立即回应记者就这些数据置评的请求。As for the VW scandal, Acea has said there is “no evidence that this is an industry-wide issue”.至于大众的丑闻,ACEA表示,“没有据明这是一个全行业的问题”。However, carmakers’ share prices are showing extreme volatility amid the swirling media coverage of the VW crisis.然而,在媒体铺天盖地报道大众的危机的情况下,汽车制造商的股价波动得很剧烈。BMW shares fell as much as 9 per cent on Thursday after a German magazine published a story that highlighted the emissions performance of one of its vehicles during a road test.宝马(BMW)股价周四一度下跌9%。此前,一家德国杂志发布了一篇报道,着重提到了一款宝马汽车在尾气实际道路检测中的表现。The shares recovered some ground to close down 5 per cent after BMW issued a statement saying it “does not manipulate or rig any emissions tests”.在宝马发布声明称“未操纵任何尾气检测”后,该公司股价收复了一些失地,最终在昨日收跌5%。“Two studies carried out by the ICCT have confirmed that the BMW X5 and 13 other BMW vehicles tested comply with the legal requirements concerning Nox emissions,” the company added.宝马还表示:“ICCT展开的两项研究实,接受检测的宝马X5和其他13款宝马汽车符合关于氮氧化物排放的法定要求。” /201509/401115There are some people in this world who just can#39;t get enough of Kimye#39;s outfits and Kylie#39;s lips.这世上总有些人看不够金·卡戴珊的着装和凯莉的嘴唇。But if you#39;re tired of keeping up with the Kardashians, an ad blocker has been created that could rid them of your life entirely.不过,如果你不想看到关于卡戴珊家族的八卦,新出的一个广告屏蔽功能可以完全把他们从你的生活中清除掉。Named KardBlock, the browser extension promises to remove Kardashian-related updates from newsfeeds and websites, adding ominously: #39;We simply make it disappear.#39;一个叫KardBlock浏览器拓展功能可以在你上网的时候把与卡戴珊家族有关的消息从新闻和网站中剔除,可能不爱好听“我们就是让他们都消失了。”The program is currently in beta testing and was created by California-based social media firm Chameleon.la and James Shamsi.这个项目由位于加利福尼亚州的社交媒体公司Chameleon.la和詹姆斯·沙木思开发,目前正处于开放测试阶段。He says the time for Kardashian-rule is over and that Kardblock will make the internet #39;a better place for everyone.#39;詹姆斯表示,“卡戴珊主导”的时代已经过去,Kardblock将会把网络变成“一个对所有人来说更好的地方”。#39;We don#39;t care about how Kanye and Kim didn#39;t care when Amy Schumer ;fell over,;#39; s the mission statement on his website.该网站在一份声明中表示:“我们并不关心艾米舒默走红毯摔倒时,卡戴珊夫妇如何表现得无所谓。”#39;We don#39;t care about who the Kardashians are or aren#39;t sleeping with. We don#39;t care that Kim dyed her hair blonde. We don#39;t care about the Kardashians.#39;“我们不关心卡戴珊们跟谁或不跟谁睡觉,不关心卡戴珊把头发染成金色。我们不关心卡戴珊们。”The site, however, admits that there is important news that relates to the family, particularly Bruce Jenner#39;s interview about his gender identity.然而,这个站点承认这个家族仍然有一些比较重要的新闻,特别是关于布鲁斯·詹纳对于他自己性别的认定。#39;We do...care about raising awareness of transsexuality, the one benefit of the Kardashians,#39; KardBlock says.“我们确实关心变性意识的兴起,这是卡戴珊家族的一个优势。”KardBlock团队说。This isn#39;t the first time someone has tried to stop Kim Kardashian from breaking the internet.这已经不是第一次有人因为厌烦金·卡戴珊而想要把她的新闻从网上清除掉。A few years ago, a plug-in for Chrome browsers dubbed Silence of the Celebs promised to white-out celebrities you would rather not see online.几年前,Chrome浏览器一个名为“名人默声”(Silence of the Celebs)的插件承诺会把你不想看到的名人新闻从网上抹掉。The KardBlock team says its next project is to filter out Justin Bieber.KardBlock团队说,他们下一个项目将会把贾斯汀·比伯“拉黑”。 /201505/375037

