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来源:飞度网    发布时间:2019年05月26日 17:09:37    编辑:admin         

Recently, a friend showed me her mobile phone, with a despairing sigh. The screen was a mosaic of photos of a goggle-eyed baby, taken from every conceivable angle, sometimes holding chirpy, handwritten messages. “It’s overwhelming my inbox!” she muttered, explaining that four months earlier she had become a grandmother to the infant, who lived in a different city. A decade ago, that would have meant she only saw the baby every month — say, over a holiday meal.最近,一位朋友带着一声绝望的叹息,把她的手机给我看。屏幕上是一个睁大眼睛的婴儿各个角度照片的拼接图,有的照片还附带了快活的手写信息。“这塞满了我的收件箱!”她嘟囔着,解释说屏幕上是她那4个月前刚出生的孙子。孩子和父母在另一个城市生活。若是换到10年前,她只能一个月见到孩子一次,比如在节日聚餐的时候。But not in 2015. In the past month, the doting parents have taken to dispatching baby photos to all their friends and family on a daily basis. And now — to her utter bewilderment — my friend has been asked to send text messages to the infant. The idea is that these “texts” can be posted online to show that the grandparents are constantly thinking about their new grandson, and thus enable the family to “connect”. “It’s crazy,” she giggled, explaining that she didn’t want to cause offence but could not quite bring herself to send texts to a four-month-old. “What do I do?”但在2015年,情况不同了。上个月,宠爱孩子的父母开始每天向所有的朋友和家人发送孩子的照片。而现在,让我的朋友非常迷惑的是,他们要求我的朋友给孩子发文字消息。这其中的想法是,这些“文字”能够公布到网上,以彰显祖父母时刻在思念着他们刚出世的孙子,从而让整个家庭“联系起来”。“这太疯狂了,”她咯咯直笑,解释说她不想惹恼家人,但她真的没办法给一个4个月大的婴儿发送文字消息。“我该怎么办呢?”It is a peculiarly 21st-century dilemma. As linguists and anthropologists know well, the way that human families define themselves and communicate with each other has changed numerous times over the millennia. But the past decade has produced a shift in the pattern of family communications that is more speedy and intense than anything seen before.这是一个21世纪特有的窘境。语言学家和人类学家非常了解,千年以来,人类家庭诠释自身以及成员间互相沟通的方式发生了无数次改变。但在过去十年,家庭沟通方式发生的转变比以往任何一次都要迅速和剧烈。Never mind the fact that the internet has suddenly linked the entire globe; social media and mobile phones have enabled us all to disappear into cyber space, colliding and connecting — however we choose. That is not just reshaping work but altering domestic space, creating new forms of cyber family traditions, even during the holidays.不必担心如下事实:互联网在突然之间将全球连接在一起;社交媒体和手机让所有人消失在网络空间之中,发生不受我们自身控制的相互碰撞和连接。这不仅重塑了我们的工作环境,也改变了我们的家庭空间,创造出新形式的网络家庭传统,甚至是节日传统。For many people, this shift seems frightening. Last month, for example, Newmarket Holidays, one of the UK’s largest tour operators, conducted a survey of grandparents that showed that more than three-quarters thought that their relationship with their grandchildren was different from the relationship they had with their own grandparents — and that more than half feel that the difficulty in sharing Christmas traditions is due to computer games taking the attention of their grandchildren. Another third blamed mobile phones and TV for distracting the kids and undermining the type of traditional Christmas activities that the grandparents thought were crucial to maintain family ties (such as talking, playing board games or singing songs).对很多人来说,这种转变似乎很可怕。比如,英国最大的旅行社之一Newmarket Holidays上个月对祖父母进行了一项调查。结果显示,超过四分之三的受调查者认为他们与孙辈的关系不同于他们和自己的祖父母的关系,超过一半的受调查者感到与孩子分享圣诞节传统存在困难,原因是电脑游戏占据了孙辈们的注意力。另有三分之一的受调查者指责手机和电视让孩子分心,削弱了他们认为对维系家庭关系起关键作用的圣诞节传统活动(比如聊天、玩棋盘游戏或者唱歌)。Other surveys in the US reflect this concern. Between half and two-thirds of adults today say that children are too obsessed with social media, and fear that the rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets is creating a more individualistic, alienated society. It is little wonder, then, that one of the fastest-growing categories of self-help books is the one which tells people how to maintain social connections — and quality family time — in the face of this digital onslaught. No doubt some of those books have been handed around as Christmas presents (along with a vastly bigger mountain of electronic gadgets).