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郴州市第一人民医院南院看男科怎么样桂东县男科妇科网上预约Science and technology科学技术Inflatable spacecraft充气式宇宙飞船Blown up in orbit在轨道上运行时充气膨胀A plan to use enormous balloons to build space stations一个大量使用气球构建空间站的计划THE International Space Station is mankinds holiday house in the sky.国际空间站是人类的空中度假小屋。Like all such houses, it is a luxury item.它与其他所有类似小屋一样,都是奢侈品。And like many similar projects on Earth, the owners cannot resist tinkering with it.它的所有者会忍不住地想去改进它,就像改进地球上很多类似项目一样。It was in this spirit that, on January 16th, NASA announced that the ISS is to get an extension.本着这样的精神,美国航天航空局在1月16日宣布将扩展国际空间站的空间。This will not, as might have been the case on Earth, be a conservatory or loft conversion.这并不会像地球上那样是一个温室或者改装后的阁楼居室,Instead, it will be a BEAM, or Bigelow Expandable Activity Module.而是一个毕格罗可充气活动太空舱。Robert Bigelow, an American hotel entrepreneur and space enthusiast, has for years been pushing the idea that space stations should be made not of metal but of fabric.美国酒店企业家罗伯特·毕格罗是一位太空爱好者,多年来一直在劝人们接受这样的想法—构建空间站应该用织物而不是金属。That would mean they could be folded up for launch and inflated in orbit.这将意味着,空间站在发射时可以折叠,在轨道上运行时可以充气膨胀。An inflatable space station may sound like the proverbial chocolate teapot,可充气的空间站听起来可能像大家所熟悉的巧克力茶壶。but if you are going to have space stations at all, then inflation is not a bad way of making them.但如果真要建空间站,那么采用膨胀法是个不错的选择。There have been many proposals in the past.过去也曾提出过很多方案。Wernher von Braun, the patriotically flexible developer of the V2 military rocket and the Saturn V moon rocket, sketched plans in the 1950s.20世界50年代,沃纳·冯·布劳恩草拟了初步计划。他热爱祖国,灵活变通,为德国开发了V2军用火箭,为美国开发了土星五号卫星火箭。The Goodyear Aircraft Corporation produced mock-ups in the early 1960s.20世纪60年代早期,固特异航空公司生产出了这样的实体模型。In the 1980s the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory came up with a detailed space-exploration plan which relied on inflatable craft, thus quickly attracting the nickname brilliant condoms.20世纪80年代,劳伦斯利物莫国家实验室提出了一个空间探索的详细方案,由于以充气式宇宙飞船为载体,因而很快获得了非凡的安全套的昵称。And in the 1990s NASA proposed sending astronauts to Mars in an inflatable craft called TransHab.20世纪90年代,美国航空航天局提议用充气式宇宙飞船TransHab把航天员送上火星。Despite the branding possibilities offered by the Livermore version of the idea, Mr Bigelow and NASA prefer the less evocative term expandable module in their literature.尽管劳伦斯利物莫国家实验室关于充气式宇宙飞船的说法已经提供了品牌价值,但毕格罗和美国航空航天局在资料中更倾向使用可膨胀的太空舱,这个术语比较不会让人产生联想。Regardless of the name, however, making spacecraft and space stations out of fabric offers several advantages over the tin-can approach.但不管取什么名字,比起用锡罐建造宇宙飞船和空间站,用织物建造有几大好处。The most important is weight. Inflatable space stations are lighter than metal ones, and even small savings in weight make a big difference to launch costs.最关键的是重量。充气式空间站比金属材质的空间站更轻,即使是减轻一点重量也会大大降低发射成本。Expandable modules may be safer, too.膨胀式太空舱可能也更加安全。Ground tests by Bigelow Aerospace, Mr Bigelows vehicle for his orbital ambitions, suggest that the modules walls—thick sandwiches of exotic fabrics such as Vectran and Nomex —offer better protection than metal ones against impacts from micrometeors and the increasing amount of artificial debris that is in orbit around Earth.毕格罗航天公司对毕格罗实现轨道飞行梦的工具进行了地面测试,结果表明:太空舱壁面的厚夹层是由独特的织物制成,如聚芳酯纤维和诺梅克斯。比起金属制造的壁面,织物壁面能提供更好的保护,免受微流星和越来越多绕地球轨道飞行的人造碎片的影响。They are also less likely than metals to generate dangerous secondary radiation when bombarded with things like cosmic rays.在撞击如宇宙射线等东西时,比起金属材质的太空舱,膨胀式太空舱产生二次辐射的可能性更小。