In a recent op-ed in The Financial Times, Larry Summers criticized the U.S. for not backing the creation of a new China-led international bank that would finance major infrastructure projects across the Asia Pacific region; the former U.S. secretary of treasury decried it a “failure of strategy and tactics” and called for “a comprehensive review of the U.S. approach to global economics.”美国前财政部长拉里o萨默斯最近在英国《金融时报》发表,批评美国政府不该冷漠对待亚投行,这家由中国牵头发起的新国际将为亚太地区的重要基础设施项目提供资金。萨默斯认为,美国政府犯下了一场“战略和战术上的失败”,并呼吁其“全面检讨对全球经济该采取的姿态”。Summers’ pointed words followed those of another Clinton Administration alumnus. Madeleine Albright, America’s former top diplomat, who late last month said the ed States had “screwed up” in its unsuccessful efforts to dissuade other countries from supporting the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.无独有偶,就在萨默斯措辞尖锐地指责美国政府前不久,另一位克林顿时期的政府要员、前国务卿奥尔布赖特上个月也批评了奥巴马政府。她表示,美国政府费那么大力气想把其他国家拦在亚投行之外,最后却把事情“搞得一团糟”。Both Summers’ and Albright’s remarks came as diplomats and business executives from Asia and Europe have embraced the bank. Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, South Korea and Australia, are among more than 40 nations who have brushed aside the White House’s concerns over the intentions of the bank and whether it will follow “high quality, time-tested standards.” China will provide much of the AIIB’s initial 0 billion in funding. The bank is expected to be up and running by the end of this year, helping finance transport, water, energy and other infrastructure projects.这边萨默斯和奥尔布赖特的责备不断,那边亚洲和欧洲的外交官和企业高管已经开始对亚投行积极示好。尽管美国一直在质疑亚投行成立的目的,还担心亚投行“没法遵守高质量的、经得起时间考验的标准”,但英国、德国、法国、意大利、韩国和澳大利亚等40多个国家并未理会,仍然申请加入。亚投行的初始资金规模为1000亿美元,大部分来自中国,预计该行将在今年年底前正式运行,为交通运输、水利以及能源等基础设施项目提供资金。Going forward, the U.S. and Japan, which also has withheld support, may well seek to save face and work with the bank. Such a move will be good for all parties, but for the bank to be successful, leaders should bear a few measures in mind:今后,美国很可能得找机会与亚投行合作,挽回点颜面,跟美国一样未参与亚投行的日本也一样。若真能如此,将对各方都有利。然而,要想亚投行真正成功,领导人还应该考虑到以下几个问题:With the bank’s focus on infrastructure development instead of on the broader goal of poverty reduction, it is important that policies and procedures be put in place to ensure that infrastructure investments do not lead to the unintended impoverishment of thousands of people or significant harm to the surrounding environment.鉴于亚投行的重点是基础设施开发,而不是为了消除贫困这样更为宏远的目标,那么有一点很重要,就是相关政策和程序都要落实到位,确保基础设施投资不会导致大批民众突然陷入贫困,也要避免对周边环境造成严重污染。Given their size and scope, major infrastructure projects such as hydroelectric power plants and road networks can lead to forced resettlement of communities and the loss of traditional livelihoods, such as in agriculture and fishing. I saw this during my own visits to a range of power and transport projects in my oversight role from early 2007 to the end of 2010 on the Board of Directors of the Asian Development Bank.亚投行的资金规模庞大,覆盖范围也很广,水电站和公路等大型基础设施项目可能迫使很多社区的原住民背井离乡,丧失务农、等传统谋生手段。2007年初到2010年底,我在亚洲开发任职期间实地考察了一些电力和交通运输项目,就曾遇到过此类情况。Strong social and environmental safeguards are needed to make sure development projects are done in a sustainable manner. Views and input from affected communities should be incorporated in a meaningful way from the earliest stages of project design. Otherwise, poorly designed projects can contribute to social and environmental harm, costs overruns for borrowers and ultimately unrest and delayed or cancelled projects.