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In physics, pressure depends on the amount of force acting on a surface and on the size of the surface.物理学上,压力大小取决于作用在表面力的大小和表面积大小。The smaller the surface, the greater the pressure.表面积越小,承受的力越大。Lets say that a woman steps on your toe; she weighs 120 pounds.假设一个重120磅的女人踩到你脚趾了。If shes wearing flat shoes, you would feel the force of 120 pounds sp out over the whole heel of the shoe, maybe around 4 square inches.如果她穿的是平底鞋,你会感到120磅的压力分散到鞋子的整个根部,大概4平方英寸。So the pressure would be 120 divided by 4, or 30 pounds per square inch.所以120磅的压力平均分为4份,或者每平方英寸30磅的力。But when she steps on you with a high heel, the whole 120 pounds of force is concentrated on a heel that is maybe one eighth of one square inch in area.但如果她穿的是高跟鞋,整个120磅的力集中在或许只有八分之一英寸大小的鞋跟上。Now the pressure of her step is eight times as much, or 240 pounds per square inch instead of 30 pounds per square inch.她踩下去的压力也是8倍之多,或者说240磅每平方英寸而不是30磅每平方英寸。Of course, it hurts more.当然,这更痛。It works the other way, too.同理,Spiked heels are painful to wear because your weight is all on the spike and the ball of the foot;穿细高跟鞋是痛苦的,因为你的重量全压在在细跟和脚趾球上。therefore, the pressure is much greater on these points than in running shoes, where your weight is sp out over the whole bottom of the foot.因此,压力在这些点上要比重量被分散在整个脚底的跑鞋大很多。 /201310/261769The burden on students学生的压力Must not try harder不能更努力了The education ministry tries to ban homework教育部尝试禁止家庭作业。Sep 7th 2013 | BEIJING |From the print editionPURGES may be what political junkies are talking about, but for Chinese families the big issue recently has been homework. Children across the country have returned to their classrooms this week just as the education ministry has put forward plans to decrease the amount of homework pupils must do each day.清洗行动可能会用在政治犯身上,但是对中国家庭来说,最近的大事儿是家庭作业。中国的孩子本周回到学校,同时教育部计划减少小学生每天必做作业的量。The ministry’s proposed guidelines, issued on August 22nd, would ban written homework for any child up to the age of 12, and ban exams for children up to the age of nine. It also said that primary schools should organise more extra-curricular activities, such as visits to museums and places of cultural interest, and “cultivate pupils’ hands-on capabilities through handicrafts or farm work”.教育部在8月22日发布了拟定规定,规定禁止向12岁以下的儿童布置任何书面作业,禁止9岁以下儿童参加考试。同时规定中学应该组织更多的课外活动,比如参观物馆,文化景点以及通过手工活动和农业活动培养小学生的动手能力。Amid intense competition for university places and jobs, Chinese schoolchildren spend hours on homework each night. Pressure from an early age is the cause of constant hand-wringing in the press. Yet the very notion of lightening the burden has met opposition from the people who complain most: parents. Last spring Beijing attempted its own homework restrictions, but workloads crept back up as insistent parents worried about their children falling behind.在对大学名额和工作的激烈竞争中,中国学生每晚花费数小时完成家庭作业。少年儿童的压力是各媒体持续劝说政府的原因。然而,减负的观念遭到了对压力抱怨最多的家长的反对。上个春天,北京尝试出台了自己的家庭作业规范,但是由于固执的家长担心自己的孩子会落后,使得作业又回到之前状态。The new proposals have drawn tens of thousands of comments on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter, with older children saying they heard similar ideas of reform when they were at school ten years ago, but nothing changed. On his microblog Wang Xiaodong, co-author of a book called “Unhappy China”, suggested that the ministry stop micro-managing every element of basic education and leave the work to teachers and students. But that idea might lead to more homework, if current patterns hold. The biggest contribution education officials could make, wrote Mr Wang, was “to give themselves a six-month holiday”.