明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月21日 13:02:54
The chemistry between Jack Ma, the hyperkinetic Chinese billionaire, and Michael Evans, whose friends tend to describe as “low key” and “Canadian”, is unlikely to be the main reason the two struck up a friendship 10 years ago.一个是精力旺盛的中国富豪马云(Jack Ma),一个是常被友人形容为“低调”和“加拿大人”的迈克尔埃文斯(Michael Evans),这二人之间的化学反应不太可能是他们十年前建立友谊的主要原因。Mr Evans, an Olympic gold medallist in rowing and a former Wall Street executive, was running Goldman Sachs’ Asia operations and the two met for one reason: money. Goldman co-ordinated the initial public offering of Alibaba.com, Mr Ma’s first publicly listed company, in Hong Kong.埃文斯是一名前华尔街高管,曾获得奥运会皮划艇项目的金牌,他在管理高盛(Goldman Sachs)亚洲业务时结识了马云,而促成他们相识的原因是——钱。当时高盛负责协调阿里巴巴网络(Alibaba.com)在香港的首次公开发行(IPO),这是马云的首家上市公司。Fast forward 10 years and this week Mr Evans, who stepped down from Goldman in 2014 after 21 years, was hired by Mr Ma to become Alibaba’s president in charge of its international operations.一晃十年过去。2014年,在高盛工作了21年的埃文斯宣布辞职,本周他被马云聘为阿里巴巴总裁,负责该集团国际业务。“We are turning to a proven international leader who has been connecting China and the rest of the world for most of his career,” said Mr Ma.马云表示:“我们将迎来一位久经考验的国际化领导者,他的大部分职业生涯都致力于将中国与世界其他地区连接起来。”Joining Goldman in 1993 and becoming partner in 1994, Mr Evans was originally brought to China in 2004 by Hank Paulson, the bank’s chief executive at the time and who went on to become Treasury secretary in 2006 and has maintained a keen interest in Sino-US relation.埃文斯于1993年加入高盛,1994年就成为合伙人。2004年,在高盛当时的首席执行官汉克保尔森(Hank Paulson)带领下,埃文斯第一次来到中国。保尔森于2006年成为美国财政部长,对中美关系一直保有浓厚的兴趣。In fact, Mr Evans is the second protégé of Mr Paulson’s to be snapped up by Alibaba — Jim Wilkinson, the group’s senior vice-president for corporate affairs was Mr Paulson’s chief of staff at the Treasury.事实上,埃文斯是保尔森被阿里巴巴挖走的第二个门生。阿里巴巴负责企业事务的资深副总裁吉姆威尔金森(Jim Wilkinson)曾是保尔森在财政部的幕僚长。Lucas van Praag, a former colleague at Goldman who now runs the public relations company Fitzroy Communications, says Mr Evans was a “classic Goldman person, very driven, very focused, very determined”.埃文斯的前高盛同事、现在运营着公关公司Fitzroy Communications的卢卡斯范普拉格(Lucas van Praag)说,埃文斯是一个“典型的高盛人,非常有干劲,非常专注,非常坚定。”But “if he wanted a new chapter in his business life, it wasn’t going to be at Goldman Sachs”, he adds.但是“如果他想开启商业生涯的新篇章,就不能在高盛”,他补充道。Based in Hong Kong from 2004, Mr Evans helped many of China’s biggest companies go public and became a key conduit to US capital markets for a new generation of Chinese entrepreneurs.埃文斯从2004年起驻香港工作,帮助多家中国大企业上市,并成为中国新一代企业家进入美国资本市场的重要渠道。“Mike has deep experience with China and played an instrumental role in the first wave of landmark Chinese listings such as China Mobile and PetroChina,” says Fred Hu, chairman of investment firm Primavera Capital and a former Goldman economist in China.前高盛中国经济学家、投资公司春华资本(Primavera Capital)的主席胡祖六(Fred Hu)表示:“迈克尔有着丰富的对华经验,而且在中国移动(China Mobile)和中国石油(PetroChina)等中国企业里程碑式的首轮上市潮中发挥了重要作用。”When he returned to New York in 2011, Mr Evans was seen as a possible successor to Lloyd Blankfein, Goldman’s chief executive, when the company was still reeling from the financial crisis.2011年埃文斯返回纽约时,被视为高盛首席执行官劳埃德贝兰克梵(Lloyd Blankfein)的可能接班人,当时这家公司仍处于金融危机的影响中。