时间:2017年12月16日 20:49:49

Rice had seen the same thing in Iceland, one of the few places on Earth with similarities to Mars. It too is extremely cold, and most of the water is frozen into glaciers. And also like Mars, buried underground, are massive volcanoes. This powerful combination has shaped the entire landscape. When a volcano erupts, lakes of steaming melt water form high up on top of the glacier until the enormous weight of water forces its way down, bursting out from the base of the glacier. These are the biggest floods on Earth, a surging wall of water stretching for kilometers. In their wake they leave vast planes littered with boulders. To a geologist these boulder fields contain unmistakable evidence of the floodwaters that ripped through here. Okay, well this is really a classic textbook example, these two large boulders here. The size of them indicates this was an enormous flood that deposited these features, but also if you look at their geometry, these boulders are kind of dipping back in this direction. This has given us information about the path that floodwaters took that deposited these boulders. The floodwaters were going in this direction when these rocks were deposited. Now there is other interesting things in the scene here. For instance, notice some of these smaller rocks are very well rounded, and these little nicked corners of these boulders here, these are kind of percussion marks and these are produced in a water, highly turbulent water column when the boulders and rocks are basically slamming into one another, knocking the corners off. These things all grouped together just tell you there’s no doubt this was a catastrophic flood deposit. The pictures from Mars showed the rocks in exactly the same pattern as on Iceland. Here were the slanting boulders lined up by the floodwaters. And the cameras on the rover provided detailed views of the individual rocks, with their telltale chipped edges. It seemed that the vast Martian channels had been carved by enormous floods. It was final confirmation that Mars had once been warm and wet like the Earth, and that meant that there really was every chance for life to have evolved there.deposit:(动词)to lay down or leave behind by a natural process(名词)Something deposited, especially by a natural process, as:a: Geology. A concentration of mineral matter or sediment in a layer, vein, or pocketb: Physiology. An accumulation of organic or inorganic material, such as a lipid or mineral, in a body tissue, structure, or fluid.c: A sediment or precipitate that has settled out of a solution.200809/48387

South Korea Says North's Nuclear Compromise May Be Near韩国就北韩核问题提出妥协方案 South Korean officials are suggesting a compromise aimed at reviving efforts to get rid of North Korea's nuclear weapons may not be far off. The ed States and North Korea have been negotiating intensively on a means of confirming the accuracy of the nuclear declaration Pyongyang made earlier this year. The potential breakthrough comes at a moment of brinksmanship by the North.韩国官员提出妥协性方案,目的是不让恢复解除北韩核武器的努力落空。美国和北韩一直在进行密集的谈判,以核实北韩今年早些时候公开的核活动清单的准确性。在北韩采取边缘外交政策的同时,这个问题有可能取得突破。South Korean Foreign Minister Yu Myung-hwan told reporters in Seoul Friday the ed States will probably announce soon whether it intends to remove North Korea from a State Department list of nations suspected of sponsoring terrorism.韩国外长柳明桓星期五在首尔对记者说,美国有可能很快宣布是否把北韩从美国国务院涉嫌持恐怖主义国家的名单上删除。Washington promised last year to take the North off that list, as part of a broader international deal that committed Pyongyang to declare and disable its main nuclear programs.华盛顿去年承诺把北韩从这个名单上除名,作为一项广泛的国际协议的一部分。根据这项协议,平壤宣布废弃其主要的核设施。President Bush delayed the scheduled removal in August, because North Korea refused to agree on steps for verifying the declaration it submitted earlier in the year was accurate. The North responded by ejecting international inspectors from the reprocessing facility at its main nuclear plant in Yongbyon. The ed Nations said Friday Pyongyang had informed inspectors they will now be denied access to any part of the Yongbyon complex. North Korea threatened earlier this month to resume deriving material useable for weapons from spent nuclear fuel.今年8月,布什总统推迟了原定的除名计划,因为北韩不同意采取措施,核实它今年早些时候提交的核清单是准确的。对此,北韩作出的回应是把国际核查员从它在宁边的主要核工厂驱赶出去。联合国星期五表示,平壤通知核查人员,他们现在不得进入宁边设施的任何地方。本月早些时候,北韩还威胁将恢复从废弃的核燃料中提取制造武器所需的材料。The South's Minister Yu says diplomacy may produce some movement on the stalemate soon.韩国外长柳明桓表示,外交手段对解决目前的僵持局面有可能起到某种促进作用。He says the US government is expected to make a decision on the terrorism list in the near future, and that discussions on a verification protocol are still under way.柳明桓说,美国政府预计在不久的将来会决定是否把北韩从涉嫌持恐怖主义国家的名单上除名,而核实核清单的讨论仍在进行之中。Yu pointed out that even though international inspectors have been denied access to Yongbyon, they are still being housed in North Korean dormitories near the complex and not expelled from the country. He says a compromise deal would focus narrowly on the North's plutonium-related nuclear activities.柳明桓指出,尽管国际核查员被拒绝进入宁边核工厂,但是他们仍然住在靠近核工厂附近的宿舍里,并没有被赶出北韩。他说,妥协性协议的涉及面很窄,将主要集中在北韩与金属钸有关的核活动上面。He says other issues, particularly that of a suspected North Korean uranium enrichment program, will be handled later on, as it is impossible to deal with every issue at once.他说,其它议题,特别是北韩涉嫌提炼浓缩铀的计划将在以后处理,因为一次不可能解决所有的问题。Washington's chief envoy on the nuclear issue, Assistant Secretary of State Christopher Hill, met with senior North Korean officials last week in Pyongyang and is still conferring with his superiors in Washington. The Bush administration has not made any substantial details of the latest negotiations public.华盛顿核武器谈判特使,助理国务卿希尔上个星期同北韩官员在平壤举行了会晤,他仍在和华盛顿的上级进行商议。布什政府还没有把最新几轮谈判的实质性细节公布于众。Dan Pinkston, a Seoul-based analyst with the International Crisis Group, speculates Washington and Pyongyang may soon reach a verification compromise.平克斯顿是“国际危机组织”驻首尔的分析人士。他推测,华盛顿和平壤很快会就核实核清单的问题达成一项妥协性协议。"And that gets very technical and very detailed as far as environmental samples, and when and where they can take those samples, access to individual scientists and engineers for interviews, and records, and which kind of sites are available," Pinkston said. "And the technical people will have to work that out, and I'm sure there's been some lengthy discussions about that."“这是一个技术性很强的问题,而且就环境样品而言,内容也非常繁琐,例如什么时候以及在什么地方可以得到这些样片,能否接触到科学家和工程师本人进行访问并查看记录,以及哪一类设施可以接受核查等。这些都是技术人员要解决的问题。我相信,双方已经就这些问题进行了长时间的谈判。”Pinkston believes it makes sense to delay issues unrelated to North Korea's plutonium programs like the one at Yongbyon. He says other matters can be handled after next month's U.S. presidential election."Wrapping up this second phase, disablement, would be a positive step - and we could move toward the dismantlement phase with the new administration in the U.S.," he said.North Korea conducted a nuclear test explosion in 2006. Several international media reports have reported possible suspicious activity at the site of that test, suggesting Pyongyang may be planning a followup.北韩在2006年进行过一次核试验。几家国际媒体的报道暗示,平壤有可能计划再进行一次核试验,因为那个试验场地发现有可疑活动。200810/52538

