原标题: 郑州大学一附院减肥瘦身价钱费用医新闻
Soil pollution has reached alarming levels in China, and will cause enormous economic losses and affect the health of people for generations, experts warned.有关专家日前警告称,中国的土壤污染已经达到了令人震惊的水平,并将造成巨大的经济损失,影响几代人的健康。Chinas arable land is shrinking due to soil pollution and is bringing huge economic losses to a country aly short of farmland.由于土壤污染,中国的耕地正在萎缩,给本就缺少农田的国家带来巨大的经济损失。China has 22 percent of the worlds population but only 9 percent of the planets arable land, Gao Guilin, a law professor at Beijings Capital University of Economics and Business, said at a forum held last Sunday, news site legaldaily.cn reported on Sunday.北京首都经济贸易大学法学院教授高桂林在上周日举行的一个论坛上表示,中国的人口占世界的22%,但耕地只占世界%。Gao cited statistics released by Chinas Ministry of Environmental Protection that 12 million tons of crops in China are polluted by soil contaminated with heavy metals annually, which would cause a yearly loss of 20 billion yuan (.9 billion).高桂林教授引用中国环境保护部发布的统计数据称,中国每年有1200万吨作物受到土壤重金属的污染,每年造成200亿元的损失(29亿美元)。Soil pollution also poses a great threat to public health as pollutants, including heavy metals, pesticides and agricultural antibiotics, and severely affects the quality of crops.土壤污染也对公众的健康构成了极大的威胁,包括重金属、农药和农业抗生素等污染物,严重影响了作物的质量。The Guangzhou Food and Drug Administration revealed that among the 18 batches of rice tested during random checks, eight were found to contain excessive amounts of heavy metal, which is known as a strong carcinogen and can cause pathological changes in kidney and other organs.据广州食品药品监督透露,在随机检查的18批次的大米中,有8批次含有过量的重金属,被称为强致癌物质,可导致肾脏和其他器官的病变。Gao said preserving protected arable land should be a priority, surveillance of land should be enhanced, and cleaning up should be done as soon as pollution is detected.高桂林教授说,保护耕地应该是一个优先考虑的事,应加强对土地的监测,一旦发现污染就应该进行清理。According to latest figures from the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Land and Resources, about 16.1 percent of Chinas surveyed land is polluted by heavy metals including cadmium, arsenic, lead and mercury.根据环境保护部和国土资源部的最新数据,在我国接受调查的土地中,约有16.1%被包括镉、砷、铅和汞的重金属所污染。Last year, the central government allocated 2.8 billion yuan for anti-pollution projects in 30 prefecture-level cities, but experts said it is far from enough.去年,中央政府拨8亿元用于30个地级市治理污染的项目,但专家表示,这还远远不够。来 /201612/481533President-elect Donald Trump and vice-president elect Mike Pence will lay a wreath at Arlington National Cemetery on January 19. This will be followed by a ;Make America Great Again!; welcome concert at the Lincoln Memorial.候任总统特朗普和候任副总统彭斯19日会在阿灵顿国家公墓参加敬献花圈纪念仪式。之后,林肯纪念堂会举办“让美国再次伟大”欢迎音乐会。Trumps inauguration to become president takes place at noon local time on Friday 20th January.特朗普的总统就职典礼于当地时0日周五中午(北京时间当日午夜)举行。The main ceremony is held at the White House, followed by a number of Inaugural Balls across the city of Washington DC.典礼主要的仪式在白宫举行,之后的就职典礼舞会等活动将在华盛顿特区的其他地方举行。The official swearing-in ceremony occurs on the steps in front of the Capitol.正式的宣誓仪式在国会大厦前的台阶上举行。At noon local time on January 20, Donald Trump will take the Oath of Office and be sworn in as America’s 45th president.当地时间10日中午,特朗普进行就职宣誓,成为美国5任总统。Chief Justice John Roberts of the US Supreme Court will administer the oath on the steps of the ed States Capitol Building.美国最高法院大法官约翰?罗伯茨将在美国国会大厦前的台阶上监督宣誓过程。I Donald J Trump, do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the ed States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the ed States, so help me God.