美国的一些其他调查也反映了这种忧虑。现在有一半到三分之二的成年人认为儿童对社交媒体过于沉迷,他们担心电子玩意儿的迅速普及正在造就一个人们更强调个性、彼此更疏远的社会。所以,这也难怪增长最快的一类自助图书,是教人们如何在这种数字攻势下维持社会关系、保和家人一起度过宝贵时光的书。毫无疑问,一些人将这种书作为圣诞礼物(与大得多的一堆电子器件一起)送给家人朋友。But while it is easy for parents (like me) to worry that iPads, iPhones and Instagram are undermining the family, it is not always that simple. As Danah Boyd, a digital anthropologist, points out, our cyber behaviour needs to be viewed in a much bigger social context. Take the oft-cited concern that electronic media are separating children from their parents (or grandparents). To a casual observer, this might seem self-evident, given how much time children tend to spend online, roaming cyber space or chatting with friends.但是,尽管父母们(比如我)很容易担忧iPad、iPhone和Instagram正在削弱家庭关系,可事情并不总是那么简单。数字人类学家丹纳#8226;伊德(Danah Boyd)指出,我们在网络上的行为需要放到一个大得多的社会背景下进行理解。一个常被提及的忧虑是,电子媒体正使孩子与他们的父母(或者祖父母)的关系更为疏远。以此为例,对一般的观察者来说,考虑到孩子们在网络漫游或者与朋友聊天等在线活动上花了多少时间,这一点似乎是不言而喻的。But, as Boyd points out, what children are doing online today is simply an extension of what they used to do in the real world. In the past, kids often wandered the streets (or woods and fields) with relative freedom, and used that time to explore boundaries and congregate with friends. But now that this has been curtailed by protective parents, children are roaming in cyber space instead. While Twitter or Instagram might be new, what is not new is the idea that teens want to escape — even at Christmas.但是,就如伊德指出的,今天的孩子们在网络上做的事情不过是过去他们在真实世界里做的事情的延伸。过去,孩子们经常相对自由地在街道上(或者树林和田野中)漫游,并且花时间探索边界,与朋友们聚在一起。但现在,想保护孩子的父母限制了这些活动,因此孩子们转而在网络空间中漫游。尽管Twitter或者Instagram或许是新事物,但青少年哪怕是在圣诞节的时候都想要逃离,这种想法却并不是新鲜事。Similarly, while the rise of social media might undermine the type of family traditions that grandparents say they love, it is also creating new links. Parents today can monitor what teenagers are saying to each other far more closely than before. Kids can talk — or Skype or FaceTime — with their relatives all over the world on Christmas Day. Family news or holiday snaps can be shared on social media platforms.类似的,尽管社交媒体的兴起或许削弱了祖父母喜爱的一些家庭传统,但同时也创造了新的关联。当今的父母们可以更严密地监控青少年谈话的内容。孩子们可以通过Skype或者Facetime在圣诞节这天与世界各地的亲人聊天。家庭新闻或者节日照片能够在社交媒体平台上分享。Then there is the innovation of sending “texts” to babies. To some people (such as my friend) that might sound bizarre; to others (like my friends’ children) it seems normal. Either way, the key point is this: in today’s cyber world we have extraordinary freedom to reshape our family web as we choose. And that is rather an inspiring development to consider — particularly as another holiday season draws to a close. 6还有关于给婴儿发送“文字”的新颖做法。对一些人(比如我的朋友)来说,这听上去可能很怪异,但对另一些人(比如我朋友的子女)来说,这或许很正常。不管怎样,关键点是在今天的网络世界里,我们有很大的自由,按照自己的心意重塑家庭网络。这是一种值得我们思考的、令人相当鼓舞的新情况,尤其是在下一个节假日到来之前。 /201501/354732。

DUBLIN — The morning after Ireland learned it had become the first nation to approve same-sex marriage by popular vote, Diarmuid Martin, the archbishop of Dublin, looked out at the future of the Roman Catholic Church.都柏林——爱尔兰成为世界上首个通过全民投票将同性婚姻合法化的国家,次日清晨,都柏林总主教迪亚姆德·马丁 (Diarmuid Martin)思索着罗马天主教的未来在何方。It could be found at St. Mary’s Pro-Cathedral here, in downtown Dublin, as two rows of children awaited confirmation before him in the lofty, column-lined church.这个未来也许就在都柏林市中心的圣玛利亚临时主教座堂(St. Mary’s Pro-Cathedral)里。孩子们正分列两排,在高大威严、立柱高耸的教堂里等待领受总主教的坚振圣事。“Boys and girls, I made my confirmation 60 years ago,” he told them, adding, “Your world is different from mine.”“男孩们、女孩们,我是六十年前领受坚振的,”总主教告诉他们,接着又说,“你们的世界和我的不同。”