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来源:QQ指南    发布时间:2019年06月26日 13:53:41    编辑:admin         

Jack Ma, chairman of ecommerce group Alibaba, has blamed credulous and “greedy” consumers for the prevalence of counterfeit goods available on the internet, adding that his company provides buyers with the tools to distinguish fakes from the genuine article.电子商务集团阿里巴巴(Alibaba)董事局主席马云(Jack Ma)将互联网上假货泛滥归咎于易受骗和“贪心”的消费者,并补充称,他的公司向买家提供辨别真假的工具。“If you want to buy a Rolex for Rmb25 [], you can only be blamed for being too greedy,” he told an audience at the World Internet Conference in the Chinese city of Wuzhen.在浙江乌镇举行的世界互联网大会(World Internet Conference)上,马云称:“二十五块钱就想买一个劳力士手表,这是不可能的,这是你自己太贪了。”Mr Ma’s comments were a departure from the usually contrite public message honed by Alibaba in the run-up to its record-breaking initial public offering in September, which raised bn.9月阿里巴巴通过首次公开发行(IPO)创纪录地融资250亿美元之前,该公司对外传达的信息通常带有忏悔意味。马云此番言论标志着转向。The issue of fake goods, and the difficulty in policing the roughly 8m third-party sellers on Alibaba’s eBay-like sales website Taobao, has long been a problem for the group. “The company takes the issue of counterfeit goods seriously and acts immediately to remove these goods from our ecosystem,” said Alibaba yesterday.阿里巴巴旗下的电子商务网站淘宝(Taobao)类似于eBay,拥有近800万第三方卖家。假货问题、监管卖家之难,是该集团长期面对的问题。阿里巴巴近日表示,“公司认真对待仿冒品问题,一经发现,会立即把这些商品从我们的生态系统中剔除。”Mr Ma challenged the belief in China that counterfeit goods were widely available on Taobao, which reported 0bn in sales in the year to June 30. “Many people say that Taobao and Alibaba is full of knock-offs, but those who say that have basically never shopped on Taobao. ” He added that consumers had the “power of judgment”. “Do you think we could achieve Rmb6.7bn in sales daily if the internet were full of counterfeit products?”马云对中国普遍认为淘宝假货盛行的观点发出挑战。据报道,淘宝在截至6月30日的一年里销售额达到2000亿美元。“说假货多的人,肯定基本上从未在淘宝上买过东西。”马云补充称,消费者有“判断的权力”。“如果有假货,每天淘宝的销售额能有六七十亿元(人民币)吗?”The comments received widesp play on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter, and elicited some ridicule from Taobao shoppers. A user named “Fangfei” wrote: “Haha, I only shop on Taobao because they have high quality counterfeit products!”马云的言论在中国版Twitter——微(Weibo)——上引发热议,并招致一些淘宝买家的嘲笑。一个名为“芳菲”(音译)的用户写道:“哈哈,我只在淘宝上买东西,因为他们有优质的假冒产品!”A five-minute trawl through Taobao yesterday netted a haul of a Chanel watch, a Louis Vuitton handbag and Dior perfume, but Rmb25 Rolex watches were nowhere to be found.记者昨天在淘宝上查找5分钟,就发现了78美元的香奈儿(Chanel)手表、29美元的路易威登(Louis Vuitton)手袋和6美元的迪奥(Dior)香水,但怎么也找不到25元人民币的劳力士(Rolex)手表。Taobao began checking third-party sellers after being named a “notorious market” by the US trade representative for violations of intellectual property rights in the four years to 2011.美国贸易代表因淘宝在截至2011年的4年里侵犯知识产权而称其为一个“臭名昭著的市场”,此后淘宝开始检查第三方商家。 /201411/344676。

It is becoming a car industry parlour game to predict when fully driverless cars will arrive on the roads.预言完全无人驾驶的汽车将何时上路,正成为汽车业的猜谜游戏。Audi chairman Rupert Stadler, whose company just topped a record 149mph with a fully self-driving RS7 sportback, says drivers will be able to take their hands off the wheel by 2016. A year later, Volvo will put 100 self-driving cars on the streets of Gothenburg, Sweden, with the aim of getting a fully autonomous vehicle on the market by 2020.奥迪(Audi)的全自动驾驶RS7掀背轿跑车刚以149英里的时速刷新了纪录。该公司董事长鲁珀特#8226;施塔德勒(Rupert Stadler)称,到2016年驾驶员将能够从手动操控汽车中解放出来。一年后,沃尔沃将向瑞典哥德堡(Gothenburg)的道路投放100辆自动驾驶汽车,目标是在2020年向市场推出完全自动驾驶的汽车。Research group Gartner says that, by 2030, autonomous-enabled vehicles will make up about 25 per cent of passenger cars in mature markets. Consultancy Roland Berger says “wide adoption” could follow soon after, creating a market worth bn for carmakers, parts suppliers and tech companies.