我,唐纳J?特朗普,谨庄严宣誓,我必忠实执行合众国总统职务,竭尽全力,恪守、维护和捍卫合众国宪法。愿上帝助我。After the swearing in, Mr Trump will give a speech that will, as all inaugural addresses are, be recorded in the pages of history.宣誓就职之后,特朗普将发表就职演说,而且和所有的就职演说一样,将被载入史册。If Mr Trump follows Mr Obama’s example, the speech will be about 20 minutes in length.如果特朗普参照奥巴马的前例,就职演说大概会持0分钟。It is customary for the outgoing president to attend the inauguration of the incoming president, however, it is not compulsory.按照惯例,离任总统会参加新任总统的就职典礼,不过这也不是强制的。President Obama is expected to be there at Donald Trumps inauguration on Friday, but if he does not, then he would be the first president for 96 years to make such a snub.奥巴马应该会出席特朗普的就职典礼,不过,如果他不出现,那么他将是96年来第一位做出如此怠慢行为的总统。Prior to Mr Trump’s address there will probably be musical performances and words from religious leaders.特朗普发表就职演说之前可能会有一些音乐表演,还会有宗教领袖讲话。Afterwards, there will be a departure ceremony for Mr Obama as his family.演说之后,会为奥巴马一家举行欢送仪式。Mr Trump will then attend the traditional Congressional luncheon and take part in the inaugural parade.接下来,特朗普会参加传统的国会午餐会,参加就职游行。His motorcade will travel down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House, with well wishers and protesters lining the streets.他的车队将从国会大厦出发,沿着宾夕法尼亚大街行进一直到达白宫,沿途会有持者们的祝福和反对者们的抗议。Across Washington DC inaugural balls will be held to mark Mr Trumps ascent to the presidency. They will feature dancing and entertainment and appearances by President and First Lady Trump, and Vice President and Mrs. Pence.华盛顿特区各地将举办就职舞会庆祝特朗普就任总统,届时会有跳舞及其他活动,总统夫妇及副总统夫妇都将出席。Washington National Cathedral will host a Presidential Inaugural Prayer Service on January 21. It is a tradition dating back to Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first inauguration in 1933. Bill Clinton, however, chose the Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, the historic black church in downtown Washington, for both of his inaugural prayer services.11日,华盛顿国家大教堂将举行总统就职祷告仪式。这是从前总统罗斯933年首次就职典礼时就延续下来的传统。不过,克林顿的两次就职祷告仪式都选在华盛顿市中心的黑人教堂——都会非裔卫理公会教堂举行。来 /201701/489798

German magazine Der Spiegel sparked international controversy in February when it published an editorial under the headline “Donald Trump is the world’s most dangerous man今年2月,德国杂志《明镜周刊Der Spiegel)发表了一篇题为《唐纳德#8226;特朗普是世界上最危险的人Donald Trump is the world’s most dangerous man)的社论,在国际上引发争议。Within three months of the publication of the article, Mr Trump has defied critics and pundits to become the presumptive Republican candidate in the US presidential election this November.在文章发表后个月内,虽然遭受批评者和人士的抨击,但特朗普仍然成为了今1月美国总统大选的共和党假定被提名人(编者注:据美国媒体56日报道,特朗普已获得被党内提名所需的选举人票)。Most observers including the global asset management industry doubted the US billionaire would ever get this far.大多数观察人士(包括全球资产管理行业)都没有想到这位美国亿万富翁能够走到这一步。But his unexpected ascent in America’s political hierarchy has raised some difficult questions for many of the world’s largest investors about just how dangerous, or beneficial, he could be for their portfolios.但是对许多全球最大的投资者而言,特朗普在美国政治体系中的意外崛起,引发了难以解答的问题——他对于他们的投资组合有多么危险,或者有多大益处。Pimco, the world’s largest bond fund manager, believes Mr Trump is “all but certainto receive the Republican nomination at the party’s convention in July, now that his two closest rivals, Ted Cruz and John Kasich, have dropped out of the race.