“That’s not a perception that he fought to have people recognise, but he certainly didn’t dissuade people from thinking it,” says one former colleague. “Mike was there as a very strong potential heir apparent, to a throne that was not likely to be given up.”埃文斯的一位前任同事表示:“他并没有力求让人们认识到这种可能性,但他肯定也没有阻止人们这么想。当时迈克尔显然是一个非常强有力的可能继任者,但他要继承的是一个不太可能被放手的王位。”Mr Blankfein stayed on and Mr Evans eventually left at the end of 2013.贝兰克梵依然留任,而埃文斯最终在2013年底离开。“A number of people thought he’d have gone sooner,” says one former colleague.一位前同事表示:“很多人以为他会更早离开。”Mr Evans was almost immediately scoped by Alibaba for an independent board seat which he took up last September.埃文斯离开高盛后,阿里巴巴几乎立即向他提供了成为独立董事的机会,去年9月他接受了这一职位。In his new post, he will be the point man in persuading big US brands to open ecommerce stores on Alibaba platforms. He will also be charged with selling Alibaba to Wall Street as the stock price, which sailed to a high of 9 in November after listing at in September, dipped below this week.升任阿里巴巴总裁后,埃文斯将成为说美国大品牌在阿里巴巴平台上开设电商店铺的牵头人。他还将负责向华尔街兜售阿里巴巴的股票。本周阿里巴巴的股价跌破80美元,自去年9月以每股68美元的价格上市后,其股价在去年11月冲到过119美元高点。“He’s exactly what Alibaba needs,” says Mr Van Praag. “I cant imagine that he was hired for his ability to turn around the stock price, but I think that his understanding of what investors want and how they think about opportunities is probably critical.”范普拉格说:“他正是阿里巴巴需要的人才。我不觉得他之所以获得聘用,是因为他拥有扭转股价的能力。但我认为他知道投资者想要什么,以及他们对机会的看法,这一点可能才是关键。” /201508/392308

  A little-noticed agreement, signed on the sidelines of October’s Sino-German “joint cabinet” summit could help determine the shape of internet connectivity and autonomous driving – where vehicles do some of the thinking – in the world’s largest car market.今年10月在中德“联合内阁”峰会间隙签署的一份不为人注意的协议,可能会帮助确定全球最大汽车市场车联网与无人驾驶的形态——在这种新形态中,部分思考工作将由汽车来承担。Deutsche Telekom, which agreed to build a car network with state-owned China Mobile, also hopes the deal will open a backdoor on to a previously closed market, illustrating the potential opportunities stemming from advances in connected cars.德国电信(Deutsche Telekom)同意与中国国企中国移动(China Mobile)合建一个汽车网络。德国电信还希望,该协议能为一个此前封闭的市场开一扇后门,展现出车联网技术进步带来的潜在机遇。The two companies will marry China Mobile’s nationwide 4G network to an operating system Deutsche Telekom currently uses for 2m German vehicles. China Mobile, the world’s largest cellular company, will have built the world’s biggest 4G network, with 500,000 base stations and 50m subscribers, by the end of this year.这两家公司将把中国移动覆盖全国的4G网络与200万辆德国汽车目前所用的德国电信操作系统结合起来。作为全球最大的移动电话公司,中国移动到今年底将建成全球最大的4G网络,届时将拥有50万座基站和5000万用户。Liu Xin, head of China Mobile’s data division, says Deutsche Telekom’s technology has been tested in the field, while his company is “confident that sometime early next year we’re going to reach 1m [4G base stations]”.中国移动数据部总经理刘昕表示,德国电信在该领域的技术已得到验,而他的公司“有信心在明年早些时候建成100万座(4G基站)”。