研究公司高德纳(Gartner)称,到2030年,自动驾驶的汽车将在成熟市场的乘用车部分占据约25%的份额。咨询公司罗兰贝格(Roland Berger)称,“普及”可能在那之后很快到来,为汽车制造商、零部件供应商及科技公司创造600亿美元的市场。But Stefano Aversa, co-president at the AlixPartners consultancy, says completely autonomous vehicles will never happen. “You cannot think of something that is fully autonomous in any situation – you would never be able to cover the infinite possibilities,” he says. “You have a pedestrian coming from your left, a bicycle on your right, a kid, a cat#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or simply a speed bump or a hole in the ground.”但是,咨询公司艾睿铂(AlixPartners)的联席总裁斯特凡诺#8226;阿维萨(Stefano Aversa)表示,完全自动驾驶的汽车永远不可能出现。“你想不出在任何情况下都能完全自主操作的系统——你永远不可能覆盖无限的可能性,”他称,“你左边过来一名行人,右边出现一辆自行车,一个小孩,一只猫……或者只是一个减速带或地上的一个坑。”Self-driving cars have been heralded as the answer to problems from tedious roads and congestion to traffic accidents – more than 90 per cent of which are caused by human error. Numerous companies and cities have conducted trials. Google has clocked up almost 1m miles of testing on public roads in the US and four cities in the UK will host pilot projects early in 2015.自动驾驶汽车被誉为解决乏味驾驶、拥堵及交通事故(超过90%的事故由人为错误导致)等问题的。很多公司和城市进行了试验。谷歌(Google)在美国公共道路上完成了接近100万英里的试车里程,英国4座城市也将在2015年初启动试点项目。But technical and legal experts are increasingly concerned that the frenzied excitement surrounding the technology is obscuring the significant obstacles that lie in the way of the introduction of autonomous vehicles.然而,技术和法律专家日益担心,围绕该项技术产生的狂热兴奋,掩盖了引入自动驾驶汽车过程中的重大障碍。For a start, driverless vehicles are only allowed on the road in four US states. They are also outlawed in Europe, though a recent amendment to the UN’s Vienna Convention on road traffic means 72 countries, including in Europe and the Americas, can implement rules to allow a car to drive alone for periods.首先,美国只有4个州允许无人驾驶汽车上路。它们在欧洲也不被法律认可,尽管联合国的《维也纳道路交通公约》(Vienna Convention on Road Traffic)近期的一项修订意味着,包括欧洲和美洲在内的72个国家可以实施法规,允许汽车在特定期间自主驾驶。But road traffic laws still require the driver to be able to take control of the vehicle and override autonomous functions.但是道路交通法律仍然要求司机有能力控制车辆,手动超越自动驾驶功能。“That contradicts the visions and fantasies of those who promote autonomous cars,” says Stephan Appt, legal director in Germany for Pinsent Masons, the law firm.“这与自动驾驶车辆倡导者的愿景与幻想是抵触的,”品诚梅森律师事务所(Pinsent Masons)德国法律总监斯蒂芬#8226;爱普特(Stephan Appt)称。“To sleep, to watch movies – that would not be possible at the moment, because you are required always to remain in control.”“开车时睡觉、看电影——现在不可能实现,因为你必须一直保持对车辆的控制。”According to Ruth Graham, a partner at UK law firm BLM, there are key areas of civil and product liability that would need to be addressed before driverless cars became possible.英国BLM律师事务所的合伙人露丝#8226;格雷厄姆(Ruth Graham)认为,在无人驾驶汽车成为可能前,需要解决民事及产品赔偿责任一些关键领域的问题。For instance, in an accident, insurers would need to assess whether the driver or the manufacturer was responsible for an accident. The incident would be complicated further if the crash involved the driver of a conventional, non-autonomous vehicle.比如,在一起事故中,保险公司需要评估:是驾驶人还是制造商要对事故负责?如果这起事故还涉及传统的非自动驾驶车辆,那将变得更复杂。Even criminal liability will need to be looked at, Ms Graham says. “Would it still be an offence to be in your driverless car drunk or drugged?”格雷厄姆称,甚至刑事责任也需要得到考虑。“如果你醉酒或吸毒后坐在无人驾驶车辆内,是否仍构成违法行为?”One way of keeping the driver alert even in autonomous mode is to use eye and head-tracking smart sensors in the cabin, something being worked on by General Motors.一种让驾驶员保持警觉(甚至在自动驾驶状态下)的办法,是在车内应用追踪眼睛和头部动作的智能传感器,通用汽车(General Motors)正在研究这项技术。But this and other elements of autonomous vehicles – the ultimate connected cars – raise questions about data protection. Dashboard cameras, for instance, are banned in Germany, where the sharing of footage is seen as a violation of other road users’ privacy.