全球最大的债券基金管理公司——太平洋投资管理公司(PIMCO)认为,既然特朗普的两个最大的竞争对手特德#8226;克鲁Ted Cruz)和约#8226;卡西John Kasich)全都退选,那么他“几乎肯定会”在今年7月的共和党全国大会上获得共和党总统候选人提名。But Libby Cantrill, executive vice-president at the Californian asset manager, believes Mr Trump’s triumph provides few clues to investors about how they should react.但这家加州资产管理公司的执行副总裁莉比#8226;坎特里尔(Libby Cantrill)表示,特朗普的胜利为投资者的投资策略提供不了什么线索。“A Trump candidacy does not make it easier for investors to anticipate the possible economic and market implications of a Trump presidency if he were to win the US general election in November,she says.她说:“特朗普获得候选人提名并不会让投资者更容易预测,假如特朗普在今1月赢得大选,可能带来什么经济和市场影响。”James Clunie, manager of the absolute return fund at Jupiter, the UK-listed asset manager, believes international investors have been woefully slow to consider the ramifications of a Trump victory in November.英国上市资产管理公司Jupiter的绝对回报基金的经理詹姆#8226;克卢James Clunie)认为,国际投资者在考虑特朗1月赢得大选的影响方面迟缓得可悲。“A lot of people in the investment community think it is so inconceivable he could become president that [they] are not thinking about hedges. That is, collectively, a big mistake.“许多投资人士认为他当选总统是不可想象的,因此没有考虑对冲。把他们合在一起来看,这是一个严重的错误。”“[The US election] should be the talk of the town, but it’s not. Trump is a good wake-up call to stop thinking everything is fine [in the US], as we have done for the past six years. It is a good time to think about fragility in the States.”“(美国大选)本应是热议的话题,但它现在不是。特朗普是一记很好的警钟,提醒人们不要以为(美国)还像我们过年来认为的那样一切都奀?现在是时候考虑美国的脆弱了。”To prepare for the possibility of Mr Trump winning in November, some asset managers are beginning to take a careful look at the potential impact of the controversial policies the US businessman has endorsed so far.为了应对特朗普今1月赢得大选的可能性,一些资产管理公司开始认真考虑这位美国商人迄今持的有争议政策的潜在影响。These include pursuing a protectionist economic agenda by scrapping the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal, and imposing high tariffs on Chinese and Mexican imports.这些政策包括丢弃拟议的《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定Trans-Pacific Partnership, TPP)来实施保护主义经济议程,并对来自中国和墨西哥的进口产品征收高关税。Mr Trump has also indicated he wants to cut the top rate of corporate income tax from 39 per cent to 15 per cent, but will clamp down on the use of “inversiondeals that allow companies to shift their tax bases overseas.特朗普还暗示称,他希望将企业所得税最高税率从39%降至15%,但会打击让公司将税基转到海外的“税收倒置”协议。Both Mr Trump and Hillary Clinton, the frontrunner for the Democratic presidential nomination, have pledged to plough money into infrastructure, and to ditch a tax break worth billions of dollars to private equity and hedge fund managers.特朗普和民主党总统候选人提名领跑者希拉里#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)都承诺向基础设施投入大量资金,并取消给私人股本和对冲基金公司的价值数十亿美元的税收优惠。Some investors highlight healthcare as a sector that could suffer under Mr Trump, who has repeatedly promised to abolish Obamacare, the law that expanded access to care and the biggest medical programme for the poor in the US.一些投资者强调,如果特朗普当选总统,医疗行业可能遭受影响,因为他多次承诺要废除“奥巴马医改Obamacare)。奥巴马医改扩大了医疗务和美国最大医保计划对穷人的覆盖范围。Other fund managers suggest shorting container shipping companies to prepare for a Trump presidency, as a break-up of trade agreements and the imposition of trade barriers could hurt trade, or betting against listed hedge funds and private equity firms in anticipation of more stringent taxation.其他基金公司提议做空集装箱航运公司以应对特朗普当选总统的可能性,因为废除贸易协定和施加贸易壁垒可能伤害贸易;或者做空上市的对冲基金和私人股本公司,因为预计特朗普上台将会推出更为严厉的税法。