新提议在微上收到了数万条,年龄稍大的孩子们说十年前他们在学校的时候也听到过类似的改革,但是没什么变化。《中国不高兴》的一个作者王小东在微上建议教育部停止管理基础教育的细节,将这些工作让给老师和学生。但是如果保持现在这种模式,作业可能会变得更多。王说,教育部干部能做的最大贡献是先给自己放半年假。The real problem is the underlying system. As one microblogger wrote: “If the employment environment remains the same, if the gaokao [entrance exam] is not cancelled, if the top universities still enroll only the students with the highest score, it is impossible to reduce pupils’ burdens”. All those worries are compounded by corruption, inequity and disparity in teacher-training and compensation. Few believe such deep structural problems can be countered simply by a call for less homework.真正的问题是深层制度。一个微用户写道:“如果就业环境还是维持现状,如果高考不取消,如果顶尖大学还是只招收成绩最好的学生,小学生减负是无稽之谈。”这些担忧来自腐败,不公平,教师培训和补助的不均。几乎没人相信这种深层结构问题会通过减少家庭作业得到解决。The same signs appear in young male mammoth tusks, but those living in North America at the end of Ice Age laid down their stress rings three years earlier than usual. In other words, it seems that young males were leaving the herd at an earlier age. 在年轻雄性猛犸象的象牙上也显示了同样的信息,但是在冰河时代末期,那些生活在北美的猛犸象却提前三年开始自谋生路。换言之,似乎那些年轻的雄性猛犸象很早就离开了族群。Some scientists believe the only thing that could cause such a major change in mammoth’s social structure would be hunting by humans. If hunting pressure was extreme enough to push the mammoths to extinction, then we would expect them to survive in areas that people couldn’t reach. And for a while, they did, here on Wrangel Island off the coast of Siberia. 一些科学家认为,唯一导致猛犸象社会结构主要变化的原因就是人类的捕杀。如果猎杀的程度已经导致它们灭亡,那么它们也只有在人类触及不到的地区才能存活。事实上的却如此,在西伯利亚海岸的弗兰格尔岛上,它们的确幸存了。There are no mammoths on Wrangel Island today, but it is home to another large animal, the polar bear. And there is evidence that polar bears and mammoths once lived side by side during the last Ice Age. They would have shared the island’s meager offerings. 如今,弗兰格尔岛上已经没有猛犸象了,但是这里却又另一种大型动物——北极熊。有据显示在冰河时代末期,猛犸象曾和北极熊共同定居于此。他们共同分享着这个贫瘠之地能给予它们的一切。This inhospitable and isolated place seems to have been a sanctuary for mammoths. The Wrangel Island herds were the last on the planet to survive. Remarkably, they survived here long after their North American relatives had all died out. But they were still on borrowed time. When people finally reached Wrangel Island 4,000 years ago, these last remaining mammoths also became extinct. 这个荒凉并与世隔绝的地方似乎对于猛犸系来说是一个天然的庇护所。迁徙到弗兰格尔岛的猛犸象是地球上最后一猛犸象族群了。很明显,他们在这里得以幸存,而它们的其他族群都已灭绝。然而,它们也只不过是延长了死亡的时间而已。当4000年前,人类最终找到弗兰格尔岛后,这里的最后一猛犸象族群也灭绝了。The events on Wrangel Island mirrored what had happened on the North American continent. Mammoths only became extinct after they came into contact with people.弗兰格尔岛的这个事件反映了北美大陆的状况。在与人类接触后,猛犸象便会灭绝。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201310/262430Aboriginal people would have lived here too.土著人可能生活在这里。Hunting the wildlife in areas that are now deep underwater.在这片目前是大海深处的原始森林里打猎。Then the end of last ice age, ice of the poles melted and sea levels rose all around the round flooding this lowline coast.到冰河世纪的末期,两级的冰川开始融化,海平面开始上升,大量水涌入这片低洼的海岸。This happened nearly 10,000 years ago.这仅仅发生在1万年前。In fact, stories of the great flood still pass down in aboriginal culture.实际上大洪水的传说在土著文化中代代相传。