但是,这项技术以及自动驾驶车辆(超级互联互通的汽车)的其它元素,引发了种种数据保护问题。举个例子,仪表盘摄像头在德国是被禁止的,在德国,分享道路行驶的视频画面构成对其他道路使用者隐私的侵犯。Would drivers own the data produced by the vehicles, or would manufacturers? Could data collected by onboard “black boxes” be sold to insurers? “Who will be permitted to take the data out of the black box?” asks Mr Appt.驾车者和制造商两方面,谁拥有车辆生成的数据?由车载“黑匣子”收集的数据能否被出售给保险公司?爱普特问道,“谁将拥有从黑匣子读取数据的权利?”Technical experts also think mainstream manufacturers are further off developing the systems that would facilitate a fully autonomous car than the hype would suggest. Numerous so-called advanced driver assistance systems have aly been incorporated in cars, such as automatic braking and adaptive cruise control – which adjusts speed according to the car in front.技术专家也认为,主流汽车制造商研发全自动汽车配套系统的进展,与炒作所暗示的相距甚远。很多所谓的“高级驾驶员辅助系统”(ADAS)已被集成至新款汽车,例如自动刹车和自适应巡航控制(根据前方车辆的动态调整车速)。But the leap to complete autonomy is a step beyond. Some industry insiders say the carmakers, though investing large amounts of capital, will have to buy in the technology or form joint ventures if they wish to achieve their lofty hopes for driverless cars.但是,要实现自动驾驶这一飞跃,仍是当前难以企及的。一些业内人士认为,虽然投入大量资金,但如果想实现无人驾驶汽车的远大理想,汽车制造商将不得不购买技术或者组建合资企业。The quality of the technology is crucial, because cars, as sophisticated computers, could be vulnerable to hackers.技术质量至关重要,因为汽车就像精密的计算机一样,可能易于受到黑客攻击。Hugh Boyes, cyber security expert at the UK’s Institution of Engineering and Technology, says: “If we have a hacker community starting to target vehicles, you can imagine a fair amount of chaos. You just have to look at what happens in London when one vehicle breaks down on a main artery of the city.英国工程技术学会(Institution of Engineering and Technology)的网络安全专家休#8226;伊斯(Hugh Boyes)称:“如果我们遇到一个黑客群体开始攻击汽车,你可以想象会有多么混乱。你只要看看一辆汽车在伦敦的主要道路上抛锚时的情景。”“So, if just one in 100, one in 1,000 is interfered with and ceases to operate as planned, we can expect mayhem.”“因此,只要黑客能够干扰百分之一或千分之一的车辆,使其发生故障,我们就会看到一团糟的局面。” /201501/352646。

Dujiang Yan都江堰Dujiang Yan(The Dujiang River Dyke ) is a great ancient irrigation project situated about 50 kilometers northwest of Dujiang Yan City,Sichuan Province.都江堰是一项伟大的古代水利工程,位于四川省成都市西北方向约50千米处的都江堰市。The Minjiang River is a major tributary of the Yangtze River in its upper rea-ches.Before Dujiang Yan was built, when torrential water rushed down the mountains in summer, the Minjiang River overflowed its banks and caused serious floods on the Cheng Du Plain. When the rainfall was not plentiful,the flow of water in the Minjiang River would decrease,aggravating the drought on the western Si-chuan Plain.眠江是长江上游的一条较大的流,发源于四川省北部高山地区。在都江堰建成以前,每当春夏山洪暴发之时,江水奔腾而下,由于河道狭窄,常常引起洪灾,洪水一退,又是沙石千里,造成东旱西涝。In 256,Li Bing was appointed governor of Sichuan. To conquer the floods of the Minjiang River, he trekked upstream until he reached the area of the present-day Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. He got a lot of hydrological data on the Minjiang River. Then he began to build Dujiang Yan. Dujiang Yan system consists of the Fish Mouth,the Sand-flying Dyke and the Precious Bottle Neck.秦昭襄王五十一年(公元前256年),秦国蜀郡太守李冰沿崛江逆流而上,艰苦跋涉,亲自勘察崛江的水情、地势等情况,直至今日的西藏自治区的阿坝。他吸取前人的治水经验,率领当地人民,主持修建了著名的都江堰水利工程。都江堰的主体工程包括鱼嘴分水堤、飞沙堰溢洪道和宝瓶口进水口。The Fish Mouth is a diversion dam built of pebbles. It divides the Minjiang River into the inner river and the outer river. The water of the inner river flows through the Precious Bottle Neck to irrigate 200,000 hectares of farmland around Cheng Du.The outer river was designed mainly to release floodwater. The Sand-flying Dyke between the Fish Mouth and the Precious Bottle Neck is an overflow dyke. When there is too much water in the inner river, the surplus water brims over the Sand-flying Dyke and flows into the outer river.