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2019年08月20日 11:15:36    日报  参与评论()人

哈尔滨妇儿妇科医院预约黑龙江省林业第二医院剖腹产需多少钱We#39;re in Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, looking at Leonardo da Vinci#39;s Last Supper.我们在米兰的圣玛利亚感恩修道院,欣赏李奥纳多?达文西的《最后的晚餐》。And we#39;re in the room where the monks would eat, their refectory. And so several times a day, the monks would come in here, eat silently, and be able to look up at Leonardo#39;s Last Supper.我们在修道士用餐的房间里,他们的食堂。所以一天中有几次,修道士们会进来这里,静静地用餐,还能够抬头看看李奥纳多的《最后的晚餐》。It#39;s an ideal place, of course, for this particular subject, and not an uncommon one.这是个理想的地点,当然,对于这幅特殊的画作来说,但也不是个不常见的地点。So let#39;s talk about the story. At the last supper, Christ says, ;One of you will betray me,; to his twelve apostles.来谈谈那段故事。在最后的晚餐中,耶稣说对他的十二门徒说:“你们其中一人将会背叛我。”And one of the ways that this painting is often is as a reaction to that moment. That is, this is not the moment when Christ utters that, but the moment after, when the reaction takes place. These are his closest followers. And so this is terribly shocking. And so what we see is this incredible set of reactions from the apostles around the table.这幅画作通常被解读的方式之一,是被看做那个瞬间的反应。也就是说,这不是在耶稣说出那段话的当下,而是说完的瞬间,当反应发生的时候。这些是他最亲近的追随者。所以这是非常震惊的。所以我们看到的是餐桌周围门徒反应中的这组难以置信的反应。So that#39;s one way we can understand the fresco, but there#39;s another aspect of the narrative.所以那是我们可以理解这幅壁画的一种方式,但那故事还有另一种面向。Which is, in some ways, even more important. Christ, you can see, is reaching towards both a glass of wine and towards b. And this is the institution of the Sacrament.那在某方面来说甚至更加重要。你可以看到,耶稣正伸手朝向一杯酒和面包。而这是那圣餐的习俗。The Sacrament of the Eucharist, we might know it as Holy Communion, where Christ says, ;Take this b, for this is my body. Take this wine, for this is my blood. And remember me.; And you can see that he reaches out toward the b and the wine.圣餐礼中的圣餐,我们也许以“圣餐式”之名认识这仪式,在这里耶稣说:“拿这块面包吃,这是我的身体。拿这杯酒喝,这是我的血。并记得我。”你可以看到他伸手朝向面包和酒。But what#39;s interesting is that Christ#39;s hand is widely sp. So it seems as if he#39;s reaching towards the wine, but at the same time, he#39;s reaching toward a bowl. And at the same moment, Judas is reaching towards that same bowl.但有趣的是耶稣的手张的大大的。所以那看似他好像伸手朝向酒,但同时,他也伸手朝向一个碗。在同一时刻,犹大也伸手朝向同一个碗。Judas is the one who#39;s going to betray Christ. He#39;s been paid 30 pieces of silver by the Romans. And you can see, he#39;s grasped that bag of silver in his right hand, as he pulls away from Christ, his face cast in shadow. But he#39;s pulling away at the same time that he#39;s still reaching out to the bowl.犹大就是那个将要背叛耶稣的人。罗马人付给他三十枚银币。你可以看见,他的右手抓着那袋银币,当他离开耶稣时,他的脸投向阴影。但他在离开的同时他仍在伸手抓碗。And that#39;s one of the ways that Christ identifies who will betray him, the person who shares, who dips with him in that bowl. It#39;s interesting, because the history of the art history about this painting is really about scholars arguing about what moment this is.那是耶稣辨别谁将会背叛他的其中一种方式,那分享的人、那和他一起在那碗沾食的人。这很有趣,因为关于这幅画作的艺术史中的历史,其实都是关于学者争论这是哪一个时刻。But I think there are all of these moments here. And the apostles could, just as easily, be understood as reacting to Christ#39;s words, ;one of you will betray me,; as they could to Christ saying, ;Take the b, for this is my body and take the wine, for this is my blood.; So, Leonardo tells us several moments in this story and, at the same time, gives us a sense of the divine, eternal importance of this story.但我认为这里有所有这些时刻。那些门徒在对耶稣说的话做出反应时,也就是“你们其中一个将会背叛我”,这时可以很容易被看穿,就如同他们对耶稣说:“拿这块面包吃,这是我的身体。拿这杯酒喝,这是我的血。”时所做的反应一样容易看穿。所以,李奥纳多告诉我们这段故事中的许多片刻,同时,给了我们这段故事中的神圣、永恒的重要性之感。We would never mistake this for 13 people having dinner. We know this is the last supper. We know that this is an important moment without any of the obvious symbols of the divine that we would have in the early Renaissance, like the halo.我们永远不会将此画误认为十三个人在吃晚餐。我们知道这是最后的晚餐。我们不用任何早期文艺复兴会有的任何明显的神圣象徵,像是光环,来认出这是个重要的时刻。