Mr Clunie recalls the run-up to the 2014 Scottish referendum on independence from the rest of the UK, when few financiers were prepared for the possibility of Scotland opting for independence.克卢尼回忆起2014年苏格兰就是否脱离英国举行公投前的那段时期,当时很少有金融人士为苏格兰可能选择独立做准备。He took out a short position against Caixabank, the Spanish lender, before the referendum, based on the theory that if Scotland voted to leave the UK, it would increase the likelihood of Catalonia, a wealthy Spanish region with its own language and parliament, becoming independent.他在公投前建立了对西班牙Caixabank的空头仓位,理由是如果苏格兰选择脱离英国,就会增加加泰罗尼亚独立的可能性。加泰罗尼亚是西班牙的一个拥有自己语言和议会的富裕地区。Although Scotland chose to remain in the UK, the referendum was much closer than pollsters originally anticipated. Mr Clunie believes the US election could yield similar surprises.尽管最后苏格兰选择留在英国,但公投结果显示持脱英和持留英阵营的比例要比民意调查机构最初预计的接近得多。克卢尼相信,美国大选可能同样出人意料。He has not found another “non-obvioushedge to prepare his portfolio for a Trump presidency. But he points out other commentators have made the tongue-in-cheek suggestion of buying Canadian residential property on the basis that Americans could “fleenorth of the border if Mr Trump wins.他还没有找到另一种“非明显”对冲策略,使他的投资组合对特朗普当选总统做好准备,但他指出,其他人士半开玩笑地提议,鉴于如果特朗普赢得大选,美国人可能“逃往”边境北部,人们应该购买加拿大的房地产。Other investors point to the many sectors that could flourish under Mr Trump’s leadership, including banking and defence.还有投资者指出有许多行业可能因特朗普当选总统而繁荣发展,包括业和防务业。Michael Gregory, chief investment officer at Highland Alternative Investors, the Dallas-based asset manager, says: “Less aggressive banking regulation would be a lift for the big banks. Trump sees banks as having a material role in economic growth and lending, and has called for the repeal of Dodd-Frank [the financial regulation legislation].达拉斯资产管理公司Highland Alternative Investors的首席投资官迈克#8226;格雷戈里(Michael Gregory)表示:“业监管的激进程度降低将对大是个提振。特朗普认为在经济增长和放贷中扮演着重要角色,并呼吁废除(金融监管法)《多弗兰克法Dodd-Frank Act)。”“We could expect defence and aerospace spending to boom during a Trump presidency as he looks to strengthen the US military. Increased cyber security and intelligence networks will also serve to benefit defence IT and communications.”“我们可以预计防务和航空航天出将在特朗普任总统期间出现大幅增长,因为他希望增强美国军力。增强网络安全和情报网络也将让防务IT和通信行业受益。”Yet most fund managers are reluctant to begin putting hedges in place and fine-tuning portfolios before they have a clearer sense of Mr Trump’s final position on issues such as taxation, infrastructure and healthcare.然而,大多数基金公司不愿在更清晰地了解到特朗普在税收、基础设施和医疗领域的最终立场之前,开始建立对冲和微调投资组合。The businessman’s existing policies are widely viewed as inconsistent and contradictory, making it difficult to predict what his ultimate position will be, although some suspect his final stance will be softer than the politician currently implies.人们普遍认为,特朗普当前的政策反复无常且相互矛盾,这让人们很难预测他最终的立场是什么,尽管一些人怀疑这位政客的最终立场将比他目前显示出的温和。Martin Moeller, head of equities at UBP, the Swiss private bank, says: “The campaign has focused on the entertaining and ridiculous statements, [but], once elected, there will be less need for media attention and more focus on finding consensus with other politicians to get things done.瑞士私人UBP的股票主管马#8226;莫勒(Martin Moeller)表示:“特朗普在选举中致力于发布有趣而荒诞的声明,(但是)一旦当选,吸引媒体关注的必要性就会下降,他会更加致力于找到与其他政客的共识来做成事情。”“I think President Trump would be more realistic and reasonable than Campaigner Trump.”“我认为‘总统特朗普’将比‘竞选人特朗普’更加现实和理性。”Investors are also torn over whether a Trump presidency is so unlikely that it is not worth preparing for or whether it is a viable possibility that warrants careful positioning.