Not far away, the streets were quiet after a long night of celebrating. Revelers filled the bars, beeped horns, waved rainbow flags and drank Guinness after the result was announced on Saturday. The size of the victory energized supporters, with the referendum affirmed by 62 percent of the electorate and passed in all but one of Ireland’s 43 districts.不远处,整夜欢庆后的街道十分安静。周六投票结果公布后,欢庆的人挤满了酒吧,把喇叭按得哔哔作响,挥舞着虹旗,畅饮吉尼斯黑啤。这次的大胜让人兴奋不已,62%的选民投了赞成票,爱尔兰的43个区除一个区外都同意同性恋婚姻合法化。After the votes were counted, the carefully planned and executed campaign by activist groups seemed as much about putting behind a past entrenched in theocracy and tradition as it was about marriage for gays and lesbians. And it underscored how different Ireland is today for the young, who turned out in droves to vote. In a little more than a generation, Ireland has both distanced itself from the church and sharpened its secular identity.计票结束后再来看待这场由活动人士精心计划并实施的运动,它的目标除了争取同性婚姻,似乎还要将一个与神权和传统密不可分的过去抛诸脑后。对于成群前去投票的年轻人来说,结果也凸显了如今的爱尔兰有多么不同。不过一个世代多一点的时间,爱尔兰不仅与教会疏远了,还强化了自己的世俗身份。At St. Mary’s, the results of the referendum, as one might expect, did not come up — the archbishop instead quipped about his first experience with a cellphone. But afterward, speaking at a house next to the church, he conceded that much had changed.如人所料,投票结果并未在圣玛丽教堂被提及——总主教反倒是打趣谈起自己第一次用手机的情形。但事后在教堂附近的一栋房子里发言时,他承认许多事情已经改变了。“The church needs to take a reality check,” Archbishop Martin said after the Mass, repeating a comment he had made Saturday. “It’s very clear there’s a growing gap between Irish young people and the church, and there’s a growing gap between the culture of Ireland that’s developing and the church.”“教会需要认清现实,”马丁总主教在弥撒后重申了他在周六做出的。“很明显,爱尔兰年轻人和教会的隔阂越来越大,处在发展中的爱尔兰文化和教会之间的隔阂也越来越大。”The country’s cultural evolution reflects a blend of disaffection with the church, and Ireland’s willingness to embrace a wider vision of itself in the world. As the church lost many people in its scandals and its unwillingness to yield to sexual freedoms, the European Union found itself with a willing and eager member.爱尔兰文化的演变既体现了人们对教会的不满,也表达了爱尔兰人希望能与世界更紧密联系的意愿。由于丑闻和对于性开放的不妥协态度,教会失去了很多持者,而欧盟因此获得了一个主动且热切的成员国。The shift didn’t happen overnight. After Ireland broke from Britain in 1922, it was a virtual colony to the Vatican, a theocracy in all but name.但改变并不是一夜间发生的。爱尔兰在1922年脱离英国后几乎就是梵蒂冈(Vatican)的殖民地,本质上施行神权统治。John Charles McQuaid, the longtime archbishop of Dublin, played a central role in drafting Ireland’s Constitution before he became archbishop, hewing to conservative church doctrine and closely involving himself in details as small as the placement of commas in the document. That kind of unchecked dominance by the church continued for decades.在成为总主教前,曾在位多年的都柏林总主教约翰·查尔斯·麦夸伊德(John Charles McQuaid)在《爱尔兰宪法》的起草过程中扮演了关键角色,在其中贯彻了保守教义,连哪里加逗号之类的细节都亲自过问。这种无以制衡的教会统治持续了数十年。In 1979, more than one million people turned out for Pope John Paul II’s visit to Dublin, a staggering crowd in a country with a population of about 3.4 million at the time. In 1983, by a two-thirds majority, Ireland hewed to church teachings and passed a referendum outlawing abortion except in cases where a mother’s life was at risk, after a divisive campaign.1979年,教皇约翰·保罗二世(John Paul II)访问都柏林,一百多万人前往瞻仰。对于一个当时只有约340万人口的国家来说,这个数量是惊人的。1983年,经过一场导致分歧的游说运动后,爱尔兰依循教义,以三分二多数投票通过立法禁止堕胎,只有产妇有生命危险时才能例外。But signs of resistance had aly been showing. In 1971, women’s rights activists organized a “condom train,” going over the border to Belfast and bringing back condoms to a country that outlawed contraception.但抵抗的迹象已经显现。1971年妇女权利倡导者们组织了一辆“避套列车”,穿越边境去贝尔法斯特,让避套回到这个视节育为非法的国家。Tony Flannery, a priest who was suspended in 2012 because of his criticism of the church’s views on women and homosexuality, said contraception was a seminal issue for a generation that became the parents of today’s youngest voters.2012年,神父托尼·弗兰纳里(Tony Flannery)因批评教会关于女性和同性恋的观点而被停职,他认为避对于一代人来说是一个重大的问题,而今天投票的年轻人则是那一代人的子女。