That is one reason why NASA was interested in using inflatable craft for the months-long journey to Mars.这也是美国航空航天局对使用充气式宇宙飞船进行长达数月的火星之旅感兴趣的一大原因。Nor is the idea untested.充气式太空舱已经有过测试。In 2006 and 2007 Bigelow launched two unmanned versions, Genesis 1 and Genesis 2.毕格罗分别在2006年和2007年发射了创世纪1号和创世纪2号两架无人驾驶宇宙飞船。BEAM, which will be bolted onto the space station in 2015, if all goes well, will be the last test of the technology before the launch of the firms intended commercial product, the BA-330.毕格罗可充气活动太空舱将于2015年装在空间站上。如果一切进展顺利,毕格罗可充气活动太空舱将是该公司发射预期商业产品BA-330太空舱之前的最后一次技术测试。This will offer 330 cubic metres of internal space.充气式太空舱将提供330立方米的舱内空间。At the moment the ISS has a volume of 916 cubic metres.目前国际太空站的体积为916立方米。The firm plans to launch two BA-330s in 2016, link them together in orbit, and thus create a station with 70% of the pressurised volume of the ISS for a fraction of the cost.毕格罗航天公司计划将于2016年发射两个BA-330太空舱,并在轨道上相互连接,从而能用国际空间站增压体积的70%建造一个空间站,费用也是之前建造的一小部分。This first station, dubbed the Alpha Station, will be equipped with laboratory equipment, workbenches and the like.第一个这样的空间站也叫A空间站,将配备实验室仪器和工作台等诸如此类的设备。Bigelow hopes to offer 60 days aboard it for around 26m, assuming that its guests make the trip into orbit on one of the cheap rockets provided by SpaceX, another private space company.毕格罗希望能够提供费用约为2,600万美元在空间站呆60天的务,假设旅客到轨道乘坐的是由私人太空公司SpaceX提供的廉价火箭。Bigelow hopes in particular to win business from governments without big space programmes of their own.比格罗特别希望能从没有大型空间项目的政府手中赢得业务。To that end it has memoranda of understanding with several, including those of Britain, Japan and the Netherlands.为此,毕格罗航天公司与几国政府签署了谅解备忘录,其中包括英国、日本和荷兰。It is also wooing the private sector, though that may prove tricky.该公司也在寻求私营部门的持,尽管这可能需要技巧。There has long been talk of the advantages of zero gravity for manufacturing specialised materials whose components are of very different densities, and for growing specialised protein crystals for examination by pharmaceutical companies.长久以来,大家一直都在谈论在失重的情况下,制造组件密度差异很大的特殊材料和培育特殊蛋白质晶体用于制药公司检查的好处。This was, indeed, one of the sales pitches for the ISS. Unfortunately, the private sector stayed away in droves, and the scientific output of the ISS has been pitiful.这实际上是国际空间站的推销说辞。大批私营部门都不参与,而国际空间站的研究成果也是少得可怜。If renting the Alpha Station out as a laboratory does not work, there is always the option of turning it into a holiday house.如果不能把A空间站租出用作实验室,那么可以选择把它改成度假屋。Given Mr Bigelows background, it is often assumed that this is the plan anyway.考虑到毕格罗的背景资料,人们常常会认为,这至少也是个方案。The firm insists that it is not, at least for now.毕格罗航天公司却不赞同,认为至少现在不是。But who will really be interested in paying 26m to go into orbit remains to be seen.但究竟谁会对花2,600万美元进入轨道感兴趣,目前还不得而知。Inflated space stations are fine, as long as they do not lead to inflated expectations.只要充气式空间站能与预期效果相符,那充气式空间站还是很不错的。 /201310/260490郴州割包皮需要到公立医院 Finance and Economics;Free exchange;The law and the poor;财经;自由交流;法律与穷人;Courts in emerging markets are better for the poor than many assume;新兴市场国家的法院对待穷人时并不是许多人所想的那样糟糕;In December Indias cabinet approved a “right to food” bill that would give two-thirds of the population a right—supposedly enforceable in law—to cheap food. Parliament must still give its approval, but the idea is part of a trend. Indian law aly promises the right to education, health and paid work. And India is one of many countries that incorporate social and economic rights into their constitutions, and use the courts to enforce those rights. Indonesias Constitutional Court issued rulings in 2004-06 requiring the government to boost education spending. South Africas highest court obliged a reluctant president, Thabo Mbeki, to launch various anti-HIV/AIDS programmes.