The figures themselves are monumental in this space, and too crowded for that table, creating a kind of energy, a kind of chaos that surrounds the perfection, the solemnity, the geometry of Christ.那些人物他们自己在这空间中是具纪念性的,对那张桌子来说太过拥挤,创造出一种能量、一种环绕那完美度、那庄严感、以及耶稣身上几何学的那种混乱。That#39;s right. Christ forms an equilateral triangle. His head is in the center of a circle. The window that frames his head s as a halo. There#39;s that calm center, and then human beings with all of their faults, and fears, and worries, around that divine center.没错。耶稣形成了一个等边三角形。他的头位在圆心。那框住他的头的窗户解读为光环。这里是那沉着的中心,然后人类带着他们所有过错、恐惧、和担忧,环绕那神圣中心的四周。This is Leonardo da Vinci, who is thinking about mathematics. He#39;s thinking about science. He#39;s thinking about the integration of all of these things.这是李奥纳多·达文西,他正在思考数学。他正在思考科学。他正在思考所有这些事物的统整。If we look at earlier images of the Last Supper, there#39;s lots of room at the table, there#39;s lots of decorations in the room. What Leonardo does is he simplifies everything and focuses us on those figures and their gestures. And by making it so there#39;s no room behind the table, the figures take up so much space, it#39;s separating our world from the world of Christ and the apostles. There#39;s no way for us to enter that space.如果我们观看《最后的晚餐》较早期的图像,在桌子上有很多空间、在屋子里有很多装饰。李奥纳多做的事是他简化一切,让我们专注在那些人物以及他们的姿势上。借由这么做,好让餐桌后方没有空间,那些人物佔据这么多空间,那正让我们的世界与耶稣及其门徒的世界分隔开来。我们没有办法进入那空间。In fact, there#39;s no way for them to move into our space. There really is this demarcation.事实上,他们也没有办法移动进入我们的空间。那里确实有这种分界。In versions of the Last Supper that Leonardo would have seen in Florence, Judas is sitting on the opposite side of the table. And by putting Judas with the other apostles, he does use the table as a barrier between our world and the world of the apostles.在李奥纳多会在佛罗伦斯看到的《最后的晚餐》版本,犹大正坐在餐桌的另一边。借由将犹大和其他门徒放一起,他确实使用那张桌子作为我们世界及门徒世界之间的界线。Let#39;s look at those faces for just a moment. Christ is so serene, his eyes are down, one hand is up, one hand is down. To his right is a group of three, and there is Judas, who#39;s facing away from us in shadow. His neck is turned, reminding us that that night he will hang himself.来看一下那些脸庞。耶稣如此安详,他的双眼低垂、一手向上、一手向下。在他的右方是三人组,有犹大,他的脸庞在阴影之下转向别处撇开我们。他的脖子转向,使我们想起那晚他将会上吊自尽。Now as he pulls away, Saint Peter, Christ#39;s protector, rushes in. He#39;s got a knife that he holds around his back. And he comes in, seeming to say almost, ;Who is it? I need to defend you.;现在当他逃离时,圣彼得,耶稣的保护者,冲了进来。他有一把握在背后的刀。然后他进来,几乎好像是说:“是哪一个?我要保护你。”The third figure in that group with Judas and Peter would be Saint John, who looks very resigned and closes his eyes. And that#39;s the tradition in paintings of the Last Supper. My favorite three figures are the figures on the far right. Leonardo was very interested in using the body to reveal the soul, to reveal one#39;s internal nature. But Leonardo#39;s creating these four groups of three, that idea of knitting the figures together, overlapping them with one another, creating all this drama.那有犹大和彼得的三人组中第三个人物是圣约翰,他看起来非常认命,且闭上他的双眼。那是《最后的晚餐》画作中的传统。我最喜欢的三个人物是在最右边的人物。李奥纳多对于使用身体来展现灵魂、展现一个人的内在天性很感兴趣。但李奥纳多正创造出这四群三人组、那将角色交织在一起的灵感、让他们彼此交叠、创造出这所有戏剧性。And creating tensions and contrast between the emotional responses of all these figures. There#39;s that incredible grouping of Thomas pointing upward.还有在所有这些角色的情绪反应之间创造出紧张情绪和对比。还有多马向上指的那难以置信的分组方式。As if to say, ;Is this something that is ordained by God? Is this God#39;s plan, that one of us should betray you?;好像在说:“这是某个上帝命令的事吗?我们之一会背叛你,这是上帝的计划吗?”But of course, that finger also foreshadows him actually proving Christ#39;s resurrection by plunging that finger into Christ#39;s wound. And then we have Philip and James the Major. And they#39;re in opposition, one throwing his arms out, one bringing his hands together.但当然,那根手指同样也预示了他确实会借由将那根手指戳进耶稣的伤口,来明耶稣的复活。然后我们有菲力和雅各。他们动作相反,一个将手臂伸出、一个将手抱在一起。