And it “was the first time that Irish Catholics first questioned church teaching,” Mr. Flannery said. “That opened the door, and after that they increasingly began to question a whole raft of Catholic sexual teaching, and then the child sexual abuse scandal came along which destroyed church credibility in the whole area of sexuality.”“这是爱尔兰天主教徒第一次质疑教会的教义”,弗兰纳里说道。“这开启了一扇门,至此以后教徒们越来越多地开始天主教在性方面的教义产生全面质疑,之后又发生了儿童性侵丑闻,彻底摧毁了教会在这方面的威信。Even the reputation of Archbishop McQuaid, who died in 1973 after more than three decades at the helm of the Dublin archdiocese, crumbled in the tide of child sex scandals. In 2009, his role in covering up abuse was excoriated in a report commissioned by the Irish government and the headline of a commentary in The Irish Times likened him to Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. By 2011, abuse allegations surfaced involving him.甚至连麦夸伊德总主教的声誉都在那一系列丑闻中崩塌了。在执掌都柏林总教区三十多年后,麦夸伊德于1973年逝世。2009年,爱尔兰政府发布了一份报告,严厉谴责麦夸伊德掩盖性丑闻的行为,而《爱尔兰时报》(The Irish Times)的一篇文章在标题中把他比作阿亚图拉鲁霍拉·霍梅尼(Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini)。到了2011年,涉及麦夸伊德本人的性侵丑闻也浮出水面。“The people have changed their relationship with the Catholic Church because they’ve been disappointed and let down,” said Christina Breen, 54, who visited Dublin Castle on Saturday to see the results of the vote, a show of support because one of her sons is gay.“人民已经改变了他们同天主教会的关系,因为他们深感失望,”54岁的克里斯蒂娜·布林(Christina Breen)说到。周六,克里斯蒂娜来到都柏林城堡查看公投的结果,这是一种持的表示,因为她的其中一个儿子是同性恋者。Or, as Mr. Flannery put it, “The day when the church had the power to influence social debate in Ireland, or to swing it, is gone.”或者如弗兰纳里所说,“教会有能力影响或者动摇爱尔兰社会辩论的日子已经过去。”The legal system began to chip away at the laws restricting homosexuals. In 1988, a lawyer named Mary Robinson successfully argued a case in the European court system challenging Ireland’s law that made homosexuality a crime. Five years later, after Ms. Robinson became Ireland’s first female president in 1990, she signed a law decriminalizing homosexuality.法律制度开始瓦解那些制约同性恋的法律。1988年,一位名为玛丽·罗宾逊(Mary Robinson)的律师在欧洲法庭制度下做出了成功抗辩,向将同性恋定为犯罪行为的爱尔兰法律发起了挑战。五年后,也就是罗宾逊成为爱尔兰第一任女性总统五年后,她签署了一部将同性恋非罪化的法律。At the same time that the church’s moral authority was flagging, the Irish were finding a new identity within the European Union. They share the euro, and are more willing to take advantage of low-cost airfares for weekend jaunts to the Continent and beyond, broadening an outlook that for their parents and grandparents had been molded by the church and Britain.在教会道德权威衰落的同时,爱尔兰人在欧盟中找到了新的身份。他们和其他国家一起使用欧元,更愿意利用廉价机票到欧洲大陆以及更远的地方进行周末远足,开拓眼界,不像他们的父母、祖父母辈那样深受教会和英国的影响。Even as it widely celebrates the change that the same-sex marriage vote indicated, Ireland is not entirely beyond the kind of cultural battles that have led to far more contentious political campaigns in the past. Many believe there will be a much more fierce cultural debate over legalizing abortion.正当大批民众欢庆同性婚姻公投意味着的变革之际,爱尔兰仍存在着文化斗争,这类斗争在过去引发了许多具有争议的政治活动。很多人相信,未来有关堕胎合法化的文化辩论将会更多、更激烈。With the vote for the same-sex referendum going nearly two to one in favor, Archbishop Martin said Sunday that the church needed what he called “a new language that will be understood and heard by people.” Many young people, he added, “go in today and find a church that is for the like-minded,” as opposed to being inclusive.同性婚姻公投中赞成与反对的比例接近2:1,对此马丁总主教在周日表示,教会需要“一种能够被人们理解和听到的新语言”。他说很多年轻人“走进来,却发现这个教会只接纳志同道合者”,不具备包容性。But he did not offer a solution for attracting young people back to the church, and reiterated his opposition to same-sex marriage.但是他并没有给出如何吸引年轻人重返教会的方法,只是重申了自己对同性婚姻的反对。“For many, and I’ve said this before, inside the church becomes almost alien territory to them in today’s society,” he said. “If the leadership of the Irish Catholic church don’t recognize that, then they’re in severe denial. Have I got a magic formula? Certainly not.”“我之前也说过,在很多人看来,教堂成了一个与当下社会隔绝的地带,”他说道。“如果爱尔兰天主教会的领导人无法意识到这一点,那么他们会被大众背弃。我有什么妙方么?当然没有。” /201505/377479。

