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楼主:快乐生活 时间:2019年10月20日 08:40:40 点击:0 回复:0
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When people talk about the skyrocketing metabolism of Silicon Valley, it’s a metaphor for profits, innovation, a surge in products or services. But now it’s happening literally. There is a cultural shift afoot in the technology industry: fitness has gripped the so-called brogrammer. Software developers who see the world as a series of systems in need of optimization have turned that instinct inward. Call it the six abs of highly effective techies—HGH bodies for PHP minds.人们总是说硅谷的新陈代谢正在火箭式上升,这当然是一个用来形象说明利润、创新、产品或务激增的比喻。但现在,这一幕就切切实实地发生在我们眼前。科技行业的文化正在转变:健身已经成为所谓brogrammer(意指善于社交,喜欢出外玩乐的程序员)的新嗜好。软件开发人员一向把世界视为一系列需要优化的系统。现在,他们开始用这种本能来观察自己的身体。让我们权且将它称为“高效技术人员的六块腹肌”——堪比健美运动员的身材,加上PHP思维的头脑。“I never really thought of that,” says Thomas Bailey, 40, director of experience technology at SapientNitro, a marketing company in Boston. “But, yeah, I’m looking out of my office at 25 programmers, and every one of them is fit: a bodybuilder, a ton of cyclists, all of that. It’s only when we hire guys older than 40 that we see that old stereotype, like the programmer from Jurassic Park: unfit, sloppy, all that. People used to point out on their résumé that they speak Spanish or Chinese. Now it’s that they run triathlons or are on a competitive local amateur sports team.”“我做梦也没有想到这一幕,” 40岁的托马斯o贝利说。他是波士顿麒灵广告营销公司(SapientNitro)的体验技术总监。“但我正在观察办公室外面那25位程序员,每个人都非常健康。其中有一位是健美运动员,还有一大群自行车运动健将。只有当我们雇用40岁以上的员工时,我们才能看到那种符合人们固有成见,仿佛是从《侏罗纪公园》(Jurassic Park)走出的程序员:身体不健康,非常邋遢。程序员过去爱在简历中注明,他们会说西班牙语或中文。如今的简历亮点则是,他们参加过铁人三项,或者是本地很有实力的某家业余运动队的成员。Bailey may sound surprised, but he’s one of them. After a spiel about “eking out efficiencies,” he reveals his hand: “I can’t stand the typical, average, normal gym experience of running on a tmill, staring at a TV for half an hour,” he gripes. He’s a CrossFit acolyte. His co-worker, Jon Grassis, 32, a manager of interactive development, bikes 18 miles a day. He always makes sure to stop and do 100 crunches, 100 push-ups, and 50 pull-ups. “I’m working on the pull-ups,” he concedes.这种现象似乎让贝利非常惊讶,但他其实也是其中一员。在一番关于“竭力维持效率”的高谈阔论之后,他露出了自己的底牌:“我无法忍受那种典型的健身房锻炼体验,在跑步机上一边跑步,一边盯着屏幕看上半个小时,实在让人受不了,”他抱怨说。他是一位“全面健身(CrossFit)”新手。他的同事,32岁的互动开发经理乔恩o格拉西斯每天骑自行车行驶18英里。他经常停下手头的工作,做100个仰卧起坐,100个俯卧撑和50个引体向上。“我正在练习引体向上,”他承认。“I’m a 100 percent stickler for efficiency,” Grassis says. “I can’t stand inefficiency in any part of my life at all, almost to a fault. Efficiency is tricky with fitness, though, because you want it to be hard. The moving target aspect is highly appealing to the techie mindset.”“我做事特别讲究效率,”格拉西斯说。“不管是生活的哪一方面,我都不能忍受效率低下,几乎到了过分的程度。但健身是很难追求效率的,因为你希望健身有一定难度。不断提升的目标对技术人员非常有吸引力。”It is admittedly difficult to find data that specifically backs the assertion that desk-bound programmers are moving toward a fitter existence, aside from the fact that the general market for wearable fitness devices has in recent years rapidly grown into a billion-dollar business. But there’s plenty of anecdotal evidence.据说伏案工作的程序员的健康状况正在迅速改善,尽管我们很难发现能够持这一论断的数据——除了可穿戴式健身设备最近几年迅速成长为一门数十亿美元的生意这一事实——但坊间充斥着大量轶事。Witness Paul Graham, a co-founder of the seed accelerator Y Combinator, imploring his staff to exercise. (And here is HarjTaggar, a Y Combinator partner, writing about his personal experiments with preventing heart disease.) Chew on the concept of Soylent, which aims to solve the “problem” of eating meals, or Google’s Baseline Study, which seeks to pinpoint what a healthy system—er, body—should look like. Look at the hordes of young tech workers navigating the Spring Break crowds at Burning Man and South by Southwest baring their toned physiques (including the literally Olympian torso of Tyler Winklevoss, the investor and cryptocurrency evangelist). Read efficiency mogul Timothy Ferriss’ 2010 book The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman or renowned futurist Ray Kurzweil’s 2009 book Transcend, a nine-step mnemonic for living well. “Tending to your body is essential to being a successful founder,” writes Seth Bannon, the social entrepreneur and Amicus CEO, who counts among his accomplishments that he is a vegetarian. “Remember: exercise makes you a better entrepreneur.” Or behold the editors of BuzzFeed lavishing praise on “the hottest abs in Silicon Valley,” a description that—with respect to tech’s founding mothers and fathers—would have been unthinkable in the region’s early, nerdier days.比如,创业孵化器Y Combinator联合创始人保罗o格雷厄姆恳请他的员工锻炼身体。(该公司合伙人哈吉o塔加曾经专门撰文谈论过他自己通过锻炼预防心脏病的经历。)仔细想想旨在解决吃饭“问题”的新型食品Soylent背后的理念,或者谷歌公司(Google)的基线研究(Baseline Study),这项研究试图找出健康的系统(呃,或者说身体)究竟应该是什么样子。再看看一大批正在火人节(Burning Man)欢度春假的人群中穿梭,或者在西南偏南音乐节 (South by Southwest)袒露健美体格的科技工作者(其中包括投资人、加密货币传道者泰勒o文克莱沃斯那犹如奥林匹斯山诸神的强健身躯)。读读效率大师蒂莫西o费里斯2010年出版的经典著作《4小时身体锻炼:如何通过迅速减肥和性爱成为超人》(The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman),或著名未来学家雷o库兹威尔2009年出版的著作《超越》(Transcend)——这是一套旨在打造健康生活的九步口诀。“锻炼好身体是成为一位成功创始人的关键一环,”社会企业家,法庭之友公司(Amicus)CEO塞思o班农写道。他认为自己的成就之一就是成为了一位素食主义者。“请牢记,锻炼可以助你成为一位更好的企业家。”或者看看BuzzFeed的编辑们对“硅谷最热辣腹肌”的不吝赞美。在该地区书呆子气更浓的早期岁月(笔者绝无半点不尊重高科技先驱的意思),这种描述是难以想象的。