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2019年12月06日 23:25:29    日报  参与评论()人

抚顺望花医院男科医院抚顺新抚看妇科炎症哪家医院好的Why The Sky Is Not Blue为什么天空不是统一的蓝色Look at various parts of the sky on a clear day and you will see that it is not a uniform blue. Even if the sky is deep blue when you look straight up, near the horizon it is lighter.抬头仰望天空,你会发现在晴朗的日子里,天空并不会呈现出统一的蓝色。即使你头顶上正对的这片天是深蓝色的,靠近地平线处的也会相对较浅一些。This is partly due to pollution, but even in the cleanest air the sky is lighter near the horizon due to the effect of earth’s atmosphere on sunlight. When the rays of sunlight enter the atmosphere, the atmosphere tends to deflect the light from its straight-line path from the sun to the earth, and sp it around the sky, a process that is called scattering.部分原因要归咎于污染,但是就算是在最干净的空气中,贴近地平线处的天空颜色也会比较浅,这是由于地球大气层对阳光的影响。当太阳光线进入到大气层时,大气层会使阳光直行进入的路线产生偏离,并使光线散布于天空中,这个过程就叫做散射。If all the colors were sp equally the sky would look white, since all of the colors of light combined make white light. But the atmosphere does not sp all colors equally in all parts of the sky, and that is why the sky is not a uniform color.如果所有颜色的光线都均匀分散开来,那么天空看上去就会是白色的,因为所有颜色的光线组合起来就是白光。但是大气层不会把所有颜色的光线均匀分布在整个天空中,这就是为什么天空看上去不是统一的颜色的原因。The color that is most ily sp is blue. So when we look up on a clear day we see blue sky, since the sunlight has had to pass through the least atmosphere, and fewer of the other colors of light have been sp.最容易发生散射的是蓝色的光。由于阳光能够穿透最薄的大气层,并且只有少量颜色的光会发生散射,因此在晴朗的天气里,我们看到天空呈现出的就是蓝色。However, closer to the horizon the sunlight must pass through more of the atmosphere before it reaches our eyes. This gives the rays of other colors of light a chance to be sp so that the light reaching our eyes is more a mixture of all the colors and therefore appears lighter.然而,在越靠近地平线的地方,阳光在进入我们的视野之前必须要穿过的大气层也就越厚,这就为其他颜色的光发生散射提供了机会。这样一来,进入我们视线的阳光就更像是所有颜色的光的混合体,因此会看上去会比较浅一些。 /201207/189140辽宁省抚顺人民医院割包皮多少钱 Science and technology科学与技术Evolution and coat colour进化和表皮色Well spotted美丽涂鸦The reason why some cats are plain and others are patterned为何有些猫科动物全无斑纹,而其他的则斑斑点点?How the leopard got his spots is, famously, the subject of one of Rudyard Kiplings “Just So Stories”.美洲豹为何满身斑点?这是吉卜林大作《原来如此》中的一个著名问题。Kipling suggested they were handprints made by the leopards human friend. More plausibly, he had an explanation for what the spots are for: to break up the animals shape when it is hiding in the dappled light of the forest.吉卜林认为,那是美洲豹的人类朋友们留下的手印。他更靠谱的解释是,当美洲豹藏身在树丛的斑驳光影之中,斑点有助于让它们“隐去”形迹。These days, the human-handprint theory of the leopards spots has fallen out of favour.最近,美洲豹斑点的手印理论已不合口味。Instead, a more prosaic idea has gained ground, based on what is known as reaction-diffusion pattern formation, in which chemicals that trigger the differentiation of cells in an embryo interact with one another to produce patterns that are then reflected in the fates of nearby cells.取而代之并渐为人知的是一种更乏味的观点:斑点产生于“反应-扩散”的图案形成过程,其中,胚胎细胞分化由化学反应引发,各类化学反应之间又发生作用,其作用模式最后在表皮细胞的发育中表现出来。But that, too, has its difficulties. Just how much a process like this can be shaped by natural selection is unclear.但这一说也有其困难,它在多大程度上收到自然选择的影响,目前尚不清楚。Reaction-diffusion patterns which can be created in a laboratory using standard reagents are simple and deterministic.反应-扩散模式可在实验室用标准试剂产生简洁而又有说力。That simple reactions of this sort sometimes result in cryptic patterns could be a coincidence.这类偶尔引发神奇图案的简单反应纯粹是巧合。Nevertheless, the details of the patterns produced vary, according to things like how rapidly the chemicals diffuse.不过,图案产生的细节各各不同,依据诸如扩散速度等情形而有差别。That could be selected. Different cats do, indeed, have different patterns.这就可加以选择。确实,不同的猫科动物有不同图案。So researchers at the University of Bristol, led by William Allen, have been deconstructing these patterns, trying to match the elements to cats habits and habitats, and thus show whether the patterns are evolving.因此,在威廉姆﹒艾伦的带领下,布里斯托大学的研究者正在分解这些图案,并尝试把图案要素同猫科动物的习性与栖息地匹配起来,以发现图案是否会发生进化。They published their results this week in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.本周他们在《皇家学会学报》上发表了研究结果。The reaction-diffusion process can be mimicked by a computer, and the programs parameters manipulated to produce patterns matching those of cat coats.反应-扩散过程可以用计算机加以模拟,对程序参数也可加控制,以产生同猫科动物外表匹配的图案。That, the researchers hoped, might help illuminate what is going on.研究者希望借此搞清楚到底发生了什么。They trawled the world wide web for pictures of wild cats, found the best six for each of 37 species, and roped in a group of human volunteers to choose which of the programs outputs were most similar to real coats.他们在互联网上搜罗野生猫科动物的图片,为37个猫科物种的每一种都准备了最佳的6张照片,并说一批人类志愿者来判定:哪个程序的输出结果和真实的外表最为相似。