I am at the very center of the great white continent, Antarctica. The South Pole is about half a mile away. For a thousand miles, in all directions, there is nothing but ice. And, in the whole of this continent, which is one and a half times the size of the ed States and larger than Europe, there is a year-round population of no more than 800 people. This is the loneliest and the coldest place on earth, the place that is most hostile to life. And yet, in one or two places, it is astonishingly rich. Penguins come here by the million and endure temperatures of minus 70 degrees centigrade and winds of 120 miles an hour. Other birds fly right to the heart of the continent, even though they have to dig away snow in order to find a place to nest . And here is the nursery for over half the world's seals. Antarctica is remote from all other continents, surrounded by the vast southern ocean and smothered by a blanket of ice so immense that it contains over three quarters of the world's freshwater. All life in the Antarctic is dominated by the ice. All but 2% of the continent is covered by it. Its very whiteness reflects back what little heat there is in the sun's feeble rays. And snow, when it falls, remains permanently frozen. So that now, after accumulating for millions of years, it has formed this gigantic ice cap and the ice beneath my feet is three miles thick. Submerged beneath it are mountain ranges as high as the Alps, only their summits project through it.words and expressionsfeeble: 微弱的, 薄弱的project :To extend forward or out; jut out:突出200808/46904

Indian Government Wins Confidence Vote印度政府赢得议会信任投票  India's Congress-Party led coalition government has won a confidence vote, paving the way for it to go ahead with a civilian nuclear deal with the ed States. But the vote was interrupted by allegations that government supporters had bribed lawmakers to win the vote. 印度以国大党为首的联合政府赢得印度议会信任投票,从而铺平了和美国进行民用核技术合作的道路。不过,投票因出现有关政府持者向议员行贿争取选票的指控而中断。"The Result of the division is Ayes 275, Noes 256, Ayes have it, Ayes have it." 印度议会议长宣布:“投票结果,赞成票275票,反对票256票, 赞成票获胜。赞成票获胜。” At the end of a raucous two-day debate, the government won the confidence vote Tuesday by a wider than expected margin. It got the support of 275 lawmakers - 19 more than the opposition, and many more than most had expected. Ten lawmakers abstained from voting. The confidence vote was called after communist parties pulled back support from the government, saying they would not allow it to proceed with a civilian nuclear deal with Washington that would give India access to global nuclear commerce. 这次信任投票是印度共产党收回对联合政府的持后进行的。印度共产党表示,他们不允许印度政府和华盛顿达成一项有关民用核技术的协议,这个协议可以使印度进入全球核贸易。A happy Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said he had won a convincing victory. He also indicated that he is now y to press ahead with the nuclear deal.  印度总理辛格高兴地说,他赢得了令人信的胜利。他还表示,他现在准备推进这项核交易。"This will send a message to the world at large that India's head and heart is sound, that India is prepared to take its place in the comity of nations," said Manmohan Singh. 辛格说:“这将向全世界各国传递一个讯息,那就是印度的头脑和心脏是健全的,印度准备加入世界各国的行列。”But the government's victory was marred by allegations of vote buying. 不过,印度政府的胜利由于出现贿选的指控而失色。Lawmakers of the opposition Bharatiya Janata Party brought bags stuffed with bundles of cash into parliament mid-way through the debate, and waved the money in the air claiming they were paid bribes by a government ally. 反对党人民党在议会辩论的过程中,拿出了一些装有成叠现金的袋子,并且在空中挥舞著这些钞票,声称这些钱是政府的盟友行贿的赃款。Parliament was thrown into confusion as opposition lawmakers demanded the prime minister's resignation. They did not allow him to make a speech in parliament. 在野党议员要求印度总理辞职,议会陷入混乱。在野党议员不准总理在议会发表讲话。The Congress Party says it has won a clean victory, and the allegations of bribing lawmakers were deliberately planted by their opponents because they were set to lose the vote. 