明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月09日 18:44:30
Science and Technology Animal obesity The fat cat cometh科技 动物肥胖 肥猫报到It is not just human beings that are getting fatter. Animals are, too不只人类正在变胖,动物亦然IN THEIR attempts to explain the global epidemic of obesity, researchers have often taken to fingering culprits beyond peoples direct control. It is now believed that increased levels of stress, climate change and even artificial light at night may contribute to expanding waistlines. However, if such factors affect humans, they ought, in principle, to have similarly nefarious effects on other creatures. This should hold especially true for species that are physiologically similar to people and live in proximity to them. Pet owners have long fretted that this may, indeed, be happening.在试图解释全球流行的肥胖时,研究人员往往指陈人们无法直接控制的元凶。人们现在认为,压力水平上升、气候变化、甚至连夜晚的人工照明都有助于扩大腰围。但是,如果这些因素影响人类,那么按理说它们对其它生物应该有同样的恶果。这种影响对那些在生理上与人类相似且靠近人群生活的物种应该尤其成真。宠物的主人们对此早就苦恼不已,的确这种影响有可能发生。Of course, anecdotal evidence carries little weight, so a group of researchers led by Yann Klimentidis, of the University of Alabama, decided to check whether animal obesity rates do in fact mirror the worrying trend among people. They published their findings this week in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.当然,道听途说不足为据,所以美国阿拉巴马大学的一组研究人员在扬?克利曼泰迪斯的领导下,决定核对核对动物的肥胖率是否跟人们的担忧趋势确实相符。他们在本周的《英国皇家学会会刊》上发表了他们的研究结果。Dr Klimentidis and his team set about their task by scouring online repositories of scientific papers, contacting fellow researchers and even petitioning pet-food companies for data on changes in animals bodyweights over the decades. They limited their search to mammals, whose bodies work much like humans do—and, specifically, to those mammals living with or around people in the rich world.克利曼泰迪丝士和他的小组着手完成任务,他们搜索网上的科学论文库、联系其它同道研究人员、甚至向宠物食品公司请阅近几十年来动物体重的变化数据。他们把搜索锁定在哺乳动物上,因为哺乳动物的身体跟人类的身体功能非常相似——而且特别把搜索锁定在那些富裕国家里与人共同生活或在人周边生活的哺乳动物上。The trawl threw up information on more than 20,000 animals from 24 distinct populations covering eight species. These included cats, dogs, mice, rats and several types of monkey. Some were bred in highly controlled research environments. Others lived in peoples homes or in the wild. None had their food intake artificially limited or, as with livestock, ramped up.这次搜罗从24个不同的群落中找出了八个物种2万余只动物的信息。这些物种包括猫、、小鼠、大鼠和几种猴。有些是在严格控制的研究环境下饲养的。其它的生活在人的家中或在野外生存。它们的食物摄入量均未人为限制或是象喂牲畜一样加料。For each population, Dr Klimentidis looked at the animals weight at an age corresponding to 35 human years. Middle adulthood was chosen to ensure the data were not fudged by the effects of either early development or old-age withering. Any animals that died within a year of this mid-life physical were also excluded.对于每个群落,克利曼泰迪斯士都调查了年纪相当于人类35岁的动物的体重。选择成年中期是为了确保数据既不受早期发育的影响也不受老年萎缩的影响而掺假。任何在这个中期体检年内死亡的动物也被排除。He then proceeded to calculate each populations average weight, as well as its obesity rate, for every decade of available data. The obesity rates were based on a bespoke indicator akin to the body-mass index that is used to gauge (roughly) whether a person is too rotund. This ploy permitted comparison between species in which weights have different meanings. (Nutritionists employ similar tricks to establish what is a healthy body-mass index for children in different age groups.)接着,他计算出每个群落的平均体重以及肥胖率,每十年取一个可用的数据。肥胖率的计算按预定的指标为基础上进行,预定指标类似于用来衡量(大约)一个人是否太圆的身体-质量指数。这项工作允许在体重意义不同的物种之间进行比较。(营养学家采用类似手法来确定不同年龄段儿童的健康身体质量指标是多少。)