The patterns produced had five parameters: how plain they were, how irregular, how complex, how big the spots were and whether the pattern had a perceptible direction to it.为产生图案设置了5个参数:斑点的有无程度、规则程度、复杂程度、大小程度、是否有明显的生长位置。The volunteers judgments about which artificial patterns best matched which natural ones were almost perfectly consistent.志愿者关于人工图案与自然图案匹配程度的判断几乎完美的一致。That allowed Mr Allen to assess which parameters contribute to each speciess pattern, and thus which are correlated with behaviour.这使艾伦先生可以推断哪个参数对物种的图案起了影响,从而进一步同物种行为联系起来。The biggest distinction—no surprise, but nice to confirm—is that spotted cats are forest cats and plain ones prefer open countryside.最大的区别发现本身并不出人意料,但推理非常严密是:有斑点的猫科动物生活在丛林中,没有斑点的更偏好生活在开阔的平原地带。In that, Kipling was right.在这点上,吉卜林是对的。An analysis based on the relationship between the species, though, shows that evolutionary lines can swap from spots to no spots, and vice versa, as the habitat dictates.基于物种关系的一个分析表明,进化路线有时是从有斑点到无斑点,有时又反过来,这取决于栖息地在哪里。Moreover, the more a species prefers the forest, the more irregular the pattern it sports, and the more complex.并且,如果一个物种越是喜欢丛林生活,图案就越是不规则,越加复杂对大小和图案生长位置没有影响。Size and direction have no effect.Even among forest-dwellers there are differences.即使丛林物种之间也不一样。Those that tend to spend their time actually in trees, as opposed to wandering around on the ground between them, have more irregular and complex patterns.与那些喜欢呆在地上的相比,更多时间呆在树上的种群,其图案就更不规则,更加复杂。And, crucially, there is no relationship between a cats pattern and how sociable it is.并且,重要的是在猫科动物的图案和社群习性之间没有关联。That knocks on the head an alternative explanation for coat patterns, namely that spots are some form of signal between animals of the same species.这对关于表皮图案的另一理论解释是当头一击,此种解释认为斑点是同一动物种群的共有标记形式。Mr Allen and his colleagues made one other observation. Some species of cat regularly produce melanic forms—the so-called black panther actually a melanic jaguar being the most familiar.艾伦先生及其同事还作了其他的观察。某些猫科动物会周期性变成黑色——例如大家熟悉的黑豹实际上是黑色的美洲虎。The data seem to rule out one obvious explanation for melanism: the idea that black cats, with their unusual appearance, have more success hunting because their prey are not keeping an eye out for predators that look like them.这一观察似乎也排除了“黑变论”的解释。这种说法是,黑色猫科动物因其不同寻常的外表,而在捕猎方面非常成功,因为它们无须留神被猎物看见。Melanic forms, though, are particularly prevalent in species with complicated lives—those that inhabit a range of habitats, are active both day and night, and move between the ground and the trees.可是,黑色外表为各种复杂形式的物种所有,它们栖息在不同地带、有白天活动的也有黑夜活动的、有在地面生存的也有在树上生存的。What advantage melanism brings in these circumstances is obscure.在这些环境中表皮黑化到底有什么优势似乎模糊不清。One for Kipling, perhaps. “How the jaguar got his melanocytes.”这问题可能要交给吉卜林了:“美洲虎为何是黑色?” /201302/224409新抚人民医院看男科医院

抚顺第一人民医院医院预约In the 80s, a talking car like knight riders kit was pure fiction.80年代的电影《霹雳游侠》中会说话的汽车只是科幻故事。;My electronic sensors picked up a destination signal...;“我的电子传感器收到目标地点信号……”Not anymore. Modern cars are really computers on wheels. ;You often hear the es about how they are more advanced than the space machinary that got us to the moon, back in the 1960s and 1970s. And thats true.;现在,智能汽车不再只是幻想。现代汽车正是电脑和车轮的组合。“在20世纪60,70年代,你总是听到人们幻想智能车比登月的设施还先进,现在成真了。”It takes just one look under the hood to see for yourself. Compare the machinary of this 1966 Ford, Mustang, to this, 2004 Volkswagen, Jetta.你只需要掀开引擎盖看一眼,比较一下66年的福特野马和04年的大众捷达便知。;Almost everything in a car relies on a computer, one kind or another now. You have the engine control monitor which controls the engine functions, the cooling fan, everything under the hood pretty much.;“现在,几乎车内的一切设施都依赖于电脑系统,电脑控制引擎,监控设备,冷气扇……几乎涉及引擎盖下的一切”Mechanics say the more they are computerized, the easier they are to fix. Sometimes, they even fix themselves. ;So the computer can sometimes be a little too helpful?;电脑控制得越彻底,车辆就越容易修理。有时电脑对自身能进行自动修理。“因此,有时候电脑也过于有用了?”;Yes, exactly. you still have to do your maintance, you still have to check. Follow the manual about things that have to be changed in certain specific intervals.;“是的,没错。你还是需要对爱车进行日常护理,检查。定期对车辆进行手动检查。”But what about when things go wrong with the ultra-computer itself?但如果是电脑系统出问题了呢?;There is nobody, no person to point to who designs the electronic system. There are multiple people in multiple teams all coordinating their efforts to design any different part of the vehicle.;“没人能说出是谁在汽车中设计使用了电子系统。是不同研究小组的不同人员共同向着这同一个目标努力,并设计出汽车的不同零部件。”Some experts foresee the day when cars such as those in the moviedrive themselves.许多专家都预见无人驾驶的智能汽车问世的一天。;What kind of risks will it involve and will we see any fallout from that.;“智能汽车将带来怎样的风险,会有什么附加后果呢?”The key they say is for drivers to remember who is behind the wheel. And act that way no matter how advanced the car.避免智能车带来的负面影响只需要一点,就是驾驶者无论爱车有多先进,要始终牢记得坐在车子里面的是人,不管怎样都要爱惜生命。Diana Alvear, A news, Chicago.Diana Alvear芝加哥报道,A新闻注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/191661抚顺市妇保医院电话号码是多少 抚顺矿务局西露天矿职工医院怎么预约