印度内阁去年12月通过了一项名为“食品权”的议案,将赋予该国三分之二的人口以获取廉价食品的权利。尽管该议案的最终实施还需要经过议会批准,但是其想法体现了印度国内的政策趋势。目前,印度已经通过相关法律保障人们接受教育、享有健康和参加工作的权利。另外,印度也是将社会权利和经济权利写入宪法的国家之一,并通过法院保障权利的行使。另一亚洲新兴市场国家印度尼西亚的立宪法院曾于2004年6月作出裁定,要求政府加大对教育的持力度。而在南非,最高法院曾经迫使总统姆贝基接受他曾不情愿开展的多个对抗艾滋病的项目。Using the law as an instrument of social policy might seem perverse. Until now the balance of academic opinion has been that the courts do little to help the poor. In theory, the law is not supposed to discriminate in anyones favour. In practice, the rich tend to do well in the courts because the poor cannot afford to go to law themselves (they rely on cases brought by others); because the law is said to favour property owners; and because, as Anatole France, a French novelist, sardonically put it, “The majestic equality of the laws prohibits the rich and the poor alike from sleeping under bridges, begging in the streets and stealing b.”将法律作为一种社会政策手段听起来似乎有些荒谬。到目前为止,学术界的主流看法是法院在帮助穷人方面几乎毫无建树。理论上,法律不应该区别对待不同的个人或者群体,但实际上,富人通常能在法庭上获得更有利的结果。究其原因,首先是穷人常常因为无力承担相关诉讼费用而不能主动地利用法律;其次,法律也被认为更有利于财产拥有者。法国小说家Anatole France不无讽刺地说道:“崇高的法律公平地禁止富人和穷人在桥下留宿、上街乞讨和偷窃面包。”But a new study, by Daniel Brinks of the University of Texas at Austin and Varun Gauri of the World Bank, takes issue with this view. The laws record, they argue, is mixed: pro-poor in some countries, regressive in others. But on balance it is much better for the poor than conventional wisdom suggests.但是,最近发表的一份研究报告提出了与主流看法不同的意见。报告的作者分别是来自德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校的Daniel Brinks和世界的Varun Gauri。他们认为,穷人的法律境况因国而异,某些国家的法律更有利于穷人,另一些则不然。但就整体而言,穷人的法律境遇要比传统观点认为的好许多。The authors argue there are three kinds of legal case. Some involve regulation, some obligation, some provision. Regulation cases force a government to change the rules to improve access to a basic right. Obligation cases change the behaviour of those obliged to give a rights-based service (for example, by spelling out what rights patients have to information about medical treatment). Provision cases demand some new good or service (for example, does the law require the state to give AIDS drugs to HIV-positive prisoners?). Regulation cases offer most hope for the poor, the authors reckon, because the benefits are universal. Obligation cases are least likely to help, because rulings usually affect only those who aly receive a service. With provision cases, it depends on how broad a rulings application may be.Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri将现实中的案件分为三种类型,分别涉及法规regulation、义务obligation和条款provision。法院通过审理涉及法规的案件,迫使政府改变规定,使之更有利于基本权利的行使。涉及义务的案件则可以要求义务人提供基于权利的务(比如阐明患者对于自己所接受的哪些医疗务信息具有知情权)。涉及条款的案件则是关于提供新的商品或者务(比如法律是否规定政府必须为患有艾滋病的囚犯提供治疗药物?)。研究人员认为,涉及法规的案件对穷人帮助最大,因为这类案件的受益群体最为广泛。涉及义务的案件对穷人的帮助最小,因为这类案件的裁定通常只涉及已享有务的群体。而涉及条款的案件对穷人的帮助则取决于裁定适用的范围。The authors then look at five countries, all emerging markets but with different levels of income, different legal traditions (some common law, some civil code) and different histories of using the law for social policy. They calculate what proportion of the benefits resulting from legal judgments under rights-based laws go to the poorest 40% of the population in each country.Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri研究时将目光集中在五个有着不同收入水平和法律体系(习惯法和民法)的新兴市场国家,这些国家利用法律为社会政策务的历史也各有千秋。