鱼嘴分水堤由鹅卵石修建而成,作用是将眠江水流分成内江和外江,其中内江水流经宝瓶口进水口引人成都平原,灌溉面积达20万公顷,而外江水流则将洪水引人内江水流,剩余的水经位处内江和外江之间的飞沙堰溢洪道溢出至外江水流。这样既可以分洪减灾,又可以引水灌田、变害为利。After Dujiang Yan was completed,Li Bing composed the rhyme easy for mem-ory:“Dredge the riverbed when the water is deep and build low dykes when the water is low.”It contains the guiding principle of dredging the waterways in ancient China.为了观测和控制内江水量,李冰又雕刻了三个石桩人像,放于水中,以“枯水不淹足,洪水不过肩”来确定水位。他还凿制石马置于江心,以此作为每年最小水量时淘滩的标准。Dujiang Yan serves the purposes of navigation,flood control,log floating and urban water supply. The trinity of the Fish Mouth,the Sand-flying Dyke and the Pre-cious Bottle Neck keeps an effective control of water flowing into the inner river. In case of drought,Dujiang Yan channels water into the fields. If waterlogging oc-curs,the floodwater can be diverted.With the completion of Dujiang Yan,both floods and droughts have been brought under control and famine years have gone.The Cheng Du Plain becomes“a land of abundanc”,with an irrigation area of 10 million mu(1 mu1 / 15 hectare ).都江堰一直发挥着航行、防洪、运木、供水等作用,它的三大部分,鱼嘴分水堤、飞沙堰溢洪道和宝瓶口进水口,有效地解决了江水自动分流、自动排沙、控制进水流量等问题,消除了水患。都江堰工程使成都平原从此沃野千里的天府之国。目前灌溉面积超过1000万亩。Dujiang Yan has been in use for more than 2000 years. It is a miracle in the world history of water conservancy.2000多年来,都江堰一直发挥巨大效益。它是世界水利工程的奇迹。 /201512/410684。

Anyone in the art market who was not aly paying attention to the social media platform Instagram had to sit up and take notice in late April after the actor Pierce Brosnan visited the showroom of Phillips auction house in London. Mr. Brosnan snapped a selfie in front of a work he admired: the “Lockheed Lounge” a space-age aluminum chaise longue by the industrial designer Marc Newson. Then he added the words “let the bidding commence,” and posted it to the 164,000 followers of his Instagram feed.在艺术市场上,如果还有人不曾注意过Instagram,那么四月的事得让他们对这个社交媒体平台刮目相看了——演员皮尔斯·布鲁斯南(Pierce Brosnan)去了菲利普斯(Phillips)拍卖行在伦敦的展示厅,在自己喜欢的作品“洛克希德椅”(Lockheed Lounge)前面拍了一张自拍——这是工业设计师马可·纽森(Marc Newson)设计的一款太空时代感的铝制躺椅。之后他把这张照片贴在了自己拥有16.4万名关注者的Instagram账户上,还加了一句,“拍卖快开始吧。”And commence it did. Later that week, Phillips broke the world auction record for a design object, selling “Lockheed Lounge” for 2.4 million, or about .7 million.拍卖确实发生了。当周晚些时候,“洛克希德椅”在菲利普斯拍出了240万英镑,合370万美元,创下了设计品拍卖的世界纪录。“It’s hard to make a direct correlation between Pierce Instagramming us and the world record, but certainly it made the lounger more desirable,” Megan Newcome, director of digital strategy for Phillips and based in New York, said in a telephone interview. “It was a very exciting sale; we had phone bidders, people bidding online, and there was a lot of excitement around that piece in the auction room. Thanks, Pierce, for the shout out.”“很难说创世界纪录和皮尔斯在Instgram上发了我们的照片这两件事之间有什么直接关系,但他的照片肯定让这张躺椅更令人觊觎了,”梅根·纽康姆(Megan Newcom) 现居纽约,是菲利普斯的数字战略主管,她通过电话接受了采访。“那场拍卖令人兴奋;有很多电话拍卖者和网络拍卖者参加,拍那件张长椅时非常刺激。多谢了,皮尔斯,谢谢你替我们大声宣传。”It was not the first time the art market had been influenced by images on Instagram. In the past few years, it has emerged as the social media platform of choice for many contemporary artists, galleries, auction houses and art collectors, who use it to promote art that they are selling and to offer a behind-the-scenes look in art studios, auction houses and art fairs. How much that actually translates into sales like the “Lockheed Lounge,” however, is still up for debate.艺术市场受Instragram影响已经不是第一次了。过去几年来,Instagram成了许多当代艺术家、画廊、拍卖公司和艺术品收藏者们青睐的社交媒体平台,他们使用它来推广自己想要贩卖的东西,提供物品在工作室、拍卖室和艺术节上的幕后状态。至于这种推广在多大程度上能像这次的“洛克希德椅”一样转化为销售,目前仍然存在争议。