抚顺市职业病防治医院皮肤科Science and Technolgy.科技。Social status and health.社会地位与健康。Misery index.贫困指数。Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why.社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘。ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity. That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s. These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite. Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives. Cardiac arrest-and, indeed, early death from any cause-is the prerogative of underlings.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。心跳骤停——而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死——那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies. But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not. A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques. Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings. The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system. Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed. To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard (and probably unethical) if it were done to human beings. You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难(而且很可能不道德)。但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies.不健康的身体,不快乐的心情。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques (females were chosen because a lot of previous work on animal hierarchies has been done on female macaques) and split them into groups of four or five. The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group (newly introduced monkeys almost always adopt a role subordinate to existing group members). The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验(用女性猴子的原因是,前期大量动物地位等级的准备工作都是在女性猴子身上做的),并把他们分为四到五组。根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号(新来的都是要听前辈的,这是潜规则)。等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes (30% of the total number in a monkey genome-or, for that matter, in a human one). They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one. Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones. The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too. Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 研究结果有很多。每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因(一个猴子基因组总数的30%——这也适用于人类),寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do. Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system. In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation (a general immune response that involves tissue swelling and increased immune-cell activity in the affected area). Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因(一种普通的免疫反应,包括细胞组织的膨胀,还有增加免疫细胞在疫区免疫细胞活动)。虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression. In keeping with previous work, they found that high- and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress. They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself. But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals. Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life. To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.表现遗传学——目前分子生物学最热的话题之一——是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny. Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups. When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed. Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans. But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use. In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around. The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201209/200526 You are there, on the most exciting nerve shattering journey in the history of men.你在那里,经历着人类历史上最激动人心的旅程。Fifty years ago, it was easy for us to imagine venus,50年前, 我们可以很容易的想像金星、closer to the sun and wrapped in clouds.接近太阳和隐藏的云雾。There was this picture of venus as a kind of primitive, steamy earth complete with giant tree ferns and dinosaurs.金星上有一种原始、巨树蕨类和恐龙,及非常热的类似于地球的感觉。All together, it seems to us that it should be, just possibly, even properly that work.合在一起,在我们看来,它应该,只是可能,甚至也会起效。In the late 1950s, the space race begins.在20世纪50年代晚期,太空竞争开始。While the America aims for the moon, Russia sets its signts on meeting the neighbours.美国针对月亮,而俄罗斯的眼光投向了其邻居。Venus and Mars still were in the human dreams to meet the species which could be very similar to us.金星和火星仍然是人类梦想见到和我们可以非常相似物种的星球。Venus was even easier than Mars to reach.金星比火星更容易到达。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174577抚顺中山男科诊疗中心辽宁省抚顺妇幼保健院看泌尿科怎么样

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