Internet connectivity in cars is becoming more common globally. Deutsche Telekom and China Mobile hope their 50-50 joint venture will become a platform, like Apple’s iOS or Google’s Android operating systems, which third-party application developers can build on.车联网在全球变得越来越普及。德国电信和中国移动希望,它们对半出资组建的合资企业,能发展为一个像苹果(Apple) iOS或谷歌(Google) Android操作系统那样的平台——第三方应用开发者可以该平台为基础搞进一步的开发。“Based on our infrastructure you can build entertainment, TV, insurance and repair services,” says Horst Leonberger, senior vice-president of the German company’s T-Systems division, responsible for in-car connectivity. While the system would allow other companies to develop apps, the two partners would hope to take a proportion of any transaction costs made over their network.德国电信旗下T-Systems负责车联网的高级副总裁霍斯特#8226;莱昂贝格尔(Horst Leonberger)表示:“以我们的基础设施为基础,你可以开发、电视、保险和维修务。”尽管该系统将允许其他公司开发应用,但德国电信和中国移动肯定希望从在它们网络上实现的销售收入中得到分成。They also want cars to talk to other cars through their operating system. Mr Leonberger says that if enough vehicles, were “meshed” together Chinese drivers could avoid jams in the country’s notoriously congested cities. He reckons that 10 per cent of cars need to join, “because then you can really use algorithms to predict traffic flows”.这两家公司还希望汽车与汽车之间能够通过它们的操作系统实现“对话”。莱昂贝格尔表示,如果有足够多的汽车实现互联,中国的驾车者就能避免在该国出了名拥堵的城市中堵车。据他估计,需要有10%的汽车实现互联,“因为届时你就可以用算法来预测交通流量”。There are currently about 180m passenger vehicles on China’s roads with about 20m being added every year.中国目前的乘用车约有1.8亿辆,而且每年还会增加约2000万辆。“If you are driving a Volkswagen and I am driving a Mercedes, I would like to know when you are braking,” Mr Leonberger says. “Either the industry must standardise the exchange of data, which would take a lot of time, or we establish an open system that can. That is the role we would like to establish with this joint venture.”莱昂贝格尔表示:“如果你开着一辆大众(Volkswagen)、我开着一辆梅赛德斯(Mercedes),我希望知道你何时会刹车。要么汽车业必须实现数据交换的标准化——那将需要大量时间——要么我们建立起一个能做到这一点的开放系统。我们组建这家合资企业就是希望建立起这样的系统。”A more distant prize is the ultimate creation of a network that will allow cars to drive themselves, one that is also being pursued by Google.更长远的目标是,最终建立起一个撑无人驾驶的网络——这也是谷歌正在致力做的事情。Competition to build a network that could one day enable cars to drive themselves in the world’s largest car market will be intense. “It’s a wide-open market,” says Mr Liu. “A lot of companies are attracted to the connected car business and all have their own view of how it is going to develop.”有关各方将展开激烈的竞争,以求在全球最大汽车市场建立起一个有朝一日能撑无人驾驶的网络。刘昕表示:“这是一个完全开放的市场。很多公司都对车联网业务感兴趣,它们对该业务将如何发展都有自己的看法。”“The main competitor is Google,” says Mr Leonberger. “That’s the real threat – if they can get access to enough cars. If the car manufacturers don’t do anything or don’t co-operate, then Google will win. They have aly the Android platform and the biggest cloud-sourcing community out there.”莱昂贝格尔表示:“主要竞争对手是谷歌。这是真正的威胁,如果他们能够接入足够多汽车的话。假如汽车制造商什么也不做、或者不进行合作,那么谷歌就会成为赢家。在这方面,他们已经拥有了Android平台和最大的云包(cloud-sourcing)社区。”However, Google faces big obstacles in China. In 2010, the company abandoned the country’s internet search market after deciding its famous “do no evil” ethos was incompatible with Beijing’s censorship regime.然而,谷歌在中国面临巨大障碍。2010年,谷歌放弃了中国内地的互联网搜索市场,原因是该公司认定其著名的“不作恶”(do no evil)原则与中国政府的审查制度不相容。