Instagram, which started in 2010, is an online mobile app that allows users to share square, Polaroid-style images and 15-second s, with a network of more than 300 million users worldwide. Users build up their own social networks of followers, and can follow other users, or just “like” images by users they do not follow. Most important for the art world, users are introduced to artists they might like through a “discover” function. Elizabeth Bourgeois, a company spokeswoman, said that globally, users share about 70 million photos each day via the app.Instagram自2010年创立,是一款在线移动应用,供使用者分享正方形的宝丽来式图片或15秒钟的视频,目前全世界使用者超过三亿。用户可以在上面建立自己的社交网络关注群体,也可以关注他人,对于没有关注的用户,只点“喜欢”也可以。对于艺术界而言,最重要的是它的“发现”功能,可以向用户介绍新的艺术家。公司发言人伊丽莎白·布尔乔亚(Elizabeth Bourgeois)说,来自全世界的用户每天要通过这款应用分享7000万张照片。Simon de Pury, an international auctioneer who has 131,000 followers on his Instagram feed, @simondepury, said in a telephone interview: “So many people are either artists, collectors or gallery owners or photographers who are using it very actively, so it allows you to preview exhibitions happening everywhere in the world, and to see the works the minute the exhibitions open, rather than waiting to about it in a review. That’s what makes it exciting.”西蒙·德·普利(Simon de Pury)是一位国际拍卖商,他的Instagram账户@simondepury有13.1万个关注者,他在电话采访中说:“很多艺术家、收藏家、画廊老板和摄影师在积极使用这款应用,所以你可以通过它观看世界各地的展览,展览刚一开始就能看到作品,而不是等着看回顾。所以它才那么让人兴奋。”The world’s biggest auction houses, Christie’s and Sotheby’s, also use their official Instagram feeds (with 96,700 and 120,000 followers, respectively) to post preview images of select items from coming sales.全世界最大的两家拍卖行佳士得和苏富比也拥有自己的官方Instagram账号(分别有9.67万名和12万名关注者)贴的是即将举行的拍卖会上精选拍品的照片。Celebrity collectors and artists are in on the action, too. The pop star couple Jay-Z and Beyoncé Instagrammed their way through Art Basel in Miami Beach a few years ago, posting selfies in front of art they bought or were thinking of buying. Instagram adopters like the Chinese artist Ai Weiwei (with 127,000 followers), the American artist and toy designer Gary Baseman (84,700) and the French “photograffeur” JR (627,000) all keep fans up to date with regularly shared images of new work.名人收藏家和艺术家们也会参加拍卖会。比如几年前,流行歌星夫妇Jay-Z和碧昂斯(Beyoncé)就曾经在Instragram上直播他们参加迈阿密海滩巴塞尔艺术节的情形,是他们在已经买下或打算买下的东西前面拍的自拍。还有中国艺术家艾未未(12.7万名关注者)、美国艺术家与玩具设计师加里·贝斯曼(Gary Baseman,8.47万名关注者)和法国“照片涂鸦者”JR(6.27万名关注者)都经常分享自己的新作,让粉丝能随时了解自己的动态。Posting or discovering art is one thing, but the central question circulating around the art world is how many actual art sales are generated by the app. Instagram has no functionality that could make it useful as a direct sales platform, and no plans to add one, Ms. Bourgeois said. But quite often, art aficionados are using the app to preview works of art before they buy.贴出自己的艺术创作或发现他人的艺术创作是一回事,但艺术界的核心问题是,这款应用到底能够促成多少真正的艺术品交易。Instagram不提供直接销售平台,布尔乔亚说,公司也没有计划增加这项功能。但是艺术狂热爱好者在购买艺术品之前经常使用这款应用浏览想买的物品。“When you see something on Instagram that’s hanging in a gallery somewhere and you want to acquire it, you can instantly call up the gallery,” Mr. de Pury said, adding that he had made many purchases this way. “I’m sure that a number of transactions are taking place as a result of works being shown on Instagram. I’m sure it’s quite common by now.”“你在Instagram上看到什么东西挂在画廊之类的地方,然后又想买,就可以直接给画廊打电话,”德·普利说,他补充说,自己已经通过这个方式卖出了不少艺术品。“我相信,自从许多艺术品被放在Instagram上展示,有很多交易发生了。我相信这种现象如今非常普遍。”Just how common it is, however, and who is using the platform in this way is matter of much art world fascination. That is perhaps why, this year, art news websites like artnet.com and hyperallergic.com were abuzz when it was reported that the actor Leonardo DiCaprio, an avid art collector, had bought a painting called “Nachlass” for ,000 by Jean-Pierre Roy, an emerging artist, over the phone, after supposedly seeing it on Instagram.这种现象到底有多普遍呢,而且是什么人使用这个平台购买艺术品呢?艺术界对此非常着迷。今年,热衷收藏艺术品的演员莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCarprio)通过电话交易,以15000美元的价格买下了新晋艺术家让-皮埃尔·罗伊(Jean-Pierre Roy)的作品《未发表的遗作》(Nachlass),很可能是因为他在Instagram上看到了这幅作品。无怪乎artnet.com和hyperallergic.com等艺术网站对此大惊小怪了一阵。