他们对各个国家基于权利相关法律的裁定进行利益分析,计算其中属于最穷的40%人口的比例。India, they find, has been most successful by this measure. Its courts are the most likely to take up regulation cases which raise broad policy issues. The authors reckon Indian rulings have pushed up first-grade enrolment of girls by 10% a year, bringing 7m children into school-feeding programmes. Despite serious problems with enforcement, 84% of the benefits of relevant rulings, they think, have gone to the poorest two–fifths. South Africa also uses regulation cases extensively. Here, the poor received three-quarters of the benefits of legal rulings on health and 100% of the gains from education rulings.研究人员发现,印度在这项统计中的表现最为优异。印度法院最易于接受涉及法规的案件,这类案件通常都包含有影响广泛的社会议题。Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri认为,印度通过制订法规将700万儿童纳入学校午餐计划,将该国女孩的基础教育入学率在一年内提高了10%。尽管实施过程依然包含着许多严重的问题,但他们认为84%的利益都分配给了最穷的40%人口。南非法院同样易于接受涉及法规的案件,根据统计,该国涉及健康政策的法律裁定使穷人获得了四分之三的利益,而与教育政策相关的裁定则为100%。Brazilian courts, unlike their Indian and South African peers, rarely consider suits with broad implications. Instead, they take on individual provision cases. But they hear so many—40,000 claims a year about providing medicines, for example—that their rulings have sweeping implications. Experts have long assumed that such rulings seldom help the poor, because the benefits are restricted to the plaintiffs, who are likely to be well-off. But the authors point out that after a string of losses in court, the government bodies that deliver subsidised medicine changed their behaviour, making the stuff more easily available. By the authors calculations, 36% of the benefits from medical cases in Brazil go to the poorest 40%—ie, they are marginally regressive.巴西的法院和印度及南非不同,它很少关心那些有着广泛含义的案件,而是对涉及特定条款的案件更感兴趣。不过,由于巴西法院一年要处理大约4万件类似关于提供药品的涉及特定条款的案件,大量涉及特定条款的案件综合在一起,还是为该国的社会政策提供了广泛的指引。长期以来,专家们都认为这类案件帮不上穷人什么忙,因为利益都属于原告,而原告通常比较富裕。但是研究报告指出,提供补助药品的政府相关机构在遭受了一系列败诉后,会改变自己的行为,为穷人获得补助药品提供更多便利。Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri估计,巴西的医疗案件判决中36%的利益由最穷的40%人口获得,略微不利于穷人。Compared with India, Brazil and South Africa, Indonesia has had few court cases on broad social matters. Among those few are the rulings which pushed education spending up dramatically. But since state education in Indonesia tends to help the middle class most, the effect was still mildly regressive: 36% of the benefits went to the two poorest quintiles. Even that was better than in Nigeria where, the authors reckon, three-quarters of the benefits were captured by the rich. This was partly because many Nigerian cases concerned universities (one suit, for example, looked at whether people had a right to establish private ones).同印度、巴西和南非相比,印度尼西亚法院几乎不参与涉及广泛社会问题的案件,少有的例子中包括一项推动教育出大幅度提高的判决。但是,由于中产阶级在该国教育体系中受益最大,因此印度尼西亚的法律环境对穷人不太有利:36%的相关利益由最穷的40%人口获得。即便如此,印度尼西亚穷人的法律境况还是要比尼日利亚穷人好很多。在那里,富人获得了法律利益的四分之三。究其原因,部分是由于许多案例涉及大学教育(例如有一个案例是关于人们是否有权设立私立大学)。Majestic results崇高的结论So the empirical evidence is mixed. But it does not support the view that the law is an elite game, fixed to serve the interests of the rich and educated. When the authors aggregate their national studies, they conclude that 55% of the benefits that flow from the various legal decisions accrue to the poorest 40%. Such calculations are, inevitably, rough and y. Ideally, one should compare the costs and benefits of going to law with those of pursuing the same policy objectives in parliament—which is hard to measure. It is also an open question whether a “right to food”—ie, an obligation for someone else to provide it—is the best way to help the poor. A targeted cash-transfer programme, which makes welfare payments conditional on recipients actions, may work better. More broadly, it is far from clear that society as whole benefits when unelected judges mandate potentially costly social spending. That said, the study is still a revelation: courts are more majestic than decades of received wisdom have suggested.