And if we were to compare this with earlier Last Suppers, we would see the way that the figures remained very separate from one another. And here, that idea of unified composition, which is so characteristic of the High Renaissance. But what I sense here, more than anything, is the divinity of Christ, here, in the center; his calm, the way that all of those perspective lines bringing us toward him.如果我们要将此画和稍早的《最后的晚餐》做比较,我们会看到那些角色和彼此间离得很开的方式。这里,形成一体组合的那概念,这如此是文艺复兴全盛期的特色。但我在这里感受到的,比什么都还多的,是耶稣的神威,这里,在中心;他的沉着、所有那些透视线带领我们朝向他的方式。It#39;s interesting, because that perspective that the artist is rendering is slightly at odds with the perspective, as we see it, from down here on the floor. That is, we would need to be close to Christ#39;s level to see this painting in a perspective-correct manner. And it#39;s interesting. In a sense, it elevates us, as we look at this painting.这很有趣,如同我们所见,因为那艺术家所要描绘的透视图效果和我们从下方地面往上看的透视图效果有点不一致。也就是,我们会需要接近耶稣的高度来以修正透视的方式来观看这画。而这很有趣。在某种程度上,它提升了我们,当我们观赏这幅画时。Right, we would have to be, what, about 10 or 15 feet off the floor to have the perspective work exactly perfectly. So we have this divine presence in the center, indicated in all of these different ways. Now, keep in mind, we#39;re not saying this is the way that people would have seen it, in 1498.没错,我们会需要,多少,大约离地面10或15英尺(3到4.5公尺)来让这透视效果真正完美运作。所以我们在中央有这个神圣的存在,在所有这些不同的方式中表明出来。现在,记得,我们并不是在说人们在1498年会观赏它的方式。The painting is in terrible condition, in part, because Leonardo experimented with a combination of oil paint and tempera in an environment where fresco would be traditionally used. And the painting began to deteriorate soon after it was completed.这幅画处于很糟糕的状态,一方面,因为李奥纳多在一个传统上会使用壁画的环境中,用油和蛋的组合做实验。这画作在它完成不久后就开始劣化。Right, unlike a traditional fresco, which is painted on wet plaster, Leonardo painted on dry plaster. And the paint never really adhered to the wall. So luckily for us, the Last Supper has been conserved.是的,不像传统的壁画,那是在湿石膏上绘制的,李奥纳多在干石膏上作画。所以那颜料从未真正附着在墙上。所以对我们来说很幸运,《最后的晚餐》被保存了下来。And so in some ways, this is a perfect representation of the High Renaissance. It is finding a way of creating a sense of the eternal, a sense of the perfect, but within the chaos that is the human experience.所以在某些方面来说,这是文艺复兴全盛期很完美的代表。是在找出一个创造永恒感、完美感的方式,但是在混乱之中,那就是人们的体验。That#39;s right. ing the earthly and the divine.没错。使尘世和神性结合。 Article/201412/346880哈尔滨哪个妇科病医院好 栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201511/399301牡丹江市中医院做人流好吗

黑龙江阳光医院在那儿栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201511/399306哈尔滨省妇幼保健医院好不好 Death toll rises to 35 after bus plunges into NW China valley陕西大巴坠崖 致35人遇难Authorities in north-west China#39;s Shaanxi province say the death toll from a road accident has gone up to 35.中国西北陕西省当局称一起交通事故已造成35人死亡。A bus with 46 on board plunged 30 meters into a ravine in Chunhua county, in the province.一辆大巴车在陕西省淳化县境内发生坠崖事故,车上共有包括2名司乘人员在内的乘客46人。Twenty five people were killed at the site of the accident, with the others succumbing to their injuries in hospitals.25人当场死亡,其他人则入院接受治疗。Five people remain in critical condition among 11 passengers receiving treatment in hospitals.在医院接受治疗的乘客中有5人情况危急。The bus belonged to the Xiangban trading company in Xi#39;an, the provincial capital.这辆公共汽车属于陕西省西安市相伴商贸有限公司。Preliminary investigation shows the bus veered off the road at a turn, after the driver lost control.初步调查显示由在一处弯道失去控制导致汽车滑出公路。A relative of a victim said the bus driver told passengers moments before the accident, that the bus brakes had stopped working.一名受害者亲属表示事发之前司机曾告诉乘客该这辆车的刹车无法使用。 Article/201505/375741哈市二院医生名单

哈尔滨省第四人民医院有四维彩超吗栏目简介:Now some sports news. A friendly soccer match between former players for AC Milan and Shanghai teams will kick off tomorrow at the city#39;s Hongkou Stadium. To promote the game, organizers have set up an exhibition of some of the jerseys the AC Milan players have worn. Cui Hui#39;ao tells us more. Article/201701/488457 哈尔滨市穆斯林医院怎么样黑龙江人民医院哪个医生好

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