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30,000 Vikings settle in iceland in 60 years.三千维京人在冰岛驻扎了六十年And they set up colonies in greenland.他们在格陵兰岛建立殖民地The big crisis in the Viking civilization was farmland.维京人文明面临的最大危机就是缺少耕地So the Vikings would set off to find new farmland,所以维京人需要出征去寻找新的耕地and Greenland was one of the big real estate promotions,而格陵兰岛就是那些庞大不动产之一they called it green land to get people to move there.他们称其为绿色大地就是为了让人们搬去那里Its not actually green, you know!但其实它并不是绿色的From greenland, theyll push on to North America,从格林兰岛出发 他们一路前进去到北美The first Europeans, 500 years before Columbus.是第一批欧洲人 比哥伦布还要早五百年By 1000 A.D., Vikings settle公元一千年 维京人定居在Among many of the communities they once attacked.他们曾经攻击的大多数地区里Novgorod in russia, kiev in the ukraine,前苏联的诺夫哥罗德 乌克兰的基辅Rouen in france, york in england, dublin in ireland,法国的鲁昂 英格兰的约克 爱尔兰的都柏林All transformed into cities by the Vikings.都在维京人到来之后转型为城市They convert to Christianity,他们变成了基督徒Replacing pagan shrines with great churches,在异教的祠堂上重建宏伟的教堂Reinventing themselves as European knights.他们重塑自我 自封欧洲骑士201511/409894将干细胞称作身体内的修补工具, 并且主张利用实验室]产制的干细胞系列进行研究. 他的团队发展出 培育多功能干细胞系列的方法, 建构了可以加速药物研发的测试平台, 可能带动未来个人化制义与治疗的发展, 不仅仅是针对特定的疾病, 而且还能针对特定的个人201509/396600It is thought to improve muscle strength and据说,它能够改善肌肉力量immune function and reduce inflammation.提高免疫功能,以及治疗炎症People at risk for vitamin D deficiency include容易缺乏维生素D的人群breastfed infants, older adults, people包括母乳喂养的婴儿,老人with limited sun exposure, people with dark skin接受日照有限者,深肤色的人and people with fat malabsorption. People age 50以及脂肪吸收不良的人and older are at increased risk of developing50岁以后,缺乏维生素D的几率会增大vitamin D deficiency because as they age因为随着年龄的增长the skin loses its ability to synthesize vitamin D皮肤会失去有效率地合成维生素D的能力as efficiently and the kidneys also convert肾脏向激活型的转化也会减少less to its active form. People living in居住北半球的人们,居家人士the northern latitudes, homebound individuals以及那些因为宗教原因and women who wear long robes and穿长袍,带头巾的妇女head coverings for religious reasons may not也许无法获得来自于阳光的充足的维生素Dobtain adequate levels of vitamin D from sunlight.也许无法获得来自于阳光的充足的维生素DPeople with darker skin have more pigment melanin肤色较深的人们有更多的黑色素which reduces the skins ability to produce黑色素会降低皮肤在太阳照射下vitamin D after sun exposure.生成维生素D的能力Prolonged inadequate intake of vitamin D长期的维生素D摄入不足will lead to impaired bone metabolism.会导致骨骼新陈代谢受损In children under mineralization of bone causes对于处于骨骼矿化时期的孩子soft and deformed bones and can lead to维生素D摄入不足会导致软骨和畸形骨骼the condition known as rickets. Rickets is rare可能会发展成为佝偻病in the US today but was fairly common佝偻病在今天的美国是很少见到的as recently as 100 years ago. When children developed但是在100年前,这一疾病在美国是很常见的rickets their legs were too weak to hold their weight当儿童患有佝偻病时,他们的腿会疲软无力resulting in bowed legs which often persisted不能够撑起他们的体重,最后导致双腿的弯曲into adulthood. Osteomalacia is the adult form这种情况会一直持续到成年时期of rickets and leads to impaired mobility软骨病是佝偻病成年化的形式and bone fractures. And osteoporosis is the condition会导致活动障碍和骨折that leads to weak and porous bones.软骨病会导致脆弱和疏松骨质Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body.钙是人体最为丰富的矿物质There are two major roles for calcium.它有两个主要用途By far the majority of calcium found in the body到目前为止,研究发现is stored in the bones and teeth providing身体里大部分钙都贮藏在骨骼和牙齿中structural support. However there is a very small起到撑身体结构的作用and tightly controlled amount of calcium that然而,还有一小部分钙在血液里循环circulates in the blood. This calcium is required for血液钙含量得到严格的控制muscles to contract, blood vessels to expand血液里的钙质帮助肌肉收缩and contract, secretion of hormones and enzymes帮助血管扩张和收缩and transmission of impulses throughout促进荷尔蒙和酶的分泌the nervous system. All these functions are supported并且帮助传播神经系统里的脉冲with less than 1% of the total body calcium.