Subsequent number-crunching revealed a statistically significant increase in bodyweight in 11 of the 24 populations. The weights of the other 13 rose too, though not to an extent that was significant for any of the individual groups. Nevertheless, the fact that all of these insignificant changes were upward was, itself, statistically significant. Moreover, the obesity-rate indices followed a similar pattern. Dr Klimentidis reckons the odds of his data having come about by chance are about one in 10m for the weight gain and three in 1m for the rise in obesity.随后的数字处理揭示了24个群落中有11个体重显着增加。其它13个群落的体重也有增加,不过达不到对于任何个别群体来说都显著的程度。然而,这些微不足道的变化是向上增的这一事实本身就很显著。此外,肥胖率指数遵循了类似的模式。克利曼泰迪斯士估计,他的数据偶然出现的几率在体重增加方面大约是1000万分之一左右,在肥胖率上升方面大约是100万分之三。Most intriguingly, perhaps, the laboratory animals showed more pronounced gains than those living outside a lab. This is strange because the sorts of lab animals the researchers looked at tend to be given lots of food and left to nibble at leisure. This practice has not changed for decades. That the animals put on weight nonetheless suggests the phenomenon cannot be caused solely by pet owners appeasing their Garfields, or feral rats rummaging through refuse composed of ever larger quantities of calorie-rich processed food. Dr Klimentidis is unable to pinpoint any single mechanism that could account for his results. But this does not stop his data from lending exculpatory explanations for fat tummies more credence.或许最有趣的是,实验室动物比非实验室动物表现出更为明显的体重增加。这很奇怪,因为研究人员观察的各种实验室动物往往被给予大量食物,且让它们在闲暇时一点一点蚕食。这种做法几十年来都没有改变。尽管这样动物还在发胖,这说明发胖现象不可能是单由宠物的主人安抚他们的加菲猫引起的,或者单由野生鼠完全不吃大量富含高卡路里的加工食品引起的。克利曼泰迪斯士无法查明任何一种可以解释其研究结果的单一机制。但是,这并不妨碍借用他的数据对大腹便便作出开脱罪责的解释,而不是把罪责归于餐桌。 /201301/222532This is a story in which leading musicians are censored and jailed and a one time rival,Gilberto Gil, becomes Brazil’s first black government minister.这是一个头号音乐家遭受审查和监禁,而一次竞争对手,吉尔伯托·吉尔,成为巴西的第一位黑人政府部长的故事。And it starts with the music that dominates and defines this vast multi-racial state, Samba.它始于主导并定义了这个巨大多种族国家的音乐—桑巴。Samba is the best-known, most enduring style in Brazil.而桑巴无疑是巴西最著名、最持久的音乐风格。注:听力文本来源于普特201211/209564

Shiny and safe, the goal of New York itself.又闪亮又安全,这也是纽约本身的目标。Three decades ago, both the city and the subway shared the bad reputation: dirty, unsafe and no place to be.三十多年前,城市和地铁都享有着坏名声:肮脏、不安全、无人问津的地方。New York cleaned up its image partly by cleaning up the subway.通过清理地铁,纽约重新清理了它的形象。At the Coney Island Yard, they do more than keep the trains running, they keep the Big Apple polished.在康尼岛,他们不只是让火车运营,他们还给大苹果抛光。No job too small, no job too big, lifetime guarantee, how can you beat it? Send us these troubles.没有太小的工作,没有太大的工作,寿命保,你怎么还在犹豫?告诉我们你的麻烦吧。On the subway, keeping car safe is only half the equation.在地铁上,保持车辆只是工作的一半。The system has more than 2600 switches to move trains from one track to another and more than 11,000 signals to control train traffic.该系统具有2600多个开关使列车移动到另一轨道,超过11000个信号来控制列车交通。The equipment is older than most New Yorkers.该设备的岁数比大多数纽约人还老。Much of it was installed before 1940. All together, more than 13,000 chances for something to go fatally wrong. New York cant take that chance.很多都是安装于1940年以前。合在一起, 对于致命错误有超过13000次机会解决。但纽约不能抓住这个机遇。To sidetrack catastrophe, maintenance workers go looking for trouble every day.对于侧线的灾难,维修人员每一天都在寻找麻烦。To find it, the crew themselves must venture into harms way.为了发现它,小组人员必须自己冒着受到伤害的危险。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174328


  Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:My sister-in-law, ;Daisy,; has discovered the world of blogging. While I enjoy seeing photos and ing news about my brother, his wife and their children, Daisy has recently been posting unkind remarks about myparents.我的嫂嫂黛西喜欢上了客。虽然我很喜欢看一些关于我哥哥、我嫂嫂还有他们孩子的照片,也喜欢读一读他们的文章,但黛西最近却发布了对我父母不友好的言论。My parents have been generous and supportive of Daisy for over 10 years, and it hurts me to these comments. I understand some of her frustrations, but I dont understand her publicly slamming my parents withcruel comments.我的父母慷慨地持了黛西十多年。黛西的这些言论伤害了我。我知道她受到了一些挫折,但我不明白她为什么公开抨击我的父母。When I was first married, I learned to thank my mother-in-law for her advice and then do as I thought best. I have suggested this to Daisy, but she seems hostile to the idea. Should I confront her about her statements? Should I ask her to stop? Thankfully, my parents do not have a computer so they will never know about this. Is there anything I can do? - Blogging Blues在我的第一次婚姻里,我学会了感谢我的婆婆给我的建议,然后努力做我认为最好的。我也曾如此建议黛西,但她似乎对此抱有敌意。我应该怎样面对她的言论?我应该要求她停止这样做吗?值得庆幸的是,我的父母没有电脑,所以他们永远不会知道这些。我该怎么做呢? ——忧郁的主Dear Blogging:亲爱的主:Try talking to your brother. Tell him you enjoy the news and pictures of the family, but you think the nasty comments about the folks are unnecessary. Other family members are apparently ing this blog, whichreflects poorly on Daisy, and she ought to reconsider broadcasting her negative opinions. Other than that, all you can do is remove yourself from her mailing list, or enjoy the photographs and stop ing thecommentary.试着和你哥哥说说这件事。告诉他,你很享受关于这个家庭的文章和图片,但对亲人们不利的消息就不必再传扬了。显然,这个家庭的其他成员都可以看到这个客,这对黛西的形象不利,她应该再三斟酌是否应该宣扬她的这些负面意见。除此之外,你能做的就是把自己从她的邮箱发送名单中删除,或者只是欣赏一下照片,还有,不要再阅读那些了。201204/177420。


  Despite a tony address and priceless views, this one bedroom condo on Manhattan Seas side was not getting much traffic when it went on sale this summer. Things changed when the empty apartment got a digital makeover. There are now several offers close to the asking price over a million dollars, according to Broker Arehocarf, a house debt property.虽然地处繁华地段,周围风景秀丽,这间曼哈顿海边一室一厅的公寓在今年夏天却卖不出去。但当这间公寓有了电子装饰后,事情很快有了改观。房产公司的Broker Arehocarf表示,已经有几家买主给出了上百万的价格。The owner of this apartment doesnt live here. She is living in the Middle West right now, so for her to coordinate bringing furniture and the stage and meet with him and pick things out, it just, it becomes very very complicated. So this is a low cost but also sort of like a low hassle alternative.这间公寓的主人并不住在这里。她现在住在美国中西部,所以对她来说,千辛万苦地把家具搬上来给买家看,等卖出去了再几经周折地把家具搬走,实在是太麻烦了。因此,这间公寓价格低廉,但这间空空荡荡的房子也很难卖。So for example, the empty one bedroom looks quite small in this photo, but when furnished digitally, looks much more inviting. Huss Stand says web traffics up at least 20% on listings with virtual staging.因此我们就使用到了电子装饰。这间一室的公寓在照片上看上去很小,但当你装饰上电子家具的时候,这间公寓看上去就很吸引人了。Huss Stand表示,装饰后,这间公寓的网上浏览量提升了20%。We have sort of a module that the brokers can go in, and fill out, you know, whats her furniture they want, the clolor, accessories, wood panel, etc. And we have all different sorts of like, stylistic selections that we can choose from.我们有模块供地产经纪人选择,他想要什么样的家具,颜色,装饰物,木质门框等都可自由选择。我们有各种不同的模块可以选择。Real staging is expensive, often costing thousands of dollars. Companies like Virtual Staging Solutions.com offer their services for just a couple hundred dollars. And with the real estate market still suffering, business is growing, cofounder Denies Miler:真正要装饰一间公寓价格昂贵,通常会花费几千美金。像Solutions.com这样的公司提供虚拟装饰只要几百美金就行了。因此,尽管房地产市场疲软,但这里的房子还是卖得很好。