China-based internet users are redirected to Google’s Hong Kong search engine, which is routinely blocked by Chinese censors, as are the California company’s Gmail services. Both can only be accessed via virtual private network (VPN) tools.中国内地互联网用户被重定向至谷歌在香港的搜索引擎,该网站经常被中国审查机关屏蔽,就像这家加州公司的Gmail务一样。目前,中国内地互联网用户只有借助虚拟专用网(VPN)工具才能使用这两项务。The Chinese authorities would certainly prefer a joint venture involving the country’s largest mobile operator to pioneer future car-to-car networks and autonomous driving.中国政府肯定更希望由中国最大的移动通信运营商来组建一家合资企业,率先发展属于未来的车联网和无人驾驶技术。“We have to obey government laws and regulations,” says Mr Liu, a US-educated former IBM executive, when he is asked if the joint venture’s operating system will offer VPN services so bored teenagers in the back can access YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and other sites routinely blocked by government censors.在被问及该合资企业的操作系统是否将提供VPN务(这样,坐在汽车后座无事可干的青少年就可访问YouTube、Facebook、Twitter等常被中国政府审查机关屏蔽的网站)时,在美国受过教育、曾任IBM高管的刘昕表示:“我们必须遵守政府法律法规。“By doing that, I don’t think we’re going to reduce our ability to compete.”“我不认为这么做会削弱我们的竞争力。”It is no accident that China Mobile has decided to partner with Deutsche Telekom rather than, say, a US company such as ATamp;T.中国移动决定与德国电信合作,而不是与ATamp;T等美国企业合作,这绝非偶然。Germany is China’s closest western partner and both countries share a common disgust with the extensive US surveillance activities unveiled by Edward Snowden, the fugitive former US intelligence contractor.德国是中国最亲密的西方合作伙伴,两国都对美国的大规模监听活动感到厌恶。这些监听活动是由目前仍亡命天涯的前美国情报机构承包商爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)曝光的。The joint venture also gives Deutsche Telekom unique entry to a telecoms market – the world’s biggest – where foreign investors are effectively barred from offering fixed-line and mobile services, while being limited to 50 per cent stakes in companies providing value-added services.该合资公司还将让德国电信获得一个特别通道,来进入这个全球最大的电信市场——在中国电信市场,外国投资者实际上不准提供固话和移动电话务,而提供增值务的企业,外资持股比例也被限定为不得超过50%。It was always unlikely that such an opportunity would be extended to a US or UK telecoms operator.这种机会似乎永远不太可能提供给美国或英国电信运营商。 /201411/345077



  I’m sitting in Sumon Pal’s office in Boston’s Back Bay, and while fixing two small electrodes to my head with a light adhesive—one to my temple, another to the back of my neck—he’s explaining what the next 16 minutes should feel like. Most users feel reduced tension in their bodies, he says. Their thoughts ping-pong less frequently, breathing slows noticeably, and thoughts that typically cue anxiety—of work, of relationships, of family—become less consequential.我正坐在萨门o帕尔位于波士顿后湾区的办公室里,他一边用轻型粘合剂在我的头上安装小型电极——一个粘在太阳穴上,另外一个在脖子后面,一边解释接下来16分钟的感受。他表示,大多数使用者会感觉身体里的紧张感减轻。他们的思维跳跃频率降低,呼吸明显放缓,与工作、人际关系或家庭有关的那些通常引发焦虑感的想法,也随之减少。Pal, executive director of Los Gatos, Calif., -based neuroscience startup Thync, designed the calming “vibe” that’s being imparted to my brain through a prototype of the app-controlled wearable device that the company will release later this year. Thync’s technology utilizes tDCS, or transcranial direct current stimulation, to trigger specific responses in the brain, dialing up feelings of calm and serenity or conjuring energy and focus on demand.