实际的研究结果喜忧参半,但是足以反驳这样一种传统观点:法律是精英们掌控的游戏,务于富人和接受过良好教育的人的利益。Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri将各国的研究结果进行综合后发现,新兴市场国家中55%的法律利益由最穷的40%人口获得。当然,这样的计算方式不可避免地有些粗糙,更为理想的办法是对比诉诸法律和通过议会达成同样政策目标的成本、收益。然而,后者的相关成本收益很难进行衡量。另外,像“食物权”这类对其他人规定提供商品或务义务的法案,是否是帮助穷人的最好办法?这也值得深入思考的问题。或许,根据接受者行为进行有条件福利付的定向现金转移付计划效果会更好。从更广泛的意义上讲,让并非通过选举产生的法官强制要求政府采用成本高昂的社会出对社会整体来说是否有益,这一问题也没有明确的。即便如此,这项研究还是很好地说明了现实中法院的形象比长期以来人们传统思维中的更为崇高。 /201305/239561Lets say youre an 18 year old male who runs every other day, logging 12 miles a week.假设你是一个18岁的男性,每隔一天就会跑步,算下来每周会跑12英里。Now fast-forward to your late 40s.现在,把你的年龄快速往后推到40多近50岁。Your eating habits are the same.你的饮食习惯不变。To maintain your high school weight, how many miles a week would you need to run?为了保持你高中时的体重,你一周需要跑多少英里呢?Believe it or not, youd have to multiply your weekly mileage 4 and 1/2 times, increasing it from 12 to 54 miles a week!信不信由你,你得把每周的英里数乘以4.5,也就是从每周的12英里增加到54英里!Unless you take up weekly double marathons in middle-age, its impossible simply to “out run”middle-age sp.除非你在人到中年时,每周进行两次马拉松长跑,否则绝不可能轻易逃脱中年发福。Thats because metabolism decreases with age.这是因为,新陈代谢的过程随年龄而逐渐放缓。At 50 you just dont burn as many calories as you did at 18.到了50岁,你就不能像18岁时一样燃烧同样多的卡路里。Luckily, there are other factors in this equation.幸运的是,在这个等式中还有其他的影响因素。Gradually eatingless is one way to make up the difference, since metabolism slows by about 100 calories every ten years.减少食量是一种弥补差额的方法。因为新陈代谢的过程每隔十年就会降低100卡路里的消耗。Thats equivalent to a tablespoon of butter.这个数字相当于一大匙黄油的热量。To keep pace with metabolic changes, your daily at 40 could include everything you ate at 30, minus that tablespoon of butter!为了跟上新陈代谢过程的不断变化,你在40岁时的每日菜单必须在30岁时的食谱里减少一大匙黄油。However, cutting more calories every ten years gets trickier, and limiting food intake alone isnt the healthiest approach, anyway.然而,每隔十年减少更多的热量摄入越来越棘手,并且,不管怎样,仅仅限制食物摄取并不是一条健康的途径。Between our 20th and 70th birthdays, most of us lose about 30%of our muscle cells.在我们20岁生日和70岁的生日之间,我们中大多数人丧失了大约30%的肌肉细胞。Loss of muscle mass is the main reason metabolism slows down in the first place, since resting metabolic rate is directly related to lean body mass thats mostly muscle.本来,肌肉数量的减少是新陈代谢减缓的主要原因。这是由于停滞的新陈代谢率与大部分为肌肉的“瘦肉组织”直接相关。Maintaining or increasing muscle mass through strength training ups your metabolism and burn smore calories, even while youre sitting on the couch!通过体能训练来维持或增加瘦肉组织,能提高你的新陈代谢和增加更多热量消耗,甚至当你坐在沙发上时也可以做到!Two or three sessions a week, using free weights or equipment at a gym, will do the trick.一周花上两到三次时间,利用好健身房里的力量训 练器材或装备,你就能获得理想的效果。201404/287829郴州龟头炎医院