虚拟装饰的创始人Denies Miler说到:Right now we actually start to getting into our developers. We are saving them literally thousands, because they dont have them stage all these apartments that they have in the large complexes, and we are saving them quite a bit dollars because we are showing living spaces whether it be for a single person or a family, we do every type of demographic.现在,我们的业务正在拓展中。事实上,我们为卖主节省了几千元,因为卖家不用将要卖的房子重新装修装饰,我们为卖家节省了金钱,同时很好地向买家展示了房子的生活空间,不管是单人的买家还是一家三口的买家,我们的虚拟装饰都能满足他们的要求。Virtual staging is still a relatively new tool for the real estate business, but if it continues to deliver results, it could become a standard way to make buyers feel more at home.虚拟装饰在房地产业中仍然是新兴手段。但如果虚拟装饰持续为房地产经纪人带来生意,它将成为让买家满意的必要流程。Bobbi Rebell Reuters.Bobbi Rebell,路透社消息。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/197232It was the Prussian Academy of Sciences.这将是普鲁士科学院院士。It was the entire world of physics that had said no, bearing down and saying we want you.整个世界的物理学都不同意,但他们仍然表示我们需要你的帮助。Einstein did not answer the offer.爱因斯坦没有答应这个提议。Einstein says why dont you just go and take a trip for the rest of the afternoon up the mountain.爱因斯坦说为什么下午你们不出去走走,去山里进行一次旅行。He said I will meet you at the train station when you come back.他说当你们回来的时候我会去火车站接你们。I will be carrying a bunch of flowers.我将带一束花。And if the flowers are red, Im coming to German;如果花是红色的,我就去德国;if the flowers are white, sorry though go, thanks for coming.如果花是白色的,对不起,谢谢你们的光临。Ive made the argument that Einstein delayed his answer to this question in part because he sort of wanted to leave with the pleasure of being so deeply sought after.我曾经议论过爱因斯坦会推迟对这个问题的回答,这在一定程度上是因为他想用快乐摆脱如此深的追求。But its certainly true that this was not simply a snapped decision.但这确实不是简单就可以下决定的。As he often does when he has a difficult problem to solve,他经常也有难以解决的问题,Einstein takes a long walk.爱因斯坦经常散步很久。Zurich was comfortable.苏黎世也很舒适。There was lots to love there, you know,这里也有他的许多牵挂,你知道,you dont just sort of walk away from there.你不想离开这里。His wife really wants to stay in Zurich.他的妻子很想呆在苏黎世。On the other hand, theyve offered him the greatest job imaginable.另一方面,他们已经给他安排了可以想象得到的伟大工作。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/178011


  Science and Technology Materials science Cracking a problem科技 材料科学 通过裂纹解决问题Another use for a fashionable, new material一种流行新材料的新用途LIKE all other human activities, science is subject to fads.像其它人类活动一样,科学是一个时尚主题。One of the latest is for graphene.最新的话题是关于石墨烯的。This wonder material—a form of carbon that comes in films a single atomic layer thick—won Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov the Nobel prize for physics last year.作为碳的一种形式,这种源自胶带操作的奇妙材料只有单原子层厚度,发明者安德烈·杰姆和克斯特亚·诺沃塞洛夫为此获得了去年的诺贝尔物理学奖。Because of its unusual electrical properties it has been touted as a way of making everything from touch screens to solar cells.由于石墨烯非同寻常的电特性,它被吹嘘为制造一切产品的新途径--从触摸屏到太阳能电池。Now a humbler use is being proposed.如今石墨烯的一种低层次应用被提出来。Another of graphenes qualities is that it is strong. That, suggests Erica Corral of the University of Arizona, makes it ideal for reinforcing ceramics.它的另一特性是机械强度高,因而被亚利桑那大学的埃里卡·科拉尔视为加强陶瓷材料硬度的一种理想材料。Engineers like ceramics because they can be heated without melting. Unlike metals and plastics, though, they are brittle.工程师喜欢陶瓷材料,因为它们加热时不会融化,这点不像金属和塑料,尽管它们是脆的。Because they crack easily, using them in places that are exposed to a lot of physical punishment is difficult.因为陶瓷材料易碎,因此将其用于高物理强度的场合非常困难。But a paper just published in the American Chemical Societys journal, Nano, by Dr Corral and her colleagues, suggests a sprinkling of graphene may deal with that.