Peekaboo is a game played over the world, crossing language and cultural barriers. Why is it so universal? Perhaps because it’s such a powerful learning tool。全世界的婴儿都在玩躲猫猫,这种游戏已经跨越了语言和文化的边界。为什么这种游戏如此风靡全球?或许是因为它是一种强大的学习工具。Babies don#39;t books, and they don#39;t know that many people, so thesurprising durability and cultural universality of peekaboo is perhaps a clue that it taps into something fundamental in their minds. No mere habit or fashion, the game can help show us the foundations on which adult human thought is built。婴儿不阅读书籍,认识的人也不多,既然我们已经知道躲猫猫这种游戏的生命力持久性和文化普遍性,或许我们可以以它为线索,探索婴儿认知过程的基本要素。这是一种超越了人类习性和潮流的游戏,它能够告诉我们,成人认知过程的构建基础。Surprise element惊喜的元素Peekaboo uses the fundamental structure of all good jokes - surprise, balanced with expectation. Researchers showed this in tests involving a group of six-, seven- and eight-month-olds which sound like more fun than a psychology experiment should be. Most of the time the peekaboo game proceeded normally, however on occasion the adult hid and reappeared as a different adult, or hid and reappeared in a different location. Videos of the infants were rated by independent observers for how much the babies smiled and laughed。在躲猫猫这个游戏中蕴含着所有优质笑话的基本结构——惊喜,与之协调的期待。科学家们对一组包括6周、7周、8周大的婴儿进行了研究,孩子们的笑声使这场心理实验显得格外有趣,通过实验,科学家们应征了上述结论。大多数情况下,躲猫猫的游戏都进展的很顺利,即使一个大人躲起来后,出现的是另一个大人,或者大人躲起来后,出现在另一个地方。科学家们请一些与研究无关的成人来观察婴儿反应的录像,对每次婴儿微笑或大笑的程度出不同等级。On these “trick trials” the babies smiled and laughed less, even though the outcome was more surprising. What#39;s more, the difference between their enjoyment of normal peekaboo and trick-peekaboo increased with age (with the eight-month-olds enjoying the trick trials least). The researchers#39; interpretation for this is that the game relies on being able to predict the outcome. As the babies get older their prediction gets stronger, so the discrepancy with what actually happens gets larger - they find it less and less funny。在“非常规”的躲猫猫游戏中,虽然游戏最后出现的结果更令人吃惊,婴儿微笑或大笑的程度却相对较浅。不仅如此,随着长大,婴儿对常规的躲猫猫游戏的满意程度和对非常规的躲猫猫游戏之间的满意程度二者之间的差异会越来越明显(8个月大的婴儿对非常规的躲猫猫的满意程度最低)。研究者们解释说,这是因为,这个游戏之所以好玩,正是因为婴儿可以预期游戏的结果。随着婴儿长大,他们对结果的预期也越来越强,因而他们的预期和实际结果之间的不协调性也就越来越明显——他们对游戏也就越来越不满意。The secret to the enduring popularity of peekaboo is that it isn#39;t actually a single game. As the baby gets older their carer lets the game adapt to the babies#39; new abilities, allowing both adult and infant to enjoy a similar game but done in different ways. The earliest version of peekaboo is simple looming, where the carer announces they are coming with their voice before bringing their face into close focus for the baby. As the baby gets older they can enjoy the adult hiding and reappearing, but after a year or so they can graduate to take control by hiding and reappearing themselves。躲猫猫这个游戏经久不衰,全球风靡的秘密在于,它不仅仅只是一个游戏。随着婴儿长大,他们的监护人会根据婴儿的新本领调节游戏规则,从而使大人和婴儿都能在新的、大致相似而略有不同的游戏中获得乐趣。躲猫猫最开始只是一种隐而再现,监护人告诉婴儿他们要出来了,然后让婴儿能够近距离的看到自己的脸。随着婴儿长大一些,他们看到大人躲起来然后又出现就会很开心。但是一年之后,他们逐渐的可以掌控游戏了,他们就会自己躲起来,然后再出现。In this way peekaboo can keep giving, allowing a perfect balance of what a developing baby knows about the world, what they are able to control and what they are still surprised by. Thankfully we adults enjoy their laughter so much that the repetition does nothing to stop us enjoying endless rounds of the game ourselves。通过这种方式,躲猫猫的游戏规则能够与不断成长的婴儿眼中的世界达成并保持非常好的一致性,与他们掌控世界的能力,他们的兴奋点保持一致。谢天谢地,我们这些成年人是如此喜爱这些婴儿的笑声,以至于这种游戏的重复性一点也不妨碍我们一次次饶有兴致的聊以自娱。 /201503/362200。