国大党声称他们获得了明确无误的胜利。国大党还声称有关行贿的指控是因为反对党知道他们会在选举中失败从而有意给对方栽赃。For days, New Delhi has swirled with reports the Congress Party and the opposition have been offering hefty bribes and other political favors to lawmakers to win their support.  几天以来,新德里一直风传国大党和反对党分别付巨额贿赂以及其他方面的政治好处给议员,争取议员的持。The nuclear pact with the ed States was at the heart of the two-day debate that preceded the vote. Government supporters defended the deal, saying the country desperately needs alternative sources of energy to help it overcome the huge shortfall facing the nation. 在投票之前,印度和美国签订的民用核能条约是两天来议会辩论的焦点。政府持者为这项条约辩护说,印度迫切需要替代能源来源,从而帮助印度克它面临的庞大能源短缺。Opponents said the deal will bring India under greater influence of the ed States, and compromise the country's nuclear weapons program. 反对者表示,这一交易将使印度置于美国的更大影响之下,并且让印度的核武器计划受阻。The nuclear deal still has to be approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the U.S. Congress. India is barred from getting nuclear technology because it has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. 民用核技术协议仍然需要国际原子能机构、核供应国集团和美国国会的批准。由于印度没有签署《核不扩散条约》 ,印度被禁止获得核技术。200807/44626

Wild Europe - Genesis 肇始之初- 4 This was no ordinary forest. What looked like trees were in fact giant ferns, horsetails and club mosses, the fossils of which have been exquisitely preserved in this Scottish park. They offer a glimpse of the botanic wonders that once filled Europe's ancient forests. These club mosses grew a massive 13 meters tall. Long before birds appeared on the planet, these Carboniferous forests would have echoed to a very different dawn chorus. Predatory dragonflies were common, and some were absolutely huge. This one, Meganeura, was the size of a hawk, with a wingspan of over 60 centimeters. The forest floor was a bug's world too. Fossil footprints of a millipede show that it was nearly 2 meters long. Over 800 species of cockroach scurried through the ancient undergrowth. And these were preyed on by other giants like scorpions. Some were over 70 centimeters long with a sting to match. These swampy forests were also roamed by the very first land vertebrates: amphibians.The Carboniferous era was to play a pivotal role in European history. Its 300 million-year-old legacy would eventually revolutionize a modern world. This was the time of great tectonic activity. As the land repeatedly subsided, seas flooded over these great coastal forests. Ravaged by monsoon storms, fallen trees became buried by layers of sand, then mud. Over millions of years, the buildup of sediments compressed this vegetation into this: coal.words and expressionsfern:a green plant with long stems, feathery leaves and no flowers蕨类植物club moss:石松dawn chorus:the singing of birds together, which happens just before dawn清晨时的鸟叫声millipede:a small creature with a long cylindrical body consisting of many parts, each part having two pairs of legs马陆;千足虫;倍足纲节动物undergrowth:a mass of bushes, small trees and plants growing under the trees of a wood or forest:下层丛林;矮树丛,灌木丛scorpion:a small insect-like creature which lives in hot dry areas of the world and has a long body and a curved tail with a poisonous sting蝎子to match (在数量和质量上)相当的, 相配的, 调和的swampy:describes land that is soft and very wet沼泽的, 沼泽多的, 湿地的, 松软的vertebrate:an animal that has a spine脊椎动物amphibian:an animal, such as a frog, which lives both on land and in water but must lay its eggs in water两栖动物Carboniferous:relating to the period of Earth's history during which coal was formed石炭纪pivotal:central and important枢轴的, 关键的tectonic:〈地〉结构上的subside: If a building, land or water subsides, it goes down to a lower level:(土地)下 陷,凹陷monsoon :the season of heavy rain during the summer in hot Asian countries:季候风vegetation: plants in general or plants which are found in a particular area:[植]植被, (总称)植物、草木,200809/47306

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