要确保项目的可持续开发,就需要采取强有力的社会保障措施和环境保护手段。设计项目早期就应该充分考虑当地相关社区的意见,而且应有居民代表参与。否则,如果项目设计有问题,有可能给当地社会和环境造成危害,借款方的成本将超,最终可能导致社会动荡、项目延误甚至取消。The new bank should move quickly to prove skeptics wrong. It has the chance, for example, to demonstrate that it can be more effective than the World Bank and other regional development banks in financing infrastructure while addressing legitimate community concerns about relocation and compensation for any loss of housing or income.亚投行应当迅速行动起来,明怀疑论者的观点是错的。比如说,它可以用实际行动明,在资助基础设施建设方面,亚投行的融资效率比世界和其他地区性开发更高;而在应付社区搬迁时提出的合理诉求、提供相应房屋或收入补偿方面,亚投行也有能力处置妥当。Recently, the World Bank admitted to “serious shortcomings in the implementation of its resettlement policies,” adding that it plans to fix its problems with a “plan that will improve the oversight and management of resettlement practices to ensure better protection of people and businesses affected by bank-funded projects.”最近,世界承认“在工程移民安置政策方面存在严重缺陷”,同时宣布将解决这个问题,具体途径是制定方案,改善移民安置过程中的监督和管理,确保受项目影响的民众和企业得到妥善安排。The new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has the chance to develop strong, new and effective accountability mechanisms all shareholders would support. A strong independent evaluations department not beholden to any single shareholder must be part of that. Mechanisms to review and ensure compliance with the bank’s own rules are also critical.新成立的亚投行还可以建立强有效的新型问责机制,并争取所有股东持。要实现这样的机制,必须成立一个强势的独立评估部门,不能受任何一家股东牵制。另一点也很重要,就是建立相应内控制度,确保亚投行严格遵守内部章程。As Summers noted, it is time for the US to wake up to a new economic era. Strengthened engagement with Asia and all its major financial institutions must be part of that.正如萨默斯所说,美国应该清醒地认识到,新经济时代已经来临,应该积极参与亚洲事务,与亚洲所有重要的金融机构多打交道也是其中的一部分。 /201504/369358

Alibaba, the Chinese e-commerce company, has a new partner in rooting out products deemed unsafe for American consumers, but the cooperation could also bring it more headaches.中国电商企业阿里巴巴有了一个新伙伴,帮助其根除那些被认为对美国消费者不安全的产品,但相关合作也可能会给该公司带来更多令人头痛的事情。The company, which listed its shares in New York in September, is teaming up with a ed States government agency to prevent its online platforms from exporting items to America that have been recalled. The agreement is likely to have its largest effects on Alibaba’s business-to-business site, which sells goods produced by Chinese manufacturers to American importers and businesses.9月在纽约上市的阿里巴巴正在与美国一家政府机构合作,以防止其在线平台向美国出口已被召回的货物。阿里巴巴旗下企业对企业的网站可能是受相关协议影响最大的,该网站主要面向美国进口商和企业销售中国厂家生产的商品。The agency, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, said it would provide Alibaba lists of recalled items, and in turn, Alibaba said it would ensure that those products were not for sale to companies or individuals in America. Alibaba has a small business facilitating the sale of goods to American consumers.参与合作的政府机构美国消费品安全委员会(Consumer Product Safety Commission)表示,将向阿里巴巴提供被召回产品名录,而阿里巴巴则表示将确保不面向美国的企业或个人销售相关产品。阿里巴巴旗下有一家小公司专门负责促进面向美国消费者的商品销售。The commission’s chairman, Elliot F. Kaye, cited the recall last year of high-powered magnets being sold as toys in the ed States, noting that recently some companies on Alibaba’s sites had sold the magnets wholesale.