所有这些功能只用到了人体中全部钙质的1%A wide range of people may be at risk for许多人也许会因为缺钙calcium deficiency. Children and youth require而威胁身体健康adequate amounts of calcium to ensure proper儿童和青少年需要充足的钙量bone development. Consumption of dairy products,来保正常的骨骼发育,在骨骼发育的时期particularly milk, during these developmental years乳制品,尤其是牛奶的摄入是非常重要的is of great importance. As adults bone mineral loss在衰老过程中,成年人骨骼中矿物质的流失begins to exceed accumulation in the natural超过了它的积累aging process. Post-menopausal women and绝经后的妇女以及老年人the elderly can become at risk of calcium deficiency会出现钙缺乏associated with bone loss. People with poor diets,并伴随着骨质疏松,这会给健康带来威胁particularly lacking in dairy foods due to膳食质量差的人,尤其是因乳糖不耐症lactose intolerance or vegetarianism may also be而缺乏乳制品摄入的人,或者素食主义at risk for calcium deficiency. If dairy foods可能会因为钙缺乏而对健康造成隐患are not tolerated calcium supplements如果无法食用乳制品should be considered at any age.那么很早的年纪就应该考虑食用钙补充剂201508/391408This is our planet, the Earth.这是我们的行星:地球It is an remarkable, ever-changing world, full of natural wonders.这是一个神奇的千变万化的世界 充满着各种自然奇观But theres more to Earth than this, much more.但是地球本身还有比自然景观更奇特的东西Because our planet is unique in the solar system,因为我们的行星在整个太阳系是独一无二的Perhaps even in the universe.甚至在整个宇宙也是如此4.5 billion years have made it a world of extraordinary landscapes45亿年的时光地球形成了独特的风景地貌and a home to life.成了适宜人类生存的家园My name is Iain Stewart.And I want to show you我叫伊恩·斯图尔特 我将向您介绍how our planet works.我们美妙的星球的运行原理Im going to explore volcanoes.我将从火山开始讲起Theyre terrifyingly destructive.火山具有极大的破坏力But theyre also the most fundamentalforce on the planet.但是它们仍然是地球上最根本的自然力量Volcanoes are part of a global system that continually reshapes our world火山是地球系统的一部分它们一直在改变着地貌They hold the key to the origins of life on Earth.火山在很大程度上决定了地球的生命起源They saved the planet from possibly the biggest crisis its ever faced.在地球面临最大危机的时候是火山拯救了地球And theyve even formed a partnership with life它们甚至和生命相互依存that keeps our planet habitable.给地球生物提供了适宜生存的环境201508/390763lm happy with the children here,孩子们还在身边让我很欣慰and at the same time, lm sad because their fathers gone.但同时我也很难过 他们的父亲已经不在了They always say, ;Daddy did it this way.他们总是说 爸爸会这么做Daddy used to do this. Daddy used to do that. 爸爸以前都这样 爸爸以前都那样Those kids are so proud of their father.他们很以父亲为傲l cant find words.To me, its just such a loss, too soon.我无语了 这是太大的缺失 也太快了lt left such a gap and made us see what was missing.造成了很大的缺口 也让我们看到所遗失的Why hadnt we embraced him? Why hadnt we loved him?我们为何没有包容他? 为什么不爱他?He gave us so much love and so much wonderful music.他给了我们那么多爱 那么好的音乐And l think that this is what well always remember him for.我想我们永远都会记得这些l love the fact that everything he sang, he sang from his heart.我很喜欢他 每首歌都是发自内心唱出的And l love listening to him singing, every record hes ever recorded.我好爱听他唱歌 听他的每张专辑Michaels legacy is that he will be known as the greatest entertainer ever.迈克尔留下来的 就是史上最顶尖的表演者这名号Michael was a great talent.迈克尔才华洋溢He was the best overall talent that lve ever seen in my life,他是我所见过最棒的艺人and lve been following talent since l was three years old.He was the best l ever saw.我可是打从三岁起就在看艺人 他是我所见过最好的lll remember that little boy that l met when he was 10 years old,我会记得当年见到的那个十岁小男孩201511/411197