As the sea rose, corals began to grow on the Rockey frenches of the continental shelf creating the Great Barrier Reef we see today.随着海平面上升,珊瑚开始在大陆架的岩石上生长,造就了今天这壮观的大堡礁。The shallow tropical waters are clear and warm.这片热带浅海干净温暖。Perfect conditions for corals to thrive.极适合珊瑚虫生活。Sheltered behind this long straight of reef, Alagoon was born.这条礁石维持一个环礁湖。An area protected water larger in size than the whole of Great Britain.围起来的水域面积比整个英国都大。And a new coastal line too which shallows Sandy waters.一条海岸线形成,伴着浅沙水域。The rising sea also cut a various of high ground creating the 600 islands that adopt the Agoon.上升的海岸线分割开高地,形成了散布于环礁湖内的600个小岛。201408/324737

Finance and economics财经商业Buttonwood金融市场Where theres money, theres risk哪里有货币,哪里就有风险Events in America show that no asset is copper-bottomed在美国发生的事情显示出没有资产是毫无风险的。A GOVERNMENT with debt denominated in its own currency need never default, or so the theory goes.一个拥有以本币为计量单位的债务的政府需要的是永不违约,大概这个理论是可以实现的。It can simply print more money to pay off the debt.它能简单地印刷更多的货币来付它的债务。In practice, however, countries do default on local-currency debt: six have done so in the past 15 years, including Jamaica, Russia and Ecuador.但是实际上,国家不履行本国货币债务:在过去十五年已经有六个国家这样做了,包括牙买加,俄罗斯和厄瓜多尔。Before this weeks budget deal, markets had feared that America could join the list, if only in a technical sense.在本周的预算计划前,市场已经担心美国会加入这个名单,但愿在技术层面上。From the point of view of a creditor, however, the ability of a government to print money is of little comfort if the result is higher inflation or currency depreciation.然而,从一个债权人的观点来看,一个政府的印钞能力是没有用的,如果结果是对国内投资者更高的通货膨胀率或者对国外投资者的货币贬值。Investors who bought Treasury bonds in 1946, when yields were around current levels, did not suffer a formal default.在1946年国库券年收益率与现在的水平差不多的时候,购买它的投资者没有遭受正式违约。But over the following 35 years they lost money in real terms at a rate of 2% a year.但是在后续的三十五年他们以每年2%的利率实际上亏钱。The cumulative real loss was 91%.累积的实际损失是91%。By that standard, Greek creditors, who recently suffered a 50% loss via default, were lucky.跟据这个标准,最近因为违约损失50%的希腊债权人是幸运的。Given this baleful history, the idea that sovereign debt is risk-free is puzzling.考虑到这个可怕的历史,认为政府债务无风险的观点是令人费解的。When it comes to the purchasing power of an investors money, what does it matter if the loss comes in the form of a formal default or erosion in real terms?那么当提到投资者资金实际购买力时,如果损失以正式违约或者实际侵蚀的形式发生时,这有什么差别呢?The answer to that conundrum may be that default happens suddenly, whereas inflation and depreciation are slower, giving investors more time to adjust by demanding higher interest rates to compensate for their losses.对于这个难题的可能是违约突然发生,然而通货膨胀和货币贬值是缓慢的,这给了投资者更多的时间去调整,通过要求更高的利率去赔偿他们的损失。This is particularly true in the case of short-term debt, such as Treasury bills; inflation is unlikely to do serious damage to a portfolio in the course of a few months.这个在短期债务中更有现实意义,如国库券;通货膨胀极少有可能在几个月的过程中对投资组合产生严重的损害。Twenty years ago there was much talk of bond vigilantes who would respond to irresponsible fiscal policies by forcing up the interest rates on government debt.二十年前,有许多关于通过抛售国库券来要求更高年收益和约束美国政策制定者的国际投资者的事迹,他们通过迫使提高政府债务利率来应对不负责任的财政政策。With the bond vigilantes on the prowl, any short-term real loss suffered by investors would be recouped in the form of higher real rates as the governments debt was refinanced.随着他们伺机而动,投资者遭受的任何短期实际损失会由于政府债务再筹资而以较高的实际利率的形式收回来。But by buying bonds in the name of quantitative easing, central banks are influencing interest rates of all maturities these days.