The zeitgeist presents an intriguing and novel paradox for data-driven laptop hermits who are still getting used to the concept of standing desks. Study after study demonstrates that fitter folks are more trusted, more respected, more welcomed, more everything—so how can optimized job performance not factor in fitness?这种时代潮流针对那些依然在适应“站立办公”理念,依靠数据驱动的笔记本电脑隐士,提出了一个有趣且新奇的悖论。多项研究表明,更健康的员工更值得信赖,更受尊重,更受欢迎,总之什么都好。那么,优化工作绩效怎么能够不考虑健身因素呢?“It’s a skill set,” says Nick Grosvenor, 32, founder and programmer at CineGrain in Los Angeles. Grosvenor says he’s a devotee to Barry’s Bootcamp, the high-intensity interval training regimen favored by get-ripped-quick celebrities and Wall Street alpha dogs. “It shows that they’ve got their act together. It shows commitment, intelligence, discipline; it’s a cue to efficiency, to a systemized life, everything we respect in the programming world. It’s almost a counterbalance, because working out is the antithesis to sitting down.”“这是一套技能,”32岁的尼克o格罗夫纳说。这位洛杉矶CineGrain公司创始人和程序员表示,他是巴里集训营(Barry’s Bootcamp)的忠实信徒。巴里集训营的高强度间歇训练方案深受那些希望迅速获得肌肉线条的名人和华尔街“阿尔法”的青睐。“这表明,他们已经开始有条有理地处理问题了。这体现了决心、智慧和纪律性;这是一个获得效率,一种系统化生活,以及我们在编程世界所尊重的一切的线索。这几乎是一种平衡力,因为锻炼是久坐的对立面。”Courtney Paul, 35, a trainer at Barry’s Bootcamp, which opened its San Francisco outpost in June, drives this mentality home with his #wearemachines Twitter hashtag. For example, he says, he knows that average walking speed is 3.1 miles per hour, and expects his clients to cool down at a pace of at least 3.5 miles per hour. “It’s not about self-esteem, or encouragement, or cheerleading, or any of that softer old-school stuff from the days when working out was a new science,” he says. “It’s just numbers now. That’s it. The numbers don’t lie. If you do this, and eat this, you will get these results. If you don’t get the results, you’re lying about something. Because the numbers aren’t doing the lying, I know that.”35岁的巴里集训营(该集训营已于6月份进驻旧金山)教练考特尼o保罗通过他的Twitter标签#wearemachines传播这种心态。比如,他说,他知道平均步行速度为每小时3.1英里,并期望自己的客户每小时至少能走3.5英里。“这跟自尊、鼓励、加油,或者任何出自锻炼还是一门新科学那段岁月的老派思想无关,”他说。“现在,这仅仅是数字。就是这样,这些数字不会说谎。如果你这样做,这样吃饭,你就将获得这些结果。如果你没有获得这些结果,那就说明你在某件事上撒谎了。因为这些数字不会说谎,我非常了解这一点。”“It’s reaching a point where physical prowess is merging with mental prowess,” says Zak Holdsworth, 32, founder of Hint Health, in San Francisco. Holdsworth is another CrossFit fan, as well as a kitesurfer (and, according to one website, New Zealand’s most eligible bachelor). He says he took blood, saliva, and urine samples to establish his own “personal systems biology baseline.”“体魄的强壮正在与精神的强壮相互交融,”32岁的旧金山Hint Health公司创始人扎克o霍尔兹沃思这样说道。他是另一位全面健身爱好者,一位风筝冲浪者(另据一家网站介绍,他还是新西兰最令人中意的单身汉)。霍尔兹沃思说,他采集了血液、唾液和尿液样本,用以构建他自己的“个人系统生物学基线”。Not that all the discipline and rigor is internal. Holdsworth’s office, for example, allows very select snacks—paleo jerky, or nutrition bars made of crickets, for example. “There will never be a candy bowl on a desk in this office,” he says. “It’s harder to make bad decisions when the options don’t allow it.”并非所有的严苛要求都是针对身体内部。比如,霍尔兹沃思的办公室允许吃一些精选小吃——牛肉干,或者用蟋蟀制作的营养棒。“在这间办公室的办公桌上,永远不会出现糖果碗,”他说。“如果没有其他选项,你就很难做出糟糕的决定。”As software engineers continue to hack and optimize their fitness, does it at some point become a walking résumé? If you want to know how good a programmer is, you can’t just ask him to lift his shirt, can you?随着软件工程师不断破解和优化他们的体能,身体在某个时点会不会成为一个行走的简历?如果你想知道一位程序员究竟有多么优秀,你不能仅仅要求他撩起自己的衬衫,是吧?“People almost don’t believe me when I tell them what I do,” says Vaughn Dabney, 30, a freelance app developer in Washington, D.C. who also founded Soundr, a kind of Vine for audio files (and audiophiles). “They don’t expect it, sometimes don’t accept it. Because I’m not [made from] the mold people think. I never find out what they think I should be, though. I tell them I’m the coolest nerd they’ll ever meet.”“当我告诉人们我正在从事的工作时,几乎没有人相信,”30岁的沃恩o达布尼说。他是一位居住在华盛顿特区的自由软件开发者,还针对音频文件(和发烧友)创建了类似于地理位置应用Vine的Soundr公司。“他们没有料想到,有时候也不接受这一事实。因为我跟人们对程序员的固有印象不一样。但我从来没有查明在他们的心目中,我应该长什么样子。我告诉他们,我是他们遇到的最酷的书呆子。”Dabney, who describes his body as “mesomorph,” says he engages in an hour of targeted workouts every work day. “Things are changing. It’s not just programmers behind the scene,” he says, “You have to be the face. Investors like stories, faces; your body is your brand in a lot of ways. Being in shape is a complement to being fit mentally. It’s getting all the property in Monopoly: the front-end and the back-end, the presentation and the programming—the body and the mind.”达布尼声称自己的身体是“运动型体格”。每个工作日,他都会从事一小时有针对性的锻炼。“事情正在发生变化。程序员不能只隐藏在幕后,”他说。“你必须得成为公司的脸面。投资者喜欢故事,希望看到活生生的面孔;就很多层面而言,你的身体就是你的品牌。身体健康是精神健康的补充。在《垄断大亨》游戏(Monopoly)中,拥有健康体魄的人正在获得所有属性:前端和后端,演示和编程——身体和心智。”Which means there’s only one place to go from here: the eight abs of highly effective techies. In time.这意味着,要想成为高绩效技术人员,只有一条出路,那就是,练就八块腹肌。时不我待,赶紧锻炼吧。 /201408/318932What#39;s the future of the automobile? For all the attention Tesla and its CEO Elon Musk have received of late, the electric car is the logical guess.汽车行业的未来在哪里?最近,特斯拉(Tesla)及其CEO埃隆·穆斯克可谓赚足了眼球,所以,电动汽车是符合逻辑的猜测。Not at Toyota.但丰田汽车(Toyota)并不这样认为。Hybrid or alternative fuel vehicles made up 16% of Toyota#39;s (TM) total sales last year – 10% of that number was from electric vehicles. That sector ;will grow over time, as we see improvement in batteries,; Jim Lentz, CEO of Toyota North America told the audience at Fortune#39;s Brainstorm Green conference on Tuesday. ;But we#39;re really excited about this concept of fuel cell vehicles.;混合动力或替代燃料汽车占丰田汽车去年总销量的16%,其中,电动汽车占比为10%。