Mr. Roy’s dealer, Morten Poulsen in Copenhagen, confirmed that the artist “had posted a detail image of the painting on Instagram.” After that, Mr. Roy received a message from Mr. DiCaprio, “asking us to keep the painting on hold until he saw high-res quality images of the work,” Mr. Poulsen said by email. “I sent him that, the deal was finalized and the painting went into Mr. DiCaprio’s collection.”罗伊的经纪人莫腾·普尔森(Morten Poulsen)在哥本哈根确认这位艺术家“把这幅作品的细节图贴在了Instagram上”。之后,罗伊收到迪卡普里奥的信息,“他让我们别卖那幅画,让他先看看这幅作品的高分辨率图片,”普尔森在电子邮件中写道。“我给他发去了,交易完成,那幅画成了迪卡普里奥的藏品。”Lisa Schiff, an art adviser in New York for Mr. DiCaprio, said he had denied that the sale was based on an Instagram sighting, but she confirmed that Mr. DiCaprio did buy Mr. Roy’s painting through her office just before the Pulse Contemporary Art Fair in March in New York, where it was to go on sale the next day.丽莎·希夫(Lisa Schiff)现居纽约,是迪卡普里奥的艺术顾问,她说他否认交易是因为看了Instagram上的照片后才发生的,但她确认,迪卡普里奥在3月份那幅画在纽约帕尔斯当代艺术节(Pulse Contemporary Art Fair)正式展出前一天,就通过她的办公室购买了罗伊的画。Whether or not the Instagram connection was accurate, the report, originally published on the Creators Project, a Vice.com blog, was republished on many top art news websites and blogs as an example of Instagram’s growing market influence. A small survey by Artsy.net, an online platform that both promotes and sells art, bears this influence out, with caveats. In April, the company surveyed 35 known collectors who each had more than 100 pieces of art in their collections and reported that just over half of them had purchased artworks from artists they had discovered on Instagram .这篇报道最初由“Creators Project”网站(它是Vice.com旗下的一个客)发布,不管双方的联系是否真的通过Instagram建立起来,这篇文章被许多顶级艺术网站和客转载,作为Instagram日益对市场产生影响的据。Artsy.net 是一个既可以推广艺术品,也可以销售艺术品的在线平台,它搞的一项小型调查明了网络平台的影响,但也提出了警示。4月,这家公司调查了35位至少拥有100件艺术藏品的知名收藏家,发现他们当中仅有约一半的人曾经购买过从Instagram上发现的艺术家作品。Christine Kuan, chief curator and director of strategic partnerships at Artsy, qualifies those numbers, saying that the platform’s audience is “young collectors and emerging collectors,” who are tech savvy and active on social media.Artsy网站的主策展人和战略合作伙伴负责人克里斯汀·关(Christine Kuan)核实了这些数据,她说,Instagram平台的使用者们是“年轻的收藏家和正在崛起的收藏家,”他们懂技术,在社交媒体上非常活跃。“A lot of seasoned collectors in the art world don’t use it as much,” Ms. Kuan said in a telephone interview. “They aly have their own contacts in the gallery world and they go to art fairs, and may not be using Instagram that way.”“很多艺术界资深藏家就不怎么会用它,”关女士在接受电话采访时说。“他们在画廊圈有自己的联系人,也去艺术节,所以可能不会这样使用Instagram。”Hearing the results, Ms. Schiff, whose clients also include leading contemporary art collectors like Candace Barasch and Anne Anka, agreed with Ms. Kuan’s qualifications. “No way, no how — seasoned collectors aren’t using it like that,” Ms. Schiff said. “Maybe people in the 20-30 age range, but not over 40.”希夫的客户中不乏当代艺术的顶级收藏者,如坎达斯·巴拉什(Candace Barasch)和安妮·安卡(Anne Anka)等,听到这个调查结果,她同意关女士的观点。“不会的,资深藏家绝不会这么做,”希夫说。“可能二三十岁的人会这么干,40岁以上的人就不会了。”Most of her clients are over 40, she added, and in her experience, “online sales for art tend to have a price limit on them of about ,000, maybe ,000.”她补充说,自己的客户大都年过40,根据她的经验,“网络艺术品销售的价格大都限制在两万美元以内,也许五万吧。”Anita Zabludowicz, an art collector and arts patron who with her husband, Chaim “Poju,” co-founded the Zabludowicz Collection, which consists about 5,000 works of art by more than 500 artists in London, New York and Finland, the couple’s native country, is an active Instagrammer, with a total of more than 65,000 followers for her three accounts.艺术品收藏家与艺术赞助人安妮塔·扎布卢多维奇(Anita Zabludowicz)与丈夫柴姆·“普约”(Chaim “Poju”)联合创立了“扎布卢多维奇收藏”,其中包括5000件左右的艺术品,分别由伦敦、纽约与芬兰(两人的故乡)的500多位艺术家创作。她是Instagram的活跃用户,拥有三个账户,65000名关注者。