6.Light the room well.6.使房间灯光明亮。If the dining room looks very upbeat, the meal immediately looks interesting and your family members will reflect the mood of the lighting too. If the place looks very dull, everyone might be running a bit low on their energy so it is best if you put some nice lighting and some VERY low music in the background just so that you have a pleasant eating experience。如果餐厅的光线非常的有雅致,吃饭时就会立马觉得带劲而家人的心情也会通过光线作用变得明朗起来。如果房子里的灯光过于暗淡,大家的食欲可能会有所低落因此最好将光线调好同时放点轻音乐做背景,这样的话会让你吃饭时有一个愉快心情。7.Taste everything even if you don#39;t like it.7.即便是你不喜欢的食物也应试着去品尝。Children and teenagers might reject a new food if you present it to them and I know that some adults might be sceptical about eating certain foods but give them a tip. Ask them to try just a tiny spoonful and if they like it, they can have more. If they don#39;t, then leave them to finish the rest of their meal. A lot of the times people have preconceived ideas that they don#39;t like a particular kind of food but if they try a bit, there is a possibility they might love it. If you cook the dish again and your child rejects it, ask them to try it again. Constant feeding in really tiny spoonfuls may lead to the child or person getting used to it and thinking that it isn#39;t that bad after all。儿童和青少年可能不爱吃一些新的食物,如果你将它摆在他们面前,他们会予以拒绝。而且据我所知一些成年人也对某些食物情有独钟,不妨给他们点建 议。可以叫他们先尝试一小口看,如果喜欢的话,他们就会多吃点。如果不喜欢,就让他们把自己剩余的饭菜吃完。很多时候,由于成见人们不喜欢吃某种特定的食 物,但如果他们愿意先尝试一点,很可能会变得爱吃它了。如果你第二次做它的时候孩子们还是不吃,不妨请他们再尝试尝试。这样每次吃一点点,孩子们及他人就 会习惯吃了并会发现原来它并不难吃。8.Good manners while leaving the table don#39;t hurt.8.离开餐桌时不忘表现得体。If someone has to leave the table immediately because they have to do some important work or attend a call, have them say “Excuse me” and say what that important thing they had to do is. This way, the person is learning manners that are useful if he or she is at a formal dinner place and most of all, good manners just don#39;t hurt! This way you know where the person is going and you are assured that they aren#39;t indirectly saying they don#39;t want to eat with the rest of the family。如果有人因一些重要的事情要急于处理或接听电话需要立即离开餐桌时,他们是否会说声“对不起”,并解释是什么重要的事情他们得去做?这样的话, 对正在学习礼仪的人来说,会使他或她日后出席正式的晚宴场合时会觉得非常受用,而且最重要的是,良好的举止行为并无大碍!这样,他们的离开你就会知道他将 往何处并坚信他们不是不愿与家人一起共餐了。9.Be decent at the table.9.餐桌前应端庄。My parents always told me that eat at home like you would eat outside. Never do silly things like burp or pour gravy on your fingers or something silly. Don#39;t play around with food or make faces in your potato mash. Even laughing loudly isn#39;t very polite especially if you are outside. Teaching this to children and using it yourself means that you are encouraging good manners and that you learn to eat outside the same way. Doing silly things at home are excusable but doing them outside where there are other people isn#39;t really that laudable. So try eating at home as decently as you can. Children will want to muck about but tell them straight off that it isn#39;t very polite. Tell them that they wouldn#39;t want to have someone burping at them or laughing at them。我的父母常跟我说,在家吃饭时什么样子在外面吃也会一样。吃饭时不要做些像打嗝或将肉汁倒在手指上与其他一些滑稽的事情。不要糟蹋食物与将土豆 泥涂在自己的脸上。连放声大笑甚至也会被认为是不礼貌的行为,特别是在外面吃的时候更是这样。倡导文明的举止行为应是在教导孩子们礼仪的同时将这些礼仪运 用于自己身上,这样在外面吃时你会和在家里表现出同样的举止。如果说在家里做些滑稽的行为可以得到原谅,但在外面这样做的话他人就会觉得并不值得称赞了。 因此,在家里吃饭时尽量举止端庄。孩子们可能会胡闹但要直截了当的告诉他们那是不礼貌的行为。告诉他们,在吃饭时人们一般不喜欢有人向他们打嗝和大笑。10.Teach children to eat well.10.教导孩子吃好。Teenagers and children can be quite fussy when it comes to eating food. Refer this article that teaches how to get your children to eat healthily. If you use the tips I#39;ve provided in that article, you will notice a significant change in the eating habits of your children。青少年和儿童在吃东西时可能特别挑剔。请参考这篇教导《如何让孩子吃得健康》的文章。如果您运用了我在那篇文章里提到的一些贴士,你会发现孩子的饮食习惯有了重大的改变。Just little things like the ones I#39;ve listed above will not only teach you and your children how to have a good ettiquette when you go outside but also it is helping your family bond indirectly through a meal. This really is food for thought!我上面列举的一些细节不仅可以让你与你的孩子在外面时怎样去保持良好的举止行为,而且它还可以帮助你通过聚餐间接性地搞好家庭关系。这着实耐人寻味! /201507/386048。