在周二的《财富》(Fortune)绿色头脑风暴大会(Brainstorm Green)上,丰田北美公司(Toyota North America)CEO吉姆o伦茨对观众表示:“随着电池技术的改进,这个部门还会继续增长。但真正令我们感到兴奋的是燃料电池汽车的概念。”Why? Because ;it#39;s an on-demand electric vehicle,; Lentz said. ;Rather than having a large heavy battery that takes a while to charge, you basically use hydrogen to produce electricity and water vapor.; Another factor is that prices of batteries used in electric vehicles aren#39;t dropping dramatically enough to offer consumers a long-range vehicle at a reasonable price. ;It#39;ll happen some day, but I can#39;t tell you when that is,; Lentz says. ;The long term play is going to be fuel cell.;为什么?伦茨表示,因为“这是一种基于需求的电动汽车。这种汽车没有笨重的大号电池,不需要花很长时间充电,主要使用氢气来产生电力和水蒸汽。”另外一个因素在于,电动汽车电池价格的下降幅度不足以为消费者提供价格合理的远程驾驶汽车。伦茨称:“未来这种情况可能会有所改变,但我不知道会是什么时候。从长期来看,燃料电池车型才是最后的赢家。”Lentz was quick to reel off the benefits of fuel cell vehicles: their carbon footprint is 50% better than gasoline, and their fuel costs will be low – about for a 4-passenger sedan to travel 300 miles.很快,伦茨就开始滔滔不绝地介绍燃料电池汽车的好处:它们的碳足迹比汽油改善了50%,燃料成本将降低——可乘坐4名乘客的轿车行驶300英里的费用约为30美元。But for all the pros there#39;s a major con: there#39;s no place to fill up a hydrogen car, and it#39;s expensive to build hydrogen stations; they cost about million a piece.尽管有各种好处,但有一个重要的不利因素依然不容忽视:氢动力汽车没有地方加注燃料,而修建氢气站的费用又太过昂贵;每一个氢气站的成本大约为200万美元。;California has only nine or 10 [hydrogen] stations, and there are only 180 in the world,; said moderator Brian Dumaine, senior editor at Fortune. ;Where are you going to fill up a hydrogen car in California?;大会主持人、《财富》杂志资深编辑布莱恩o杜梅因说:“加利福尼亚州总共也只有9到10个(氢气)站,全世界也仅有180个。在加州去哪儿为氢动力汽车加注燃料?”Lentz said that Toyota has been working with University of California at Irvine to determine the optimal location of stations and how many stations the state actually needs to satisfy about 10,000 fuel cell vehicles. ;That number is 68,; he said. Thanks to a 0 million investment by the state -- Toyota has invested million of its own money was well -- California will have 30 stations by next year. ;We#39;re not that far away in California of having that initial hydrogen highway,; Lentz said.伦茨表示,丰田汽车正在与加州大学尔湾分校(University of California at Irvine)合作,确定氢气站的最佳位置,以及加州满足约10,000辆燃料电池汽车需要多少个氢气站。他说:“我们得出的结果是68个。”凭借加州的2亿美元投资,以及丰田投入的700万美元,加州到明年将拥有30个氢气站。伦茨说:“加州距离实现初步氢气高速公路的目标并不遥远。”And then there#39;s the question of price? Toyota is known for its affordability. Will a fuel cell car fit into that mold?接下来还有价格问题。丰田汽车以经济适用性而著称,燃料电池汽车是否也能做到这一点?Lentz told the Brainstorm Green audience that Toyota has about 100 fuel cell vehicles on the road aly – each worth about million. When the company introduces its fuel cell car to the general public next year, the cost will be about 5% of that – or ,000, according to Lentz.伦茨对绿色头脑风暴大会的观众们表示,丰田公司有约100辆燃料电池汽车已经上路——每一辆价值约100万美元。他表示,明年公司向公众推出燃料电池汽车时,价格将大幅下调,仅为目前价格的5%,也就是50,000美元。There#39;s no doubt Lentz is enthusiastic about his company#39;s fuel cell future, but he said he knows other people might not feel the same way – yet. ;If you look at hybrids, it took 15 years from when we first introduced it to go to a marketplace of over 500,00,; he said. ;I think you can assume a similar acceptance rate of fuel cells down the road.;毫无疑问,伦茨对燃料电池的未来充满热情。但他表示,目前并不是所有人都像他一样乐观。他说:“以混合动力汽车为例,从最初推出到销量超过50,000辆,我们花了15年时间。我想大家可以做出这样的假设:未来一段时间,燃料电池汽车会达到类似的接受度。” /201405/300895DARJEELING, India — The tea plantations here in the shadow of the cloud-shrouded valleys of the Himalayan mountains may be the last place to find technological innovation. Many of the colonial-era practices involved in tea-growing and processing still follow the time-honored manual labor and handwritten bookkeeping.印度大吉岭——这里的茶叶种植园位于喜马拉雅山麓云雾笼罩的山谷里,从这样的地方找到科技创新的影子恐怕并不容易。很多殖民地时期就已经采用的茶叶种植及加工方法依然沿用至今,比如人工采摘茶叶和手写的账目。But as global consumers increasingly become connoisseurs of high-quality products, one entrepreneur is seeking to give the industry a Silicon Valley makeover.但是随着全球愈来愈多的消费者成了品鉴高档茶叶的行家,一位创业者正在尝试对茶叶产业开展一番硅谷式的改造。India is the world#39;s second-largest tea grower after China. Yet, even as the country produces quality specialty varietals that are as highly regarded as wines from France and whisky from Scotland, its industry is antiquated.印度仅次于中国,是全球第二大茶叶种植国。虽然印度出产特有品种的优质茶叶,可与法国的葡萄酒和苏格兰的威士忌相媲美,但是当地的制茶产业已经过时了。With the backing of one of Silicon Valley#39;s biggest venture capital firms, Accel Partners, Kaushal Dugar, a Singapore-trained financial analyst, is among those slowly bringing the sector into the modern era via his online tea retailing start-up, Teabox.曾在新加坡受过教育的金融分析师考沙尔·杜伽尔(Kaushal Dugar),在硅谷最大的风险投资企业之一,阿克塞尔合伙公司(Accel Partners)的持下,正在通过在线销售茶叶的初创企业Teabox逐步让制茶产业现代化。The bulk of India#39;s production — about one billion of the total 1.2 billion kilograms (2.6 billion pounds) — is consumed by the domestic market, where mass-market brands from the Indian conglomerate Tata and the multinational Unilever hold sway. But the remaining 200 million kilograms is a market ripe for shake-up.大部分印度出产的茶叶都由国内市场消费,在12亿公斤(约合26亿磅)的总产量里,印度消费者购买了约10亿公斤。其中,大众市场由印度塔塔集团(Tata)和跨国企业联合利华(Unilever)这样的品牌控制,而余下的2亿公斤所面向的市场则亟需变革。