Ms. Zabludowicz said she had purchased work based on Instagrammed images, especially from the Brazilian installation artist Adriano Costa and the New York conceptual artist Brad Troemel, which she added to her trove of works by artists such as Damien Hirst, Richard Prince and Nam June Paik.扎布卢多维奇女士说,她曾经从Instagrams上购买作品,特别是从巴西装置艺术家阿德里亚诺·科斯塔(Adriano Costa)和纽约概念艺术家布拉德·特奥伊美尔(Brad Troemel)手中。如今,他俩的作品和达米安·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)、理查德·普林斯(Damien Hirst)与白南淮等名家的作品一样,也成了她的宝藏。“Instagram for me is one of the most important social media channels as it is the quickest way to absorb visual information, however shallow,” Ms. Zabludowicz said by email.“对于我来说,Instagram是最重要的社交媒体渠道,也是吸收视觉信息最快的途径,虽说有点像狼吞虎咽,” 扎布卢多维奇在电子邮件中说。She added, however, that she rarely did any actual commerce directly on the app: “If I am working with a gallery, prices would normally be discussed by email or telephone, not via Instagram.”她还说,她很少直接通过这个应用谈生意:“如果我和画廊合作,价格一般可以通过电子邮件或电话谈,而不是通过Instagram。”Ms. Newcome, the Phillips executive, agreed that at least for now, Instagram seemed to be used mostly as a promotional tool, rather than part of “a sales-driven strategy.”菲利普斯的执行官纽康姆同意,至少到现在为止,Instagram似乎主要是一种推广工具,而不是“销售战略”的一部分。“If one of our specialists has a favorite work in an upcoming sale, they’ll certainly ask for us to ‘give it a little love on Instagram,”’ she said. It’s “a way to create some buzz around a piece. And you never know: you can literally post something on Instagram and a few minutes later have someone ask to buy it. These are the legends that have been developing around Instagram aly.”“如果在即将到来的拍卖上,我们的某位专家特别青睐某个作品,他们肯定会让我们‘在Instagram上对它多关照’,”她说。“这是给作品造势的方法。你永远说不清楚:你确实可以在Instagram上贴点东西,过几分钟就会有人要买。现在关于Instagram,已经有不少传说了。” /201508/392302。

In 1950, at a time when there were fewer than 10 digital computers worldwide, Bill Pfann, a 33-year-old scientist at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, discovered a method that could be used to purify elements, such as germanium and silicon. He could not possibly have imagined then that this discovery would enable the silicon micro-chip and the rise of the computer industry, the Internet, and the emergence of the information age. Today, there are about 10 billion Internet-connected devices in the world, such as laptops and mobile phones, and at the heart of each of these devices, there is at least one such micro-chip that acts as its “engine”.1950年时,全球只有不到10台数字计算机。时年33岁的新泽西贝尔实验室科学家比尔o芬尼在这一年发现了一种提纯锗、硅等元素的方法。他当时可能想不到,这一发现促成了硅制微芯片的诞生,推动了计算机和互联网的发展,导致了信息时代的出现。如今,全球已有超过100亿台联网设备。而所有这些设备中,都至少有一块这样的微芯片充当“引擎”作用。The reason behind this relentless progress is neatly contained in a prophetic law that was announced 50 years ago this Sunday, called Moore’s Law. The micro-chip is built with tiny electrical switches made of purified silicon called transistors and the law stated that the number of transistors on a chip would double every year. In 1975, Gordon Moore revised his forecast to state that the count would double every two years. The law has held true since.50年前,一个预言式的定律巧妙地揭示了科技不断进步背后的原因,它就是尔定律。微芯片上有许多由纯净硅制成的微型电子开关,它们被称作晶体管。而尔定律认为芯片上的晶体管数量每年都会翻倍。1975年,戈登o尔修正了他的预测,认为晶体管数量会每两年翻一倍。从此以后,这一定律从未失准。Why is Moore’s Law relevant? Because this doubling of the number of transistors led to computer chips that could be packed with increasingly sophisticated circuitry that was both energy efficient and cheap. This led to the widesp adoption of computers, mobile phones, and the information technology revolution.为何尔定律经年不衰?因为晶体管数量的倍增让计算机芯片能够搭载越来越复杂的电路系统,它们不仅节能,还十分便宜。这导致了计算机、手机的普及,推动了信息技术的革命。The price of computation is about 10 million times cheaper than it was 40 years ago, and the computing power held in a smart phone outstrips the workstations that computer scientists used in their offices in the 1990s. That we have been able to so far hold true to Moore’s Law is the reason that the electronic circulation of information has been commoditized, changing the way many of us learn, bank, travel, communicate and socialize.