Now we will discuss vitamin K.现在我们来说说维生素KCan you think of the main roles你能想到维生素Kfor vitamin K in the human body?在人体内的主要作用吗?The K is derived from the German word coagulation这个K是从德语词;coagulation;而来which refers to the process of blood clot formation指的是血块形成的过程called coagulation.称为凝固This is the main role for vitamin K in humans这是维生素K对人的主要作用and it is part of the proteins它是伤口愈合而形成的血块that forms clots to close off a wound.所需的蛋白质的一部分When vitamin K is deficient clotting is impaired.缺乏维生素K时,血液就难以凝固This is measured as clotting time.维生素K的含量是通过测量血液凝固时间来衡量的Some people, especially the elderly,有些人,尤其是老年人may take medications that prevent clotting.可能需要用防止血液凝固的药物Coumadin is the most common.香豆素就是最常见的一种People taking blood thinners注射血液稀释剂的人should be cautious about using supplements应该谨慎使用含containing vitamin K维生素K的补品because these may interfere with the medication.因为这些补品可能影响药效Vitamin K is involved in bone metabolism维生素K参与骨骼新陈代谢and calcium absorption because和钙的吸收it aids in the re-mineralization of bones因为它有助于骨骼的再矿化resulting in increased bone density.从而提高骨质密度Vitamin K may be important通过防止血管硬化for prevention of heart disease维生素K对于by preventing the hardening of arteries.预防心脏疾病也很重要And furthermore vitamin K而且维生素K能can act like an antioxidant像抗氧化剂那样to prevent oxidative damage to cells预防细胞氧化which may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer.从而降低某些癌症的患病几率There are two main forms of vitamin K:维生素K有两个主要形态:phylloquinone and menaquinones.叶绿醌,和甲基萘醌Phylloquinones are the most biologically active form叶绿醌来源于植物of vitamin K and is found in plant sources.是维生素K中生物活性最高的一个形态Menaquinones account for about 10% of total vitamin K甲基萘醌来源于动物and are found in animal food sources.在维生素K中约占10%Both are used by the body.两种都为人体所用Adult men should consume成年男性每天需要摄入approximately 120 micrograms of vitamin K per day,约为120微克的维生素Kwhile the recommendation for adult women而成年女性的每日推荐摄入量is 90 micrograms per day.为90微克Pregnant and lactating women under the age of 1818岁以下妇和哺乳期女性should consume 15 micrograms每天应摄入15微克while those older than 19大于19岁的who are pregnant or breast feeding妇或哺乳期女性should intake approximating 90 micrograms per day.每天应摄入90微克It is very rare to see deficiencies of vitamin K即使在营养不良人群中even in malnourished populations.缺乏维生素K也很罕见Heres some sources of vitamin K in foods.这里列出了含有维生素K的食物来源Green leafy vegetables are excellent sources of vitamin K绿叶蔬菜是维生素K的绝佳食物来源so you can get both vitamin K and vitamin A in one food.所以你能吃一种食物同时补充维生素K和维生素AIn one cup of cooked spinach一杯熟菠菜there is 1027 micrograms of vitamin K.含有1027微克维生素Kone cup of broccoli has 220 micrograms一杯西兰花含有220微克and a fourth cup of raw parsley四分之一杯欧芹has 246 micrograms of vitamin K.含246微克维生素KOther sources of vitamin k include其他维生素K的食物来源有liver, soy protein, egg yolks, cows milk肝脏,大豆蛋白,蛋黄,牛奶and soybean, olive and canola oil.和大豆,橄榄和菜籽油201507/384969

People are smart,人类很聪明they understand that we have competitive natures,他们了解自己好胜的天性and they separated these people up into groups and said,所以他们把工人分为一个个小组 告诉他们;Okay, you guys drag these stones,;好了 你们几个拉这块石头;You guys drag these stones, who can do it faster?;;你们几个去拉那块 看看谁更快?;In cemeteries around the pyramid,在金字塔周围的墓地里1 in 5 skeletons of workers shows evidence每五具工人的遗骸之中Of serious injury from accidents.就有一个因事故受过重伤It takes 20 years and two million blocks to complete.这项工程历时二十年 耗用两百万块石头Covered in polished limestone.表层是打磨过的石灰石Capped with gold.顶部以黄金为盖And deep inside, a burial chamber.内部则是一个墓穴The pyramid is a resurrection machine,金字塔是一个复活机器Where the Pharaoh Khufu will live on among the gods.胡夫法老长存其间 与众神共获永生201508/395800

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