;We grow some of the best teas in the world, but our processes are archaic and marketing is nonexistent,; said Arun Kumar Gomden, a tea industry consultant who managed tea estates for 35 years.As is the case with other successful e-commerce sites, technology forms the core of Teabox#39;s online operations. Algorithms predict demand based on such factors as past sales, internal ranking of tea varieties and pricing. Information about a tea#39;s picking date, season and origins is made available to online customers.制茶产业顾问阿伦·库马尔·戈穆登(Arun Kumar Gomden)说,“我们种植的茶叶在全球名列前茅,但加工手段落后,也谈不上有什么营销,”戈穆登已有35年管理茶园的经验。与其他成功的电子商务网站一样,科技是Teabox网络运营的核心。该公司利用算法,根据价格、以往销量,以及内部对茶叶品种的评级等因素,来预测消费者的需求。消费者可以在网上查看茶叶的采摘日期、季节和产地等信息。Taking a cue from the successful wine industry, Teabox is bringing in wine tasters to provide engaging online descriptions for its products. Gone are the flowery but opaque descriptions like ;distinctly high-grown character; and ;surprising malty nuance.; They have been replaced by more consumer-friendly taster phrases like ;light-bodied tea with a slight woodiness in its flavor,; along with detailed steeping instructions.Teabox借鉴葡萄酒行业的成功经验,邀请品酒师为网站编写引人入胜的产品介绍。那些辞藻华丽但晦涩难懂的描述不见了,例如“鲜明的高海拔种植特征”、“有一丝出人意料的麦芽口感”。取而代之的是一些读者比较容易明白的措辞,例如“含有一丝木头清香的淡茶”,还附有详细的冲泡说明。Teabox, which started in mid-2012, is introducing a subscription model offering personalized tea selections, replicating similar successes of online sites selling wine, razor blades, cosmetics and organic products.创立于2012年中期的Teabox,还效仿销售葡萄酒、剃须刀片、化妆品和有机产品的网站的成功做法,推出了一套提供个性化选择的订购模式。All of these steps aim to hook a new generation of customers in countries such as Russia and the ed States. As consumers on a quest for the latest niche food products veer toward drinking the brew in upscale salons and tea bars, Indian tea could tap into the large addressable global tea market, estimated to be billion in size.这些举措的目的是从俄罗斯、美国等国家,吸引新一代的顾客。对新近流行的小众饮食趋之若鹜的消费者们,现在开始在高档沙龙或茶吧里喝茶,因此印度茶有望打入全球商机巨大的潜在市场,其规模估计高达900亿美元(约合5500亿元人民币)。;Tea is a time-sensitive product, but the industry#39;s supply chain is quite broken and has many intermediaries,; said Prashanth Prakash, a partner at Accel India, which along with Singapore#39;s Horizon Ventures has provided some million in early-stage funding to Teabox. ;The business is ripe for disruption, both in terms of price and quality,; he said.阿克塞尔印度公司的合伙人普拉申特·普拉卡什(Prashanth Prakash)说,“茶这种产品对时间很敏感,但业内的供应链相当低效,而且涉及过多中间环节。”这家公司连同新加坡的Horizon Ventures为Teabox提供了100万美元的前期资助。他说,“从价格和质量两方面而言,颠覆这个行业的时机都已经成熟。”The venture capital approach is helping Teabox change operations. It was Accel Partners that suggested the wine industry method to ;product discovery; — industry jargon for helping shoppers discern and select products online.风险投资的持,帮助Teabox改变了经营模式。正是阿克塞尔建议采用葡萄酒行业的“产品发掘”手段。“产品发掘”是指帮助顾客在网站上查看和选择产品的过程。;By employing tactics used by the wine industry, we want to demystify tea and present it in a more accessible manner along with how-to brewing directions so that buyers can explore varieties, regions and flavors,; said Mr. Dugar, 31, founder and chief executive of Teabox, which is based in Siliguri, Darjeeling, the heart of India#39;s tea-growing region.杜伽尔表示,“通过使用葡萄酒行业的手法,我们想让茶在顾客眼中不再陌生,以更容易领会的方式推介茶,并且给出冲泡指示,这样一来顾客就能探究茶的品种、产地和口味。”31岁的杜伽尔是Teabox的创始人和首席执行官。这家公司的总部位于印度产茶区域的中心,大吉岭的西里古里(Siliguri)。His family#39;s trade connections go back four decades and give Mr. Dugar access to high-quality teas from the estates of Assam and Darjeeling. From his childhood summers spent on plantations, he recalls the tea pluckers picking two leaves and a bud that was transformed into brewed tea within hours. ;I imagined that the workers in tea plantations were magicians.;Mr. Dugar had worked for a few years as a corporate finance analyst at consultancy firm KPMG in Singapore, but he then returned to India to become an entrepreneur. He and his backers quickly discovered that the industry first organized by British colonizers about 200 years ago has not changed at all. Many plantations are controlled by third- or fourth-generation owners, using machines dating back a half-century or more.杜伽尔家族与茶的渊源已有40年了,这也让他在栽种阿萨姆茶和大吉岭茶的茶园里,品尝到了优质的茶叶。杜伽尔童年时,夏天会在茶园里度过。他回忆起当时情景说,采茶工摘下两片叶子和一朵花蕾,几个小时后就变成了沏好的茶。“我觉得茶园里的工人都是魔法师。”杜伽尔曾在咨询公司毕马威(KPMG)的新加坡分公司工作数年,担任企业财务分析师,后来返回印度开始创业。他和投资人很快就发现,这个大约200年前由英国殖民者组织起来的产业,至今仍然没有任何改变。很多茶园都是由第三或第四代老板经营,他们所用的机器已有至少半个世纪甚至更长的历史。;Traditional processes such as withering, rolling, drying are all manually monitored just like it was when the tea industry was first established in this region centuries ago,; said Amar Nath Jha, a senior manager of the 162-year old Steinthal Tea Estate in Darjeeling, a supplier to Teabox.阿马尔·纳特·杰哈(Amar Nath Jha)说,“传统的制茶工序,例如萎凋、揉捻、干燥都是人手处理,就像很多个世纪以前,这个产业刚刚在这里形成时一样。”杰哈在大吉岭已有162年历史的斯坦塔茶园(Steinthal Tea Estate)担任高级经理,这家茶园也是Teabox的供应商。Because of the lengthy auction and distribution process, it can take up to six months for the tea to reach a consumer overseas.由于拍卖和分销茶叶所需时间很长,因此可能需要长达六个月的时间才能到达海外消费者手上。;The lack of modern infrastructure leads to tea quality deteriorating and losing aroma along the way,; said Mr. Gomden, the tea consultant.制茶产业顾问戈穆登表示,“在整个过程中,由于缺乏现代化的设施,茶叶的质量会下降,茶香也会流失。”To change that, Teabox set up sourcing centers in Darjeeling and Assam, within a few hours from the gardens where the leaves are plucked and processed. (Other buyers have also begun to bypass the auction system and buy premium teas directly from producers).