“Take heed of the humble; be what you are by birthright; there is no room for arrogance,” wrote Soetsu Yanagi in The Unknown Craftsman, published during Japan’s folk craft movement in the 1920s. According to Yanagi, the craftsman should be anonymous, and his wares produced by hand, inexpensive and used by ordinary people in everyday life. In an age when the stamp of the designer is often the most desired facet of an object, it is refreshing to find that the hallmarks of Japanese design, anonymity and quality, are now enjoying fresh appreciation.“注意要谦虚谨慎、做你与生俱来的自己、没有傲慢自大的余地,”柳宗悦(Soetsu Yanagi)在1920年代日本民间工艺运动期间出版的《未知的工匠》(The Unknown Craftsman)著作里写到。根据柳宗悦的说法,工匠应当隐姓埋名,产品应当手工制造、物美价廉且供普通人在日常生活中使用。设计师的标记往往是一件物品最受喜爱的特征;在这样一个时代,可以令人振奋地发现日本设计的特点--匿名性和高质量--现在,它们正受到越来越多的新的青睐。Japanese design has long been admired in Europe and a recent flush of shop openings and design collaborations suggests a growing hunger for traditionally crafted, sustainable objects.日本设计长久以来一直都在欧洲受到仰慕。最近一阵的开店热潮和设计合作则显示了对传统制作、耐用物品越来越多的渴望。“A new generation of Japanese designers from Tokyo and Kyoto are migrating back to making things in a more traditional manner,” says Sam Hecht, who co-founded the London-based design office Industrial Facility and has designed for Muji, the Japanese lifestyle store, since 2002.“新一代从东京和京都来的日本设计师纷纷回归到从前传统制造方式,”萨姆#8226;海奇特(Sam Hecht)说道。他在伦敦与人共同成立了名为工业设施(Industrial Facility)的设计室,该公司从2002年开始为日本生活品商店无印良品(Muji)做设计。“Japanese designers don’t make a distinction between things that are meant to be looked at and things that are meant to be used,” adds Hecht. “There is not simply a visual appreciation of craft, but a much deeper relationship with objects. Objects are often left slightly unfinished. For example, a dish might be glazed only in part, but this is important because it means that it’s not complete. The person using it, eating from it and cleaning it completes it. It’s not about perfection, it’s about function.”“日本设计师不对东西的外观和实用性作区别,”海奇特补充道。“不只是简单地在视觉上欣赏工艺品,而是与其有更深一层的关系。作品往往留在略未完成的阶段。例如,一个盘子可能只会在某些部分上釉,但这是很重要的,因为这意味着它并不完整。那些使用它、用它吃饭和清洗它的人才能使它变得完整。重点不是在于完美,而是在于功能。”Many of the designers who are adopting a traditional Japanese style have called upon the aesthetic philosophy of wabi-sabi, a nebulous term derived from centuries of Japanese spiritualism and culture. Leonard Koren, a design and aesthetics theorist, explains the concept as “a beauty of things imperfect, impermanent and incomplete.”许多采用日本传统风格的设计师都遵循“侘寂”(wabi-sabi)的审美哲学,一个来自几个世纪以来的日本精神和文化的朦胧术语。设计和美学理论家伦纳德#8226;科伦(Leonard Koren)解释说,这种概念是“东西有瑕疵、无常和不完整的美。”This focus on utility has been picked up by Native amp; Co, a new shop in Notting Hill, west London. Co-founders Sharon Hung and Chris Yoshiro Green import exquisitely crafted products from Japan, propagating the streamlined aesthetic and lack of embellishment for which Japanese design is famous.在伦敦西部诺丁山(Notting Hill)新开的Native amp; Co已经学会了这种把焦点集中于功用的作法。共同创始人洪沙伦(Sharon Hung)和克里斯四郎#8226;格林(Chris Yoshiro Green)从日本进口制作精美的产品,宣传日本以其流线型的美学和缺乏装饰而闻名的设计。“The project started by us sourcing products from Japanese workshops that have been making things in the same way for hundreds of years, ” says Hung. Included in their range are earthy ceramics by Katsuhiko Ogino and wooden products by Oji Masanori.“这个项目的供货方是数百年来一直以同样的方式制造作品的日本工坊,”洪说道。荻野克彦(Katsuhiko Ogino)的土制陶瓷和大治将典(Oji Masanori)的木制品都包括在他们的采购范围内。