投资者也产生了分歧,一种观点认为特朗普非常不可能当选总统,因此没有必要做准备,另一种观点是特朗普当选总统具有现实可能性,因此有必要认真建立相应头寸。Political surprises have abounded over the past two years, from the rise of the far-left Syriza party in Greece last year, to the UK Conservative party’s outright win in the 2015 general election. These unexpected developments have delivered painful lessons for investors and politicians alike.过去两年里发生了太多的政治意外事件,从去年希腊激进左翼联Syriza)的崛起,到英国保守党015年大选中大获全胜。这些意外发展给投资者和政客带来了惨痛的教训。Specifically in terms of the US election, Mr Trump is seen as a unique nominee who has so far broken all conventional rules about what makes a successful presidential candidate. This makes him extremely unpredictable.具体就美国选举而言,特朗普被视为一名独特的被提名人,迄今打破了关于成功的总统候选人的所有传统规则。这让他完全不可预知。Sushil Wadhwani, investment manager at GAM, the Swiss fund house, who is a former member of the Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee, says: “Much of the historical work on elections and markets suggests that it is the party that matters.瑞士基金公司GAM的投资经理苏希尔#8226;瓦德瓦尼(Sushil Wadhwani)表示:“大量关于选举和市场的历史研究表明,最重要的是党派。”瓦德瓦尼曾经担任英国央BOE)货币政策委员会委员。“This time is different. Trump is an unusual candidate as he is not a typical Republican. We might need to rewrite the rules in this case.”“这次有所不同。特朗普是一个与众不同的候选人,他不是典型的共和党人。我们这一回可能需要改写规则。”The consensus is that investors should not rule out the possibility of a Trump presidency in 2017.共识意见是,投资者不应排除特朗普017年就任美国总统的可能性。Over the past two weeks, his odds of winning the election have risen from 21 per cent to 28 per cent, according to Betfair, the gambling website. Mrs Clinton’s odds have fallen over the same period, from 75 per cent to 69 per cent.网站必发(Betfair)的数据显示,月中的两周,他赢得大选的几率1%升至28%。同期希拉里的胜选几率从75%降至69%。Steve Dexter, chief investment officer at Copper Rock Capital, a Boston-based asset manager, says: “Trump has repeatedly surprised. The talking heads like to discount his base as just a bunch of disaffected blue-collar rednecks, but in reality the post-election polls have shown that he has drawn significant support from middle- to upper-income college-educated segments of society.波士顿资产管理公司Copper Rock Capital的首席投资官史蒂#8226;德克斯特(Steve Dexter)表示:“特朗普屡次出人意料。人士喜欢将他的选民基础贬损为只是一群心怀不满的蓝领工人,但实际上选举后的民调显示,他获得了受过大学教育的中高收入阶层的大力持。”“He also draws from both the Republican base and the Democrat. This means he could surprise and I would suggest most [investors] still view him as a long-shot loose cannon.”“他还获得了共和党基层选民和民主党的持,这意味着他可能让人大吃一惊,我建议大多数(投资者)还是将他视为一个不容小视的危险人物为好。”来 /201606/447113

Tsai Ing-wen will become the most powerful woman in the Chinese world when she is sworn in as Taiwan’s president on Friday but she will not have much time to toast her historic achievement.蔡英Tsai Ing-wen)在本周五0日)宣誓就任台湾总统后,将成为华人世界权力最大的女性,但她不会有太多时间来庆贺自己的历史性成就。The cat-loving former law professor faces a daunting to-do list, managing relations with a hostile Beijing government while attempting to revive an economy in recession and assuage hardliners in her party who want Taiwan to push for formal independence.这位爱猫的前法学教授面临着一份艰巨的待办事项列表,她需要处理好与不友好的北京方面的关系,试图重振处于衰退中的经济,同时控制住她所在政党内部想要推动台湾正式独立的强硬派。Beijing claims the self-governing, democratic island as one of its provinces and is deeply suspicious of Ms Tsai’s Democratic Progressive party, which won presidential and legislative elections in January after vowing to reduce Taiwan’s reliance on China and boost economic growth.