该委员会主席埃利奥特·F·凯(Elliot F. Kaye)提到了去年在美国被当做玩具销售的高性能磁铁被召回一事,并指出最近,阿里巴巴网站上的部分公司在以批发的方式销售这种磁铁。Mr. Kaye said the new cooperation would help ensure that listings for dangerous items like the magnets — which were recalled because of a number of instances in which children ingested them, frequently necessitating surgery — would no longer be purposely or inadvertently imported by smaller ed States companies.凯表示,新展开的合作将有助于确保美国小企业不再进口——不管是有意还是无意——像前述磁铁那样的危险物品。前述高性能磁铁之所以被召回,是因为发生了一些事故,儿童吞下磁铁,常常需要进行手术。The cooperation serves as a test for Alibaba, which despite taking steps to clean up its e-commerce sites, retains a reputation for selling just about any product — brand, fake or occasionally dangerous.合作是对阿里巴巴的一次考验。尽管采取了诸多举措整顿旗下的电商网站,但阿里巴巴依然因为几乎什么产品都卖而声名远扬,其网站上有品牌货,也有假货,偶尔还会有危险物品。It is also a risk. If the company fails to live up to its end of the bargain, Mr. Kaye said the commission would not hesitate to pressure the company.此举也有风险。如果阿里巴巴未能信守承诺,凯表示该委员会将毫不犹豫地迫使其就范。Though Alibaba said last month that it spent about 0 million combating the sale of fake goods on its sites in 2013 and 2014, many companies complain that Alibaba can be slow to pull down listings of pirated goods. Others point out that removed listings often quickly reappear under different names.阿里巴巴上月表示,该公司在2013年和2014年投入了超过10亿元人民币,打击旗下网站上的假货交易,但还是有许多公司不满于阿里巴巴打击盗版产品时行动迟缓。还有一些公司指出,被撤下的产品往往很快又会换个名字重新出现。“We’re certainly going to hold their feet to the fire,” Mr. Kaye said on Tuesday at the Hong Kong Toys and Games Fair.“我们肯定会让他们感到有压力,”凯周二在香港玩具展(Hong Kong Toys and Games Fair)上说。Mr. Kaye said the agency would start with a list of five to 15 products at the top of the regulator’s priority list, then expand it. The commission, which first approached Alibaba about cooperation roughly two years ago, expects problematic items to be taken down in a matter of hours, he said.凯表示,消费品安全委员会首先会提供一份名单,上面会列出该机构重点强调的五到十五种产品,然后再扩充名单。他说,大概两年前,委员会首次就合作事宜找到了阿里巴巴。该委员会希望问题商品在几小时之内下架。“We’re not a very patient lot, and if it doesn’t happen pretty quickly, then they’ll be hearing from us,” he said, adding that he hoped an automated system could be worked out.“我们可不是一群有耐心的人,如果事情未能很快得到处理,他们就会了解到我们的应对措施,”他说。他还表示希望能制定一个自动化系统。The good-faith agreement raises the more complicated issue of cross-border Internet regulations. In recent years, China has pushed hard for the ed States to accept the idea that Internet companies operating in different nations follow the rules and laws of their own nations. And countries like China have demanded that ed States companies censor content or provide their governments with private user data to remain in compliance with their laws.这个用心良苦的协议提出了更复杂的跨国互联网监管问题。近年来,中国极力要求美国接受一点,即在他国运营的互联网公司遵守自己国家的法律法规。但中国等国又要求美国公司进行内容审查,或是向政府提供用户的私人数据,以遵守它们的法律。In this case, Alibaba is agreeing to respect ed States laws.在此事中,阿里巴巴同意尊重美国法律。Discussing potential concerns about setting a precedent on Internet regulation, Mr. Kaye said, “From my perspective, there’s enough known good that will result from this that if it turns out there are unfortunate side effects, we will try to work to ameliorate those.”谈到在互联网监管方面开创先例可能存在的问题,凯说,“在我看来,此举已知的好处够多了,如果出现不利的副作用,我们将努力改善。” /201501/354738

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