但在美国化学协会杂志刚发表的一篇论文《纳米》中,科拉尔士和她的同事们认为,加入少许石墨烯也许就能解决这个问题。The ceramic they experimented with was silicon nitride, a material much admired in the aerospace industry.她们测试的陶瓷材料是氮化硅--一种在太空工业中饱受赞誉的材料。Components are made by sintering it in powder form in a mould, at 1,000oC, for several hours.这些部件是将氮化硅粉末置于模具中,处于1000摄氏度高温下烧制数小时而成。Unfortunately, graphene disintegrates above 600oC, so the team had to think of a clever way of mixing the two materials.不幸的是,温度高于600摄氏度,石墨烯就碎裂,因此研究团队必须想出一种巧妙办法将两种材料融合在一起。Their solution was to take advantage of graphenes electrical conductivity, by running a current through the mixture. This generated a temperature of 1,650oC—more than enough to sinter the silicon nitride.解决办法就是利用石墨烯的导电特性,将电流通过混合物,产生的1650摄氏度的高温足以烧结氮化硅,而石墨烯也没有碎裂。The graphene, however, did not break down.其原理尚未完全弄清楚。Why, is not entirely clear. But rapid electrical heating did not seem to affect it in the way that slower oven heating would.但与通过熔炉缓慢加热不同,快速电加热对石墨烯看起来没有什么影响。The result was a composite that was able to withstand twice as much pressure as unalloyed silicon nitride.和纯氮化硅相比,其合成物能经受的压力强度翻倍。When the team examined what they had done under a microscope, they found that the graphene had wrapped itself around the silicon-nitride grains, forming continuous walls.当研究团队在显微镜下观察合成物时,他们发现石墨烯包裹在氮化硅颗粒周围,形成了连续的;壁;。When they looked at samples that they had whacked hard enough to come close to cracking, they found that these walls were encouraging the cracks to sp in three dimensions—in contrast with the two-dimensional pattern usually seen in silicon nitride.当检查这些不断敲击而近乎开裂的样品时,他们发现这些;壁;有助于裂纹向三个维度上延伸,和通常在氮化硅上观察到的;二维裂解模式;形成了对比。Dr Corral suspects that extending cracking into the third dimension dissipates the energy faster and stops the fault sping.科拉尔士推测,那种裂纹扩展为三个维度使能量扩散的更快,同时制止了缺陷的扩展。A cracking idea, as it were.通过三维裂纹来增强陶瓷材料强度,真是一个绝妙的点子! /201212/214745




  Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:My husband and I have been married for three years, and we both teach at the same high school. Last semester, a new female teacher took quite a liking to my husband, who is 20 years her senior. They started meeting each other a few times a week, but they were not discreet and were soon the talk of both the faculty and students.我和丈夫结婚已经三年了,我们都在同一所高中任教。上个学期,一个新来的女教师迷上了我的丈夫。他比她大二十岁。他们开始一个星期见几次面。他们露出了马脚,很快就被其他教师和学生指指点点。I cannot begin to describe the pain, humiliation and betrayal. I believe they stopped contacting each other over the summer, but school has started up again. There is no way our marriage can survive this interference, but I wholeheartedly believe we can get past this if she is not in the picture.我无法描述我的痛苦、羞辱和背叛感。我相信他们在暑假时停止了联系,但开学之后又好上了。有没有办法让我们的婚姻持续下去?我完全相信,如果不是她的话,我们肯定能够渡过难关。Being a new teacher, she has no job protection. Should I go to the administration, expose the affair and get her fired? - Not Teachers Pet作为一个新老师,她没有就业保障。我应该去管理部门揭露她,炒她的鱿鱼吗?;;不被老师喜欢的人Dear Not:亲爱的;不被老师喜欢的人;:We hope you are not blaming this young woman entirely for the affair. Your husband made the decision to cheat and acted on it. You can give him the choice of reporting the affair to the administration, taking a leave of absence or finding another position. Either way, please get some counselling because you have a lot of trust to rebuild, regardless of what happens to this woman.希望你不要把责任完全推到这个年轻女子身上。你的丈夫也担有欺骗和出轨的责任。你可以告诉你的丈夫,要么告诉管理部门,要么休一段时间的假,要么另寻一份工作,让他任选其一。无论选择哪种方式,你都需要接受一些咨询,因为不论这个女人发生了什么事,你还希望重建你们的婚姻。201203/174834

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