北京方面宣称这个自治、民主的岛屿是中国的一个省份,对蔡英文所属的民进DPP)抱有深切疑虑。民进党以降低台湾对中国大陆的依赖和促进经济增长为竞选纲领,在今月赢得总统和立法院选举。In the four months since the elections, China has shown its displeasure with the DPP’s unprecedented double victory by resuming a battle with Taiwan for diplomatic allies and curbing the number of tourists travelling to the island.在台湾举行选举后的四个月里,中国大陆对民进党获得前所未有的双重胜利表现出不满,再度与台湾争夺外交盟友,并减少赴台游客数量。“The biggest challenge Ms Tsai faces is preserving a positive relationship with the mainland, which is inextricably linked to the domestic agenda of revitalising the economy,said Bonnie Glaser, an expert on Taiwan at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a Washington think-tank. “If she does not have good ties with China, China is likely to pursue Taiwan in ways that will have a detrimental effect on the economy.”“蔡英文面临的最大挑战是保持与大陆的积极关系,这与重振经济的岛内议程有着千丝万缕的联系,”华盛顿智库——战略与国际问题研究中心(CSIS)的台湾问题专家葛莱仪(Bonnie Glaser)表示。“如果她不能同中国大陆建立良好关系,大陆很可能以不利于台湾经济的方式来对付台湾。”The economy has shrunk for three consecutive quarters as Taiwan’s electronics companies and other manufacturers have suffered from the slowdown in neighbouring China, its biggest export market, and weak global demand.台湾经济已连续三个季度萎缩,其电子企业和其他制造商受到邻近的中国大陆经济放缓乃至全球需求疲软的影响;中国大陆是台湾最大的出口市场。In addition to the short-term contraction, Taiwan also faces a deeper malaise with graduate starting salaries having stagnated for years despite sharp rises in housing and other living costs.除了短期的收缩外,台湾还面临着更深层次的低迷,岛内的毕业生起薪已停滞多年,尽管住房和其他生活费用大幅上涨。Lin Shao-hung studied tourism at university and hoped to become a management trainee in the hospitality industry.林少鸿(音,Lin Shao-hung)在大学读的是旅游专业,那时他希望成为酒店业的管理培训生。But, like many young Taiwanese, the 24-year-old has found it difficult to find a good job and ended up working in the housekeeping department at a Taipei hotel for two years.但是,像许多台湾青年一样,现年24岁的他发现很难找到一份好工作,结果在台北某家酒店的客房部打了两年工。“I hope it will get better under Tsai,he said, echoing the view of many of the young voters who helped sweep her into office.“我希望在蔡英文领导下形势会变好,”他表示。这话呼应了帮助把蔡英文选上台的很多年轻选民的观点。The conundrum for the new president, who studied law at the London School of Economics, is that she is under pressure from DPP supporters to boost growth while keeping a distance from China.曾在伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics)学习法律的新总统面临的难题是,她受到民进党持者的压力,要提振经济增长,而同时又要与中国大陆保持一定距离。Analysts say that if she fails to keep Beijing onside, the Chinese government is likely to create further economic difficulties for Taiwan by reducing trade, investment and tourism, as well as leaning on other countries to reject trade talks with the island.分析人士表示,如果她未能争取到北京方面的配合,中国大陆政府很可能会通过减少贸易、投资和赴台旅游人数,给台湾制造进一步的经济困难,同时施压其他国家拒绝与台湾展开贸易谈判。Beijing will be paying close attention to the language on cross-strait relations in her inauguration speech but that is just the beginning of what will be a very delicate balancing act.北京方面将密切关注蔡英文就职演说中涉及两岸关系的措辞,但这将只是一种非常微妙的平衡把握的开端。“Ms Tsai has a significant political mandate and a lot of political capital but her honeymoon may be very short,said Ms Glaser.“蔡英文拥有可观的政治授权和大量的政治资本,但她的蜜月期可能很短,”葛莱仪表示。来 /201605/445139