为了改变这种情况,Teabox在大吉岭和阿萨姆邦设立了采购中心,距离采摘和加工的茶园只有数小时路程。(其他买家也开始跳过拍卖体系,直接通过生产商采购优质茶叶。)Almost as soon as the teas are procured fresh from the production centers, Teabox stores them in temperature- and humidity-controlled warehouses. Then, within 48 hours, the teas are checked, vacuum-packed and dispatched to fulfillment centers in major markets such as Russia, the ed States and Australia.Teabox从生产中心将新鲜的茶叶采购到手,就会立即储存在能够调节温度和湿度的仓库里。然后在48小时以内,茶叶就会经过检查和真空包装,发往俄罗斯、美国、澳大利亚等主要市场的配送中心。Data analytics also help. When they log into the website, buyers are served personalized recommendations according to one of Teabox#39;s 53 tea profiles.数据分析也很有帮助。买家登录之后,网站便会依据Teabox供应的53种茶叶的特征,给出个性化的推荐。Customer feedback goes quickly back to the producers. For example, Teabox now sells tea only in 100-gram vacuum packs after complaints that tea in larger packs lost aroma.生产商很快就能收到顾客的反馈。比如,由于有顾客投诉称,包装容量太大以致茶香流失,Teabox现在只出售100克真空包装的茶叶。The company tries to win over customer share its audience by offering high-end teas at a discount to established brands like Twinings and upscale European, Asian and American tea salons, all of which sell online (Teabox#39;s products can sell for as much as ,099 per kilogram).Teabox试图通过以优惠价格出售川宁(Twinings)等知名公司,以及欧洲、亚洲和美洲的高档茶店所出售的茶叶,来吸引消费者。这些产品都在网上出售。(Teabox产品的售价每公斤可高达1099美元)。For instance, a French tea salon called Palais des Thés sells the Mission Hill tea at 0 per kilogram, but Teabox sells the same product about 60 percent less at 6 per kilogram. TWG, a high-end tea bar in Singapore, sells the Okayti at 0 per kilogram while Teabox sells it as 0, less than half the price.例如,一家名为茶宫(Palais des Thés)的法国茶庄以每公斤340美元的价格销售Mission Hill的茶叶,而Teabox的售价是每公斤126美元,价格低近六成。新加坡的高级茶吧TWG以每公斤390美元的价格出售欧凯帝(Okayti)茶园的茶叶,而Teabox则只售180美元,低于其价格的一半。Teabox is still a small player in the industry: It has shipped 10 million cups#39; worth of tea to customers in 65 countries so far. The challenges are many. Traditional distributors have blocked access to plantations and Teabox has had to counter rumors from rivals that it is an unreliable buyer.Teabox在茶叶产业中仍然是个小角色。迄今为止,它已向65个国家的顾客出售了相当于1000万杯的茶。该公司面临很多挑战:传统分销商阻挠他们接触茶园,竞争对手造谣称他们是个不可靠的买家,Teabox需要进行反驳。Mohan Chirimar, 53, of Raghunath Exports, a bulk supplier to Starbucks as well as retail chains and supermarkets in 30 countries, said Teabox was chasing a big opportunity that had room for other entrepreneurs.拉古拿夫出口公司(Raghunath Exports)向星巴克(Starbucks)以及全球30个国家的零售商和超市供货。该公司现年53岁创始人莫汉·其利马(Mohan Chirimar)说,Teabox正在追求的这个巨大商机,其他企业也可以参与其中。Raghunath Exports is itself gearing up to compete online as Mr. Chirimar#39;s 23-year old son, Aditya, a recent graduate from Cornell University, has returned this month to join the business. ;He is going to expand our business online; it offers more opportunities and will speed up our growth,; Mr. Chirimar said.拉古拿夫出口公司正准备参与网上竞争。其利马23岁的儿子阿迪蒂亚(Aditya)最近刚从康奈尔大学(Cornell University)毕业,并于本月回国参与公司经营。其利马说,“他将会扩展网上业务,这能给我们提供更多机会,加快业务增长。”Teabox does have an early-mover advantage but must now build its name. Regular access to financing will help Teabox ramp up its brand in crucial markets like the ed States where tea drinking growth rates are overtaking coffee. The start-up aims to grow 300 to 500 percent in the coming year and cross million in annual revenue.Teabox的确有率先进入这一市场的优势,但它现在必须建立自己的品牌。定期融资能帮助Teabox加速进军美国等重要市场,美国的茶叶消耗增长率正在赶超咖啡。这家初创公司明年的业务增长目标是300%到500%,年收入超过100万美元。;With cash in the bank and support from investors, we can dream about quickly building a billion-dollar tea brand from India, something that has never been attempted before,; Mr. Dugar said.杜伽尔说,“利用里的现金和投资者的持,我们希望可以迅速建立一个价值十亿美元的印度茶叶品牌,以前没人尝试做过这些。” /201409/325538The recent update to Apple’s tablet product line leaves open a number of questions, but the biggest one is ‘which iPad should I buy, the iPad Air or the new iPad mini?’ Having reviewed both the iPad Air and the iPad mini with Retina Display here on Forbes, it’s not an easy decision to make.苹果平板电脑产品线的最近更新留下了很多疑问,其中最大的疑问是:“应该买哪款iPad?是iPad Air,还是配备Retina显示屏的iPad mini(下简称iPad Mini 2)?”我已经在福布斯网站上分别发表了iPad Air和iPad Mini 2的评测文章,但至于究竟该买哪一款,这仍然是个艰难的决定。Of course there are two more iPads out there that need to be acknowledged. Apple has retained the iPad 2, and while it might be a non-threatening option for those coming to the tablet space, its age and similar price to the iPad mini with Retina Display rules it out for the majority of consumer sales. On reflection I suspect that the iPad 2 remains ranged due to the huge number of educational markets that are equipped with this variant of the tablet and a number of 30-pin dock connector accessories.当然,必须承认还有另外两款iPad可供选择。苹果仍然保留了iPad 2,但它不会对平板电脑新品构成威胁。iPad 2不仅发布时间较久,而且价格与带视网膜屏的iPad mini相近,这使它不会成为大多数消费者的选择。我猜测,iPad 2之所以仍未下架,原因之一是大量的教育机构都配备了这款平板电脑,还有其30针底座连接器的相应配件。The original iPad mini also remains ranged, and is the lowest priced iPad that Apple has on sale. As a second tablet for around the home, perhaps for younger members of the family, the iPad mini makes some commercial sense, especially if you have to buy multiple units. But unless price is a major concern, I would urge consumers to look up at the iPad mini with Retina Display or the iPad Air.初代iPad mini也未下架,是市面上最便宜的iPad产品。