郴州人民医院生殖整形Business商业报道Apple in China苹果在中国Better days ahead明天会更好The tech giant can rebound from its recent misfortunes in China科技巨头将从最近在中国遇到的霉运中走出THINGS have not gone well for Apple in China of late.苹果近来在中国发展并不顺利。Earlier this year official news media orchestrated a series of attacks on the firm, following allegations that it had offered Chinese customers unsatisfactory guarantees for its products.今年早些时候,官媒策划了一系列对苹果进行责难的报道,称苹果对中国消费者所购产品的保修务令人不满。Apple ended up issuing a humiliating apology.此事以苹果耻辱性地道歉而告一段落。The Middle Kingdom is the worlds biggest market for both luxury goods and for smartphones.中国是世界上奢侈品和智能机的最大市场。That should have propelled Apples iPhones to the top of the heap.这本该将iPhone的销售推向了顶峰。But the firms market share languishes at around 8% of all handset sales, whereas Samsung commands just over a fifth of them.但是苹果所占手机市场份额只有8%左右,而三星超过了1/5。Apples fortunes are improving.苹果的运势在改善。The main reason the companys iPhones have fared poorly in China so far is that they are not offered on the inferior 3G network run by China Mobile, the countrys largest mobile operator.迄今为止苹果在中国进展缓慢,主要原因是iPhone并不持中国移动提供的较次的3G网络,而中国移动是中国最大的移动电话运营商。But the arrival of a new, whizzier network could change that. On December 4th the Chinese government authorised the countrys three main wireless-telecoms operators to go ahead with the next generation of network technology, known as 4G.但是新的更先进的网络将会改变这一状况。12月4日,中国政府授权中国三大主要无线通信运营商继续开发下一代的网络技术,即4G网络。The same day it emerged that later this month China Mobile—a state-owned giant that is also the worlds largest mobile-phone operator, with more than 700m customers—will unveil a 4G iPhone for the Chinese market.同一天,中国移动宣布,将在本月下旬发布面向中国市场的4G iPhone。R, an investment bank, suggests that sales of such a device could be worth 9 billion to 10 billion to Apple.投资加拿大皇家暗示该设备的销售可能为苹果公司带来90亿到100亿美元的收入。Anand Ramachandran of Barclays, another bank, is more cautious.巴克莱的安纳德?拉马钱德兰更加谨慎。He wants to see whether Apple is forced to yield to demands by China Mobile that it split the cost of its handset subsidies with customers.他想看看苹果公司是否会被迫向中国移动让步,与顾客一起分担手机补贴的费用。Investors are also wondering whether Apple will give in to pressure to return more of its giant cash mountain to shareholders through such things as share buy-backs.投资者还想知道苹果公司是否会屈于压力,通过股份回购返回更多现金给股东。Carl Icahn, a veteran shareholder activist, had been pressing the tech giant to hand back 150 billion immediately.资深股东维权人士卡尔伊坎一直逼迫这个科技巨头马上返还1.5亿美元。But this week Mr Icahn reduced his demand to 50 billion, which is still an eye-wateringly large amount of money.但是本周伊坎将要价减少到5000万美元,但这还是非常大的一笔钱。Ironically, greater success in China could lead to more friction if it puts even more cash in Apples aly overflowing coffers.讽刺的是,如果苹果公司本已过剩的现金流因此而增多,那么在中国市场的成功反而会令它面临更大的压力。 /201312/267956郴州桂东县人民医院妇幼保健割包皮 Off the East Coast, Australia, up to 200 kilometers off shore, a line of surf rises out of the open ocean. 澳大利亚东海岸之外,200公里的近海之内,宽广的海面上一层层浪花翻腾。Beneath the surface, creating these breaking waves is the most magical marine environment on Earth.在这海面之下,形成这些波浪的正是这个地球上最奇幻的海洋生境。;Im Monty Halls, Im a marine biologist and diver, and Ive always been fascinated by the sea. 我是蒙蒂胡奥斯,一名海洋生物学家兼潜水员。我一直对海洋着迷。For me, theres always been one place that is the epitome of everything that is wonderful about the marine environment. 对我而言,总有一个地方,浓缩了海洋所有的美丽。Its a true, global icon. Its a Mecca for anyone whos ever heard the word coral-the Great Barrier Reef.;这是一个真正的圣地,就像麦加对于穆斯林一样,大堡礁!Stretching for over 2,000 kilometers up the tropical coast of Australia, it is quite simply the largest living structure on the planet. 长达2000公里的澳大利亚热带海岸线,是地球上最大的生命聚集地。Its made up of almost 3,000 different reefs, each one with a different personality. 这里有3000多种珊瑚礁,每一种都各有特性。And its so much more than just coral. 出名的不仅仅是珊瑚。But the Great Barrier Reef is most famous for its underwater world. 大堡礁最著名的是她的海底世界。Here, there is more life than almost anywhere else on Earth.这里有比世界上任何其他地方都丰富的物种。201408/321049郴州治疗阳痿早泄哪个医院好