Reeling from the worst attack on American soil since 9/11, the authorities believe at this stage that Omar Mateen was likely a deranged lone gunman who took the Isis name as a badge rather than a trained operative of the group.在本土遭受自#8226;11”事件以来最严重的恐怖袭击后,美国当局目前相信,奥马尔#8226;马丁(Omar Mateen)可能是一名疯狂的“独狼”手,虽然他打着“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)的旗号,但他并非该组织接受过相关培训的秘密人员。Initial indications suggest that Mr Mateen, who killed 49 at a nightclub in Orlando on Saturday , falls into a distinctive pattern of recent American jihadi violence, a US citizen who operates as a lone wolf and who has little, if any, direct link to a terrorist organisation.上周日凌晨,马丁在奥兰多一家夜总会里杀死了49人。最初迹象表明,马丁符合最近美国圣战暴力活动的独特模式,即一名美国公民像“独狼”一样行动,与恐怖组织几乎没有直接联系。If that conclusion is confirmed by an investigation that is still in its early stages, the Orlando shootings will highlight the different challenge that law enforcement faces in the US compared with Europe, which is battling against organised terrorist cells.如果这一结论被目前仍处于早期阶段的调查实,奥兰多击案将突显出美国执法部门面临的与欧洲不同的挑战。欧洲执法部门正在打击有组织的恐怖小组。For all their improved tradecraft and encryption, Isis cells in the west still have to communicate and co-ordinate, sometimes leaving clues. Lone wolves, by contrast, move in near-total silence: any evidence they leave tends to make sense only once their work is done.尽管谍报和加密技术有所提高,但西方的ISIS恐怖小组仍不得不彼此交流和合作,有时会留下线索。相比之下,“独狼”近乎无迹可循。他们留下的一切蛛丝马迹往往在他们得手后才为人察觉。“The most difficult type [of attacks] are the self-radicalised, lone wolves,says Frances Townsend, former homeland security adviser to President George W Bush. “It is easier to identify and intercept attacks where a terrorist group has direct operational control than it is to intercept self-radicalisation.”曾担任美国前总统小布什(George W. Bush)国土安全顾问的弗朗西#8226;汤森(Frances Townsend)表示:“最难发现的(袭击)类型是自我激进化的独狼行动。发现并拦截恐怖组织直接操作控制的恐怖袭击,要比拦截自我激进化的行动容易。”Although the risk of Isis attacks in the US is thought to be considerably lower than in western Europe, the US authorities have reported a surge in jihadist activities over the past two years. James Comey, director of the FBI, said last month that there were 1,000 open investigations into online recruitment by Isis and other terrorist organisations. According to Lorenzo Vidino and Seamus Hughes at George Washington University, the US authorities arrested 209 individuals on terrorism-related charges from 2011 to 2012, but have arrested 71 for links to Isis since 2014.尽管在美国发生ISIS袭击的风险被认为显著低于西欧国家,但美国当局过去两年报告的圣战活动数量大幅上升。美国联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯#8226;科米(James Comey)上月表示,目前有1000起针对ISIS和其他恐怖组织在线招募活动的开放调查。乔治华盛顿大学(George Washington University)的洛伦佐#8226;维迪Lorenzo Vidino)和谢默斯#8226;休斯(Seamus Hughes)表示,美国当局011年至2012年间逮捕09名恐怖活动嫌疑人,但014年以来逮捕1名与ISIS有关联的嫌疑人。A US official said yesterday that there were no indications yet of direct links between Mr Mateen and Isis, however the FBI is only starting to investigate his recent history, including two visits for religious pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia in 2011 and 2012.一位美国官员昨日表示,迄今还没有迹象表明马丁与ISIS存在直接联系,然而FBI只是刚开始调查他的近期历史,包括011年和2012年两次前往沙特阿拉伯朝圣。From the information released so far, Mr Mateen appears to follow a mould of jihadi attacks seen since 9/11. Like Nidal Hasan, who killed 13 at Fort Hood in , and Syed Farook, one of the San Bernardino shooters, he was a US citizen and at 29, no longer a young firebrand.从迄今发布的信息看,马丁似乎遵循自#8226;11”事件以来的圣战袭击模式。与年在得克萨斯州胡德堡(Fort Hood)杀3人的尼达#8226;哈桑(Nidal Hasan)和圣贝纳迪诺(San Bernardino)击案凶手赛义德#8226;法鲁Syed Farook)一样,马丁是美国公民,29岁,不再是年轻的狂热分子。