作为家里的备用(或是为家里小孩准备的)平板电脑,初代iPad mini在商业上仍然具有存在意义,尤其是在你不得不购买多台设备的情况下。但除非价格是主要考虑因素,否则我建议消费者选择iPad mini 2或者iPad Air。Both the 7.9 inch mini, and the 9.7 inch Air, have drawn elements from each other. The iPad mini with Retina Display has received a comparatively large jump in specifications, bringing it in line with the iPad Air. There is a very slight performance increase in the iPad Air’s A7 (it runs at 1.4GHz, compared to 1.3GHz on the iPad mini with Retina Display, and the iPhone 5S). This tiny bump aside, you no longer have to trade performance for the smaller size of the 2013 iPad mini edition.7.9英寸的iPad mini 2和9.7英寸的iPad Air都借鉴了彼此的元素。iPad mini 2的配置有较大提升,与iPad Air相差无几。iPad Air的A7处理器性能略强(运行频率为1.4GHz,而iPad mini 2和iPhone 5S为1.3GHz)。除了这个微小的差距以外,尺寸较小的2013版iPad mini在性能方面与iPad Air相比毫不逊色。In the same breath, the styling of the iPad Air owes far more to the design that debuted with the iPad mini last year than previous editions of the full-sized Apple tablet. With a much reduced bezel on the side of the screen, and a similar size at top and bottom, the iPad Air’s footprint is much reduced (and the thickness drops to 7.5 mm, which is astonishingly thin). It feels far more fashionable and well designed than the older generation, and of course matches up with the iPad mini to create an almost cohesive look when the iPad’s are all on sale together.同时,iPad Air的风格更像是去年iPad mini首次采用的那种设计,而不像是前几代的全尺寸苹果平板电脑。iPad Air的屏幕边框更窄,顶部和底部的大小与iPad mini类似,因此占用面积大大减少(而且厚度降至7.5毫米,薄得惊人)。与前代产品相比,iPad Air远远更加时尚、设计更加精美,但它还是能跟iPad mini实现外观上的完美衔接,使得所有iPad产品摆在一起时仍能形成和谐的整体外观。When you line up specifications, when capabilities are equal across the board, and when the back-end software and support are identical, there’s not a lot of distinction to make between the two tablets apart from size, and I think that’s where the decision has to be made.在配置相似、性能相当、后端软件和持相同的情况下,iPad Air和iPad mini 2没有太大区别,除了尺寸,而我认为,尺寸就是下决定的关键点。Think about how you would use a tablet throughout the day. If you are someone looking for a tablet to use while moving around, while standing up, and generally holding in one hand and operating it with the other, then the extra weight of the iPad Air over the iPad mini with Retina Display is eventually going to catch up with you. In which case the more mobile user should go for the iPad mini with Retina Display.想想你一天中都是如何使用平板电脑的。如果你想要一款可以在走动或站立时使用、通常只需单手握持用另一只手操作的平板电脑,那么iPad Air相对于iPad mini 2的额外重量最终会显现出来。在这种情况下,对移动性需求更强的用户就应该选择iPad mini 2。If your iPad is going to be used more at a desk, while sitting down, and where you have a chance to rest it somewhere, then I would go for the physically larger screen and longer battery life. Which means the iPad Air.如果你坐着在桌前使用iPad的时候更多,并且有机会在桌上找个地方撑iPad,那么我推荐屏幕尺寸更大的、续航时间更长的,也就是iPad Air。There’s not much in it, and I’d be interested to which decision you have come to. Is it the smaller mini, the larger Air, or one of the quirky older Apple tablets for you? And how did you come to that decision?就是这么简单。我很想知道读者会如何选择。是较小的mini,还是较大的Air,抑或是显得古怪的苹果前几代平板电脑之一?你是如何作出决定的? /201312/269574

Lucian Bebchuk is professor of law, economics and finance and director of the program on corporate governance at Harvard law School.卢西恩·别布丘克(Lucian Bebchuk)是法学、经济学和金融学教授,也是哈佛大学法学院(Harvard Law School)公司治理项目的主管。Wall Street is eagerly watching what is expected to be one of the largest initial public offering in history: the offering of the Chinese Internet retailer Alibaba at the end of this week. Investors have been described by the media as “salivating” and “flooding underwriters with orders.” It is important for investors, however, to keep their eyes open to the serious governance risks accompanying an Alibaba investment.华尔街正热切关注着中国互联网零售商阿里巴巴集团本周末的首次公开募股(IPO),预计它将成为有史以来规模最大的IPO之一。媒体报道称,投资者“垂涎”于这次IPO,“承销商已被订单淹没”。不过,投资者却有必要注意到,投资阿里巴巴时面临严重的公司治理风险。Several factors combine to create such risks. For one, insiders have a permanent lock on control of the company but hold only a small minority of the equity capital. Then, there are many ways to divert value to affiliated entities, but there are weak mechanisms to prevent this. Consequently, public investors should worry that, over time, a significant amount of the value created by Alibaba would not be shared with them.这些风险源于多重因素。首先,内部人士虽然只拥有少数股权,但却对公司拥有永久的控制权。其次,阿里巴巴可以有许多办法把价值转移给相关实体,而阻止它这么做的机制却十分脆弱。因此,公众投资者应该担心的是,未来阿里巴巴创造的价值中,将有相当大一部分不会拿出来与他们分享。In Alibaba, control is going to be locked forever in the hands of a group of insiders known as the Alibaba Partnership. These are all managers in the Alibaba Group or related companies. The Partnership will have the exclusive right to nominate candidates for a majority of the board seats. Furthermore, if the Partnership fails to obtain shareholder approval for its candidates, it will be entitled “in its sole discretion and without the need for any additional shareholder approval” to appoint directors unilaterally, thus ensuring that its chosen directors always have a majority of board seats. Many public companies around the world, especially in emerging economies, have a large shareholder with a lock on control. Such controlling shareholders, however, often own a substantial portion of the equity capital that provides them with beneficial incentives. In the case of Alibaba, investors need to worry about the relatively small stake held by the members of the controlling Alibaba Partnership.