通过以量化宽松的名义购买债券,中央这些日子在影响所有的到期利率。By holding down bond yields, the authorities are employing a policy some have dubbed financial repression, in which real returns on government debt are reduced.通过压制住债券的年收益率,管理者运用一项政策引入金融抑制,由此政府债务的实际回报减少了。The idea is to make investors buy riskier assets, such as equities and corporate bonds.这个构想是让投资者购买有风险的资产,例如股票和公司债券。In effect, the bond vigilantes have been neutered.实际上,债券市场秩序维护者们保持了中立。One way of protecting the real value of investors bond holdings is to buy inflation-linked debt.保护投资者持有的债券实际价值的方法之一是购买通胀挂钩债券。The repayment value and interest payments on such bonds are normally tied to a well-known inflation index.关于这类债券的回报价值和利息付一般地说是与一个著名的通货膨胀指数相联系的。But even these bonds may not be completely risk-free; it is possible to imagine that future governments may find ways to redefine the inflation measure for their own benefit.但是即使是这些债券也不是完全无风险的;很有可能可以这样想象未来政府可能为了他们自己的利益找到方法去重新定义通货膨胀措施。And foreign buyers of inflation-linked bonds are still at risk from currency depreciation.并且通胀挂钩债券的外国购买者仍然面临来自货币贬值的风险。Inflation-linked bonds are extremely attractive to pension funds, since they are a neat match for the funds liabilities.由于通胀挂钩债券与养老基金的责任非常匹配,它们对养老基金来说非常有吸引力。So such bonds are snapped up quickly and tend to trade on low real yields; sometimes, those yields are even negative.所以这些债券很快被抢购一空并且有不正当利用低实际收益率的趋势;有些时候,这些获益率甚至是消极的。An asset is hardly risk-free if it guarantees a real loss.一个资产很难无风险如果它保实际损失。The concept of a risk-free asset is quite useful in finance.无风险资产的概念在金融上是非常有用的。For a start, it provides the base from which other assets can be priced.首先,它提供了其他资产的定价基准。Corporate borrowers pay an interest premium over the risk-free rate; equities have offered a higher long-term return than government bonds to reflect their higher risk.公司融资者在无风险率上付利息费用;股票提供一个比政府债券更能反映他们的高风险的长期回报。But what is the true risk-free rate?但是什么是真正的无风险率呢?Multinational companies can borrow at a lower rate of interest than some governments: compare Apple with Greece, for example.跨国公司可以以比一些政府更低的利率借款:例如,比较苹果公司和希腊。And although America is the worlds biggest economy, its government does not borrow at the cheapest rate on the planet:尽管美国是世界上最大的经济体,它的政府并不以这个星球上最便宜的利率借钱;Japanese yields have been lower for many years and German long-term yields are now significantly below those of Treasuries.日本的年收益率已经愈来愈低很多年了而且德国长期年收益率现在很明显的比国库券低。Where America does have a substantial advantage is that it borrows in the worlds reserve currency—the dollar—and that its debt market is by far the most liquid.美国实质上占优势的地方是它借的是世界储备货币并且它的债券市场是目前流动性最好的。The result is that Treasury bills, in particular, play a vital role in the system as cash equivalents and as collateral for short-term loans and derivative contracts.这样的结果是,尤其是,国库券作为现金等价物和作为短期贷款和衍生品合同作的担保物在这个系统里起了一个至关重要的作用。Treasury bills are seen as risk-free in this context in that they are instantly and universally acceptable to all participants in the system.国库券因为它们对这个系统里所有参与者迅速和广泛的接受而在这个环境里被看为是无风险的。They are the oil that lubricates the global machinery of finance.他们是润滑全球金融机器的油。That was the real risk of the latest stand-off: not that America would not pay its bills, which it could easily afford to, but that the system would grind to a halt.这个才是最新平衡的真正风险:不是美国不付它自己很容易付的账,而是这个系统会慢慢停滞下来。 /201312/270431

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