计算机的价格比起40年前,已然便宜了一千万倍,而一部智能手机拥有的计算能力,已经超过了20世纪90年代计算机科学家使用的工作站。至今为止,尔定律依然适用,也因为如此,信息的电子流通变得商品化,改变了我们当中许多人学习、储蓄、旅行、沟通和社交的方式。Take the example of social networking using a mobile phone. It works because the cost of a transistor has dropped a million fold and computing is about 10,000 times more energy efficient since 1980, when this writer first went to engineering school. Consequently, a 0 smart phone powered by a biscuit-sized battery contains a micro-chip with a few billion transistors in it and enough computing power to digitally process an image, and then upload and share it wirelessly using powerful mathematics to encode the data. This is a consequence of Moore’s Law in action.以使用手机进行社交为例。之所以能实现这一点,是因为从1980年(当时笔者才刚进入工程学院)至今,晶体管的价格降低了几百万倍,计算的能效提高了几万倍。因此,售价200美元、由一块饼干大小的电池作为能源的智能手机中,拥有一块包含几十亿晶体管的微芯片,其计算能力足以对图片进行数字化加工,运用强大的数学运算能力编码其数据,再通过无线网络上传和分享它。这就是尔定律作用下的成果。Yet, on its 50th anniversary, there are tell-tale signs that Moore’s Law is slowing, and we are almost certain that the law will cease to hold within a decade. With further miniaturization silicon transistors will attain dimensions of the order of only a handful of atoms and the laws of physics dictate that the transistors and electronic circuits will cease to work efficiently at that point. As Moore’s Law’s slows down, innovations in other areas, such as developments in software, will pick up the slack in the short-term.然而,在它诞生50周年之际,已有迹象表明尔定律下的增长开始放缓,我们也几乎可以确定,在接下来的十年内,它恐怕将不复成立。硅晶体管继续微型化下去,将达到仅含有少量原子排列的维度,根据物理定律,这种情况下晶体管和电子电路将无法有效工作。随着尔定律下的增长放缓,其他领域的创新,如软件方面的发展,将在短期内补上这一缺口。But in the longer-term, there will be fundamental changes in the essential design of the classical computer that, remarkably, has remained unchanged since the 1950s. Designed for precise calculations, today’s computing machines do not make inferences, and qualitative decisions, or recognize patterns from large amounts of data efficiently. The next substantive leap forward will be in computers with human-like cognitive capabilities that are also energy efficient. IBM’s Watson, the computing system that won the television game show Jeopardy! in 2011, consumed about 4000 times more energy than its human competitors. This experience reinforced the need for new energy efficient computing machines that are designed differently from the sequential, calculative methodology of classical computers and are inspired, perhaps, by the way biological brains work.但从长期来看,从20世纪50年代至今未曾改变的传统计算机的基本设计,将会出现根本性的变革。如今的计算机可用来进行精确计算,但它们无法高效地从大量数据中得出推断,做出定性决策或识别模式。下一个实质性的飞越将会出现在那些拥有类人认知能力且高能效的计算机上。IBM的计算机系统沃森在2011年的智力挑战节目“Jeopardy!”上取得胜利,但它消耗的能量是与它同台对垒的人类选手的4000倍。这一经历凸显了对新型高能效计算机的需求。它们要与使用顺序计算方法的经典计算机有所区别,设计者也许将从生物大脑的运转方式中汲取灵感。A journalist recently asked me whether the continuation of Moore’s Law was indispensable. It is the beauty of the collective enterprise of human innovation that which ensures that nothing is indispensable indefinitely for technology to progress. Decades later one might look at the era of Moore’s Law as a golden period where computers came of age through a masterful display of an industry’s ability to miniaturize and create billions of flawless and identical copies of tiny circuits at factories throughout the world. But, much as a pack of migratory birds flying in V-formation rotate in at the lead position, there will, at that future time, be many other technologies that will have carried us forward in the information age.一位记者最近问我,尔定律的持续是不是不可或缺的。人类创新这项集体活动之美,就在于保了没有什么对于技术进步而言是不可或缺的。几十年后,人们或许会将尔定律的年代看作黄金时代,这个年代的计算机起初是一个行业实力的体现,后来计算机逐渐小型化,全球的工厂制造了数以亿计一模一样的完美微型电路。但就像候鸟群会以V字队列盘旋在领头者旁边一样,未来会有许多其他技术引领着我们在信息时代继续前进。 /201504/371646。