在阿里巴巴,掌握公司控制权的永远是一群内部人士,也就是阿里巴巴的合伙人。这些合伙人都是阿里巴巴集团或相关企业的管理人员。他们将拥有提名多数董事的独有权利。此外,如果合伙人没能让股东通过他们提名的候选人,他们将有权“全权决定且不需要获得任何股东的持”,就可以单方面任命董事,从而确保他们选择的董事总是能够占据董事会的大部分席位。在世界范围内,特别是新兴经济体,很多上市公司都有一个拥有控制权的大股东。但此类控股股东的资金在权益资本中占据了大部分,他们有追求利益的动力。至于阿里巴巴,投资者有担心的必要,因为阿里巴巴合伙人所持有的股份相对较少。After the I.P.O., Alibaba’s executive chairman, Jack Ma, is expected to hold 7.8 percent of the shares and all the directors and executive officers will hold together 13.1 percent. Over time, insiders may well cash out some of their current holding, but Alibaba’s governance structure would ensure that directors chosen by the Alibaba Partnership will forever control the board, regardless of the size of the stake held by the Partnership’s members.上市之后,阿里巴巴执行主席马云将持有7.8%的股份,所有董事及高管持有的股份总额将达到13.1%。一段时间后,内部人士可能会将一部分股份套现,但阿里巴巴的管理架构将确保阿里巴巴合伙人选出的董事将永远控制董事会,无论合伙人持有多少股份。With an absolute lock on control and a limited fraction of the equity capital, the Alibaba insiders will have substantial incentives to divert value from Alibaba to other entities in which they own a substantial percentage of the equity. This can be done by placing future profitable opportunities in such entities, or making deals with such entities on terms that favor them at the expense of Alibaba.有了这种绝对的永久控制,加上一小部分的权益资本,阿里巴巴的内部小圈子将有巨大的动力将该集团的价值转移到他们拥有可观股本的其他实体中。要做到这一点,可以采用的方式是把未来的赚钱机会放到此类实体中,或是与之做交易时达成对阿里巴巴不利的条款。Alibaba’s prospectus discloses information about various past “related party transactions,” and these disclosures reflect the significance and risks to public investors of such transactions. For example, in 2010, Alibaba divested its control and ownership of Alipay, which does all of the financial processing for Alibaba, and Alipay is now fully controlled and substantially owned by Alibaba’s executive chairman.阿里巴巴的招股书中披露了过去多笔“关联方交易”的信息,而这些披露反映了此类交易对公众投资者的重要性和风险。例如,2010年,阿里巴巴剥离了对付宝的控制权和所有权。付宝承担了阿里巴巴旗下平台的所有付款流程,如今变为由马云本人完全控制并大体持有。Public investors should worry not only about whether the Alibaba’s divesting of Alipay benefited Mr. Ma at the expense of Alibaba, but also about the terms of the future transactions between Alibaba and Alipay. Because Alibaba relies on Alipay “to conduct substantially all of the payment processing” in its marketplace, these terms are important for Alibaba’s future success.公共投资者应当担忧的,不限于阿里巴巴剥离付宝是否以自身为代价让马云受益,还有阿里巴巴与付宝之间未来交易的条款。由于阿里巴巴依赖付宝进行旗下市场中“近乎全部的付款流程”,这些条款维系着阿里巴巴未来的成功。Mr. Ma owns a larger fraction of Alipay’s equity capital than of Alibaba’s, so he would economically benefit from terms that would disfavor Alibaba. Indeed, given the circumstances, the I.P.O. prospectus acknowledges that Mr. Ma may act to resolve Alibaba-Alipay conflicts not in Alibaba’s favor.马云在付宝的持股比例超过了在阿里巴巴的持股比例,因此,他可以从那些不利于阿里巴巴的条款中获取经济收益。实际上,鉴于这些情况,阿里巴巴的招股书承认,在化解阿里巴巴与付宝的冲突时,马云或许会不站在前者这一边。The prospectus seeks to allay investor concerns, however, by indicating that Mr. Ma intends to reduce his stake in in Alipay within three to five years, including by having shares in Alipay granted to Alibaba employees. But stating such an intention does not represent an irreversible legal commitment. Furthermore, transfers of Alipay ownership stakes from Mr. Ma to other members of the Alibaba Partnership would still leave the Partnership’s aggregate interest to be decidedly on the side of Alipay rather than Alibaba.不过,招股书试图打消投资者的忧虑,指出马云有意在三五年内减持在付宝的股份,包括将其转给一些阿里巴巴的内部人士。不过,表明这样的意图并不意味着这是不可反悔的法律承诺。此外,将付宝的所有权股从马云手中转到其他的阿里巴巴合伙人那里,仍会让合伙人的总体利益明确无误地落到付宝一边,而非阿里巴巴。Given the significant related party transactions that have aly taken place, and the prospect of such transactions in the future, Alibaba tried to placate investors by putting in a “new related party transaction policy.” But this new policy hardly provides investors with solid protection. Unlike charter and bylaw provisions, corporate policies are generally not binding. Furthermore, Alibaba’s policy explicitly allows the board, where the nominees of Alibaba partnership will always have a majority, to approve any exceptions to the policy that the board chooses.鉴于已经出现过重大的关联方交易,而且未来仍可能发生,阿里巴巴试图通过设置“关联方交易新政策”来安抚投资者。可是,这种新政策几乎不能为投资者提供切实的保障。不同于公司的规章制度,企业政策基本上没有约束力。况且,阿里巴巴的政策明确允许董事局按照自身意愿批准政策例外,而董事局中阿里巴巴合伙人任命的人选将永远占据多数。Of course, the Alibaba partners might elect not to take advantage of the opportunities for diversion provided to them by Alibaba’s structure. And, even if the partners do use such opportunities, the future business success of Alibaba might be large enough to make up for the costs of diversions and leave public investors with good returns on their investment.当然,阿里巴巴合伙人或许会选择不去利用阿里巴巴的公司结构提供给他们的转移机会。此外,就算合伙人的确利用了这样的机会,阿里巴巴未来的商业成功可能也足以弥补转移的成本,留给公众投资者不错的投资回报率。Before jumping in, however, investors rushing to participate in the Alibaba I.P.O. must recognize the substantial governance risks that they would be taking. Alibaba’s structure does not provide adequate protections to public investors.尽管如此,急于参与阿里巴巴IPO的投资者们,在纵身一跃之前,必须意识到自己会承担可观的公司治理风险。阿里巴巴的结构并未给公众投资者提供充分的保护。 /201409/329419