帕尔是加州洛斯盖多斯神经科学初创公司Thync的首席执行官,他设计出这种令人平静的“氛围”,并且通过一款由应用控制的可穿戴设备原型将这种氛围传递到我的大脑当中。该公司预计将在今年晚些时候发布这款设备。Thync的技术利用经颅直流电刺激(tDCS)来触发大脑的某些反应,产生平静的感觉,或根据需要激发出能量和专注。Thync isn’t out to alter the brain’s biology, but to allow better control of the energy, focus, and calm that are aly naturally available to us, co-founder and chief science officer Jamie Tyler says. “Coffee, alcohol, drugs; these are all neuro-enhancers,” Tyler says. “You’re aly modifying your brain activity.” Thync wants to better harness that command—and perhaps grab a piece of the alcohol, coffee, pharmaceutical, and energy drink markets collectively worth billions.公司联合创始人兼首席科学官贾米o泰勒表示,Thync的目的并非改变大脑的生物活动,而是让我们更好地控制我们生来便可以使用的能量、专注和平静。泰勒说道:“咖啡、酒精、药物,这些都属于神经增强剂。你已经在改变大脑的活动。”Thync希望更好地利用这种能力,这样或许就可以从价值数十亿美元的酒精、咖啡、药物和能量饮品市场中分得一杯羹。The pulses—each “100 times lower than what’s considered dangerous,” Tyler insists—feel comfortably warm but not painful. Just as Pal described, the familiar tension in my shoulders eases, my breathing slows, my mind noticeably stops racing. My body takes on the feeling of lax warmth usually associated with a finger or two of scotch—my usual means of unwinding.泰勒坚持认为,设备产生的脉冲让人感觉温暖舒适,不会有疼痛感,其强度仅有危险脉冲的百分之一。正如帕尔所描述的那样,我肩部那种熟悉的紧张感消失了,呼吸放缓,大脑开始陷入平静。我的身体感觉到令人放松的温暖,我通常在吸一两口苏格兰鼻烟之后才会有这种感觉——这也是我常用的放松方式。“People have been doing this forever, this is nothing new,” Tyler says. “I think this is the kind of product people have been waiting for.”泰勒说道:“人类一直都在这么做,这没什么新鲜。我认为这是那种人们一直在期待的产品。”(财富中文网) /201502/359898

  China#39;s First Hydrogen Bomb氢弹In June 17,1967 , China successfully exploded its first hydrogen bomb in western China. The explosive power is 150 times that of the A-bomb used by the ed States in Hiroshima of Japan during the World War II.It marked a breakthrough in China#39;s nuclear development, and indicated China#39;s nuclear technology has entered a new era.1967年6月17日,我国西部地区上空,第一颗氢弹爆炸试验获得完全的成功,其爆炸威力,相当于美国当年投到日本广岛那颗原子弹的150多倍。震惊世界的蘑菇云异常炫目耀眼。氢弹的爆炸成功,是中国核武器发展的又一个飞跃,标志着中国核武器的发展进入了一个新的阶段。It took the ed States more than seven years from its first A-bomb test to its first hydrogen bomb test, the USSR, four years, the UK, four and a half years and France, eight years and eight months. While in China, it only took two years and eight months, a surprise to the entire world !从原子弹到氢弹,美国用了7年4个月,苏联用了4年,英国用了4年7个月,法国用了8年8个月,而中国只用了两年8个月,在全世界引起了轰动。 /201602/419391

  Falling fuel prices and an accelerating economy provided a powerful boost to US car sales in December, helping to make 2014 one of the strongest years on record for an industry that five years ago appeared to be facing collapse.燃油价格不断下跌以及美国经济增速加快,有力提振了美国去年12月的汽车销量,这让2014年成为有记录以来美国汽车行业表现最为强劲的年份之一,而在5年前,该行业似乎将面临破产。Sales across the industry jumped a seasonally-adjusted 13 per cent over December 2013, according to preliminary estimates from Chrysler, the US arm of Italy’s Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.根据意大利菲亚特克莱斯勒汽车(Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)美国分公司