Analysts say he fits into a pattern of troubled or marginal individuals being attracted by Isis. Mr Mateen’s ex-wife has suggested he was mentally unstable. “A few months after we were married, I saw his instability, and I saw that he was bipolar and he would get mad out of nowhere,she told CNN. In January, the Justice Department said it had arrested a man in Rochester, New York who had been planning to place a bomb in a restaurant on New Year’s Eve and who was described as a “panhandler分析人士表示,他符合被ISIS吸引的精神混乱者或边缘人的特点。马丁前妻表示,他的精神状态不稳定。她向美国有线新闻网(CNN)表示:“在我们结婚几个月后,我发现他精神状态不稳定,情绪两极化,会莫名其妙地发狂。”今月,美国司法部表示,在纽约罗切斯Rochester)逮捕了一名计划在新年前夜在一家餐馆放置炸弹的男子,该男子被形容为“乞丐”。For some of these individuals, Isis has become a “a banner, a rallying cry said Michael Weiss at the Atlantic Council in Washington. “Isis is seen as being a thriving, world-historical movement, that offers violence and an anti-western worldview.”华盛顿大西洋理事会(Atlantic Council)的迈克尔#8226;韦斯(Michael Weiss)表示,对某些此类人来说,ISIS已成为“一面旗帜、一个战斗口号”,“他们视ISIS为一场蓬勃发展、具有世界历史意义的运动,提供了暴力和反西方的世界观”。Unfortunately for the US authorities, Mr Mateen also ticks another box: previous investigation by the FBI. Like Mr Hasan and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, the older brother in the Boston bombing in 2013, he was questioned by the FBI in 2013 and 2014, but no action was taken.对美国当局而言遗憾的是,马丁还符合另一点:他之前接受过FBI的调查。与哈桑013年波士顿爆炸案两名兄弟凶手中的哥哥塔梅尔#8226;察尔纳耶夫(Tamerlan Tsarnaev)一样,马丁曾在2013年和2014年接受过FBI的询问,但FBI当时没有采取任何行动。By contrast, several of the young attackers in Paris and Brussels had travelled to Syria for training and direction. Returning to Europe, they joined other homegrown jihadis in a mega-cell of between 30 and 90 members.相比之下,巴黎和布鲁塞尔的数名年轻袭击者曾到叙利亚接受培训和指导。在返回欧洲后,他们加入了有300名成员的其他本土圣战组织。Claude Moniquet, a former French spy and co-founder of the European Strategic Intelligence and Security Centre, said there was “clearly a different strategy for Isis in continental Europe on the one hand and in the US and UK on the other In Britain and the US, “they advise their followers not to come to Syria and Iraq but to#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;carry out individual strikes in their country前法国间谍、欧洲战略情报与安全中心(European Strategic Intelligence and Security Centre)联合创始人克洛德#8226;莫尼Claude Moniquet)表示,“ISIS在欧洲大陆和在美英的战略显然不同”。在英国和美国,“他们建议追随者不要去叙利亚和伊拉克,而是……在本国实施个人袭击活动”。A key reason, he says, is that tighter border security means it is more difficult to travel from the US and UK to Syria than from continental Europe. The leader of the Paris attacks, Abdelhamid Abaaoud, for example, was able to repeatedly travel to Belgium before the killings, despite being the subject of an international manhunt.他说,一个关键原因是,更为严厉的边境安全控制意味着从美英到叙利亚比从欧洲大陆到叙利亚更为困难。例如,巴黎恐怖袭击事件头目阿卜杜哈米#8226;阿巴伍德(Abdelhamid Abaaoud)能够在袭击前多次前往比利时,尽管他受到国际通缉。Alexander Ritzmann, policy adviser at the European Foundation for Democracy, says it is becoming increasingly hard to see the line between an attack directed by Isis and one where the att-acker associates with Isis. The question, he says, is whether Isis recruits “lone wolves,or do they recruit themselves. “Giving it the brand of the Islamic state makes you famous compared with just being whatever crazy shooter,he notes.欧洲民主基金European Foundation for Democracy)政策顾问亚历山大#8226;里茨Alexander Ritzmann)表示,现在越来越难以区分ISIS下令展开的袭击和与ISIS有关联的袭击者发起的袭击。他说,问题在于到底是ISIS招募了“独狼”,还是“独狼”自我招募。他指出:“与只是某位疯狂的手相比,贴上ISIS的标签会让你出名。”来 /201606/449294

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