Elsewhere in Europe, designers are also drawing on Japanese design as inspiration. Architect-turned-product designer Thomas Griem released a new collection of rugs earlier this month, which have taken Japanese woodcuts as their starting point. “I was looking at ukiyo-e, at the geometry and the motif of the tree which kept appearing throughout the imagery. It has an elegance and an opulence that I liked,” he says.在欧洲其它地方,设计师也从日本设计得到灵感。原来是建筑师的产品设计师托马斯#8226;格里姆(Thomas Griem)前段时间发布了一个新系列的地毯,起点来自于日本的木刻版画。“我看着一幅浮世绘(ukiyo-e)、看着几何形状和充满了以树为主题的图案。我喜欢那幅画的优雅和丰富。”他说。Inspired by the trend for Japanese style, paint and wallpaper specialist Farrow amp; Ball recently released four new wallpaper designs inspired by traditional Japanese craftsmanship.从着迷于日本风格得到灵感,绘画和壁纸专家Farrow amp; Ball最近推出了四种受到日本传统工艺启发的壁纸设计。Textile designer Jennifer Shorto based her most recent designs on a book of swatches of early 20th-century men’s kimono fabrics. Inspired by Jun’ichiro Tanizaki’s 1933 essay on aesthetics, “In Praise of Shadows”, Shorto worked to maintain the element of wabi-sabithat she encountered in the originals. “I enlarged the designs and painted them on to the cloth to make them more dramatic,” she says, “but I chose to use raw linen to keep the humbleness of the cloth.”纺织品设计师詹尼弗#8226;肖托(Jennifer Shorto)根据一本20世纪早期男性和面料的色板书设计了她最新的作品。从谷崎润一郎(Junichiro Tanizaki)1933年的一篇美学文章《阴翳礼赞》(In Praise of Shadows)受到启发,肖托在她使用的原物料中努力保持侘寂的元素。“我放大了图案,将它们画在布料上使它们看起来更生动,”她说,“但我选择使用原始的亚麻布来保留布料的谦逊。”This idea of the “humble” quality of materials can also be seen in Freyja Sewell’s designs. Sewell, who lives in Japan, has designed lighting and furniture that reflects the urban lifestyle — her Hush chair is a response to finding peace and solitude in the Japanese capsule living culture. “Traditional Japanese culture has an ingrained respect for materials and objects, and perhaps the recent rise in the popularity of Japanese design is down to consumers desiring real value and sustainability from their purchases,” she says.这种“谦虚”材质的想法也可以在弗蕾娅#8226;休厄尔(Freyja Sewell)的设计里看到。居住在日本的休厄尔设计出反映城市生活方式的照明和家具——她的“嘘!”座椅是对日本胶囊生活文化里寻找和平和孤独的响应。“日本传统文化对材料和物品有种根深蒂固的尊重,也许最近流行起来的日本设计是因为消费者渴望买到真正有价值和可持续的商品。”她说。Working from her pottery in Stoke-on-Trent, Anglo-Japanese ceramic designer Reiko Kaneko fuses Japanese principles with centuries of British expertise in the production of porcelain. Kaneko recognises the power of collaboration in sharing and interpreting ideas, and has recently set up the Japan Store on her website, which sells ceramics made in Japanese workshops.在斯托克城(Stoke-on-Trent)的陶器厂,英籍日本人金子玲子(Reiko Kaneko)将日本元素与英国几个世纪以来在生产瓷器方面的专长相融合。金子意识到一起分享和诠释理念的力量,最近也在她的网站上设置了日本商店来销售制造于日本工场的陶瓷。“There is a phrase in Japanese which is mono-zukuri no nakama, which means the way makers look out for each other,” she says. “It is up to us to support smaller workshops.”“有一个日本短语叫‘产品制造的伙伴’(mono-zukuri no nakama),意思是制造商彼此互相照顾,”她说。“该由我们来持小型工场。London-based Emma Peascod has integrated Japanese craftsmanship into her decorative finishes for interior and architecture projects. In 2009 she spent a year learning how to make washi (Japanese paper) from master craftsmen in the city of Mino, central Japan.公司在伦敦的爱玛#8226;皮斯克(Emma Peascod)将日本工艺融入到她室内和建筑装饰的项目里。2009年,她花了一年的时间在日本中部的美浓市(Mino)向工匠大师学习如何制作和纸(washi)。Peascod combines the washi with the traditional gilding technique of verre églomisé to create shimmering finishes decorated with gold leaf, which can then be used for anything from tabletops to wall coverings.皮斯克将和纸与传统镀金技术镜像反绘(verre eglomise)结合,创造出装饰着金色叶子的闪亮抛光,可以用于从桌面到墙纸等任何表面。“One thing I noticed about the experience of working in Japan is how simple a workshop can be. The paper I use is made using an aluminium water trough, a silk screen, and a hose pipe with a homemade nozzle.”“我在日本工作时注意到的一个经验就是,一个工作室可以多么纯朴。我使用的纸是由一个铝制水槽、一个丝网和一条带有自制喷口的软管制作而成。” /201502/359194。