郴州宜章县人民医院妇幼保健治疗包皮包茎多少钱Imagine that youre an insect, and that youve fallen ill because some bacteria or parasites have invaded your body. If you want to make it to a ripe old bug age, your body will need to fight off these invaders.想象一下你是一只昆虫,由于细菌或者寄生虫的入侵,你生病了。如果你想保持跟过去一样的体质,那么你就要跟这些入侵者做斗争了。The problem is that if youre a bug, your life span may be only a few days long. This means that unlike humans, you simply dont have the time to lounge around in bed, watching TV and waiting for your body to figure out how to fight off each disease it encounters.问题在于,假如你是一只小虫,你的生命周期可能仅有几天。这意味着你不能像人类一样有足够的时间在床上躺着,看看电视,然后等着观察身体是如何抵御这些入侵的疾病。Still, theres no reason for your insect self to panic. Evolution has provided you with what scientists call innate immunity, which you inherit from your parents. Innate immunity means that your bug body has the capability to instantly recognize and destroy many dangerous intruders.但是作为一只小虫,你也没必要为此恐慌或担忧。大自然的进化过程已使你获得科学家们所谓的“先天免疫”能力,你从父母那里遗传而来的能力。先天免疫能帮助昆虫的身体在最短时间内发现并且摧毁这些危险的入侵者们。In your bug body there is a fluid called hemolymph, which is equivalent to human blood. If youre injured, components in the hemolymph interact with specialized cells in your immune system to clot and form a scab that seals off your wound and prevents infection. The hemolymph also contains proteins that are y to kill invaders like bacteria or fungi. However, some invaders, like tiny parasitic insects, may be too large for the proteins to handle.在昆虫身体里有一种被称为“血淋巴”的液体,它与人类的血液发挥着相同的作用。当你受伤时,血淋巴里的某种成分便与免疫系统中某些特殊细胞进行相互作用,从而使伤口凝结并结痂,保护伤口不受外界环境干扰以避免感染。而且,在血淋巴中还包含某些蛋白质,它能有效地杀灭这些入侵者,比如细菌或真菌。当然,像小寄生昆虫这样的入侵者,由于它们的体积较大,血淋巴里的蛋白质的杀灭能力对此还是望尘莫及。In this case, your body encapsulates the invader and walls it off from the rest of the body. The encapsulated invader then stays inside you for the rest of your natural bug life, or until you fly into a windshield, whichever comes first.在这种情况下,你的身体中封装了入侵者,且与身体其他部分隔离开来。在你短暂的昆虫生涯中,这个被封装的小小入侵者会一直保留在你体内,或者某天你不小心撞上挡风玻璃,这个封装的过程才会提前宣告结束。原文译文属!201307/247646 One of the really interesting things about the nicotine in cigarettes is that it works in two ways.香烟中尼古丁的其中一个非常有趣的特质是,它以两种完全不同的方式工作。When you take a long drag, it acts as a tranquilizer, but when you inhale in short puffs, it acts as a stimulant. And one of the side-effects of stimulants is that they suppress the appetite.如果你长期吸烟,那么它会起到镇定剂的作用,但如果你只吸几口,它则会成为兴奋剂。而兴奋剂的其中一个副作用则是抑制食欲。One of the most successful ad campaigns for cigarettes encouraged women to smoke instead of eat. And the fact is that cigarette smokers do weigh less on average than nonsmokers. Research shows that quitting smoking can make you gain between five and twelve pounds.其中一个最成功的香烟广告活动就是鼓励女士们用吸烟代替吃饭。实际上,吸烟者通常的确比不抽烟的人体重要轻。调查发现,戒烟会导致体重增加五到十二磅。Physicians recommend moderate exercise like walking for thirty minutes, three times a week. Not only does exercise help control weight gain, it also helps ease the stressful feelings associated with quitting.医生建议进行适当的锻炼,比如每周三次进行步行,每次步行三十分钟。运动不仅可以控制体重,而且能放松因戒烟导致的紧张情绪。You can also try to limit alcohol and cut down on foods high in fat, but keep in mind that most experts think that it isn’t a good idea to go on a strict diet and try to quit smoking at the same time. You should focus on one health challenge at a time.你也可以控制饮酒并减少高脂肪食物摄入,但请谨记,大多数专家不建议在戒烟的同时进行节食。你应该一次锁定一个健康目标。 /201309/256203郴州东方医院是正当的吗郴州哪家医院治疗包皮好

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