On June 16, New York State Supreme Court Justice Jeffrey Oing issued a 63-page decision in which he found that retailer J.C. Penney JCP 2.78% had committed tortious interference in its attempt to develop a Martha Stewart store inside JC Penney stores. The deal, announced in 2011 as Ron Johnson took Penney’s helm, violated the terms of a preexisting deal that Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia MSO -0.89% had with Macy’s M 1.29% , the judge ruled. Damages will be determined by a special master or referee.6月16日,纽约州最高法院华裔法官翁家驹给出长达63页的判决书,认定零售商J.C. Penney公司试图在J.C. Penney商场中开玛莎·斯图沃特(Martha Stewart)店面属侵权干扰行为。这笔交易于2011年罗恩·约翰逊执掌J.C. Penney时宣布。翁家驹法官裁定,它违反了玛莎·斯图沃特公司早前与梅西百货(Macy’s)签订的协议之条款。损害赔偿将由一名特别专家或鉴定人决定。The decision surprised no one. Oing had previously issued a preliminary injunction barring Penney from building the stores and selling most of the products. The ill-fated deal was just one of the many choices that contributed to Johnson’s ultimate failure.翁家驹法官做出这个裁定是意料之中的事。他曾发布初步禁令,禁止J.C. Penney公司建造玛莎o斯图沃特店面以及销售这个品牌的大部分产品。这笔不幸流产的交易只不过是约翰逊最终失败的诸多原因之一。The decision also sheds light on how closely Johnson’s own approach to management hewed to the “reality distortion field” made famous by his prior boss and mentor, Steve Jobs—and, more important—how infrequently such an approach can succeed outside of Apple.上述裁决使我们认识到,在很大程度上,约翰逊的管理方式师承自其导师和前老板史蒂夫o乔布斯著名的“现实扭曲力场”,而更重要的是,这种管理方式出了苹果(Apple)公司往往行不通。When Johnson took the helm at J.C. Penney, he brought with him a strong belief that his Apple experience—he built the company’s stores, now the most profitable retail group in the country—would be a huge plus. So did Penney’s board of directors; indeed, it was the main reason he was selected. Johnson held a coming out party eerily reminiscent of Jobs’ MacWorld events; he added a clean, white aesthetic to the company’s branding and logo; he hired several Apple veterans; and he talked constantly about his closeness to Jobs and the Apple way of doing things.约翰逊入主J.C. Penney 时曾坚信,他在苹果的经验——他一手打造的苹果商店现在已经是全美最赚钱的零售集团——将是一个巨大优势。J.C. Penney的董事会也这样认为;事实上,这是他们选择约翰逊的主要原因。约翰逊入主J.C. Penney后举行的首次派对不禁令人想起乔布斯的MacWorld大会;他给J.C. Penney公司的品牌和标识增添了干净、纯白的美感;他雇了几位来自苹果的老将;而且他不断谈到自己与乔布斯关系有多密切,反复提起苹果公司的处事方法。Jobs was rightfully lionized as a creative genius, but he was also a fiercely competitive leader who simply could not bear to lose. That ferocity—plus a force of will that could convince just about anyone of anything—was referred to by people around him as his “reality distortion” field. And it is this trait that we see Johnson emulating in his attempt to convince the world that Penney was not, in fact, infringing upon Macy’s earlier agreement with Martha Stewart’s company.乔布斯被奉为创意天才无可厚非,但他同时也是位好胜心爆棚的强势领导者。乔布斯的凶悍——加上几乎能说所有人接受任何事的意志力——被他身边的人称之为乔布斯的“现实扭曲”力场。约翰逊正是效仿乔布斯的这个特质,试图让人们相信,J.C. Penney公司事实上并没有对梅西百货早前与玛莎o斯图沃特签署的协议形成侵权。The emails presented as evidence in the case show a leader who had aly convinced himself that he had won—regardless of the fact that even his own counsel worried about the deal’s legality. As Johnson wrote in an email to Daniel Walker, an Apple retail veteran he had hired at Penney: “I’m feeling awesome about grand strategy. I need to pull off Martha. I need to propose a deal so she can go to Terry [Lundgren] at Macy’s and break their agreement. That is the only issue in way of success at this point.” Johnson suggested, with some glee, that Lundgren would probably “have a headache,” when he heard about the JCP deal, one that would soon develop into a “full on migraine.”作为据提交给法院的电子邮件显示,约翰逊已经说了自己,相信自己已经赢了,尽管连他自己的律师都担心这笔交易不合法。约翰逊在给J.C. Penney雇员、前苹果零售业务老员工丹尼尔o沃克的邮件中写道:“我对大战略感觉好极了。我得搞定玛莎。我得拿出好的交易,让她去跟梅西百货的(首席执行官)特里o伦德格伦终止合约。”约翰逊有些幸灾乐祸地暗示,伦德格伦听到J.C. Penney与玛莎的交易后估计要“头痛”了,而且很快会变成“重度偏头痛”。The judge was clearly astonished by Johnson’s reaction after Martha Stewart announced to Lundgren that she had signed on with Penney. “Incredibly,” the judge wrote, “ignoring the seriousness of what had just transpired, Mr. Johnson wrote to [board member] William Ackman: ‘Media good as well. We put Terry in a corner. Normally when that happens and you get someone on the defensive they make bad decisions. This is good.’ And to board member Steven Roth, he wrote ‘…the more this is seen as brilliant for JCP and Martha the more he won’t want to interfere…’”玛莎o斯图沃特告知伦德格伦自己与J.C. Penney签约之后,约翰逊作出的反应令翁家驹法官惊讶不已。法官写道:“简直令人难以置信,(约翰逊)完全无视事情的严重性。他在给(董事会成员)威廉o阿克曼的邮件中写道:‘媒体反响良好。我们把特里逼上了绝路。通常出现这种情况的时候,人们就会处于防御状态,往往会做出错误的决定。这是好事。’而在给董事会成员史蒂芬o罗斯的邮件中,约翰逊写道:“......外界越认为JCP和玛莎干得漂亮,他就越不会干涉……”In fact, the opposite became true as a result of the company’s cavalier attitude, Oing observed. “Unbeknownst to Mr. Lundgren and Macy’s, Mr. Johnson’s attitude towards them with respect to JCP’s budding relationship with MSLO was take it or leave it. Mr. Johnson aptly described the scene as making JCP’s ‘offensive so strong’ that Macy’s would ‘simply pick up their toys and go home.’ JCP and Mr. Johnson could not have been more wrong.”翁家驹法官表示,事实上,由于J.C. Penney的傲慢态度,事态在向着完全相反的方向发展。“伦德格伦先生和梅西百货所不知道的是,在JCP与玛莎公司初步确立合作关系这件事情上,约翰逊先生对他们的态度是“没得商量”。约翰逊先生显然一位,面对JCP‘如此猛烈的进攻’,梅西会‘乖乖地收拾玩具回家’。然而,JCP和约翰逊先生可谓大错特错。”It is axiomatic that leaders must believe that they have made the right decisions. But as this case shows, believing that they are right does not make it so—no matter what Steve Jobs would have said.自然,领导者必须相信自己所做的决定是正确的。但上面这个案例表明,假如确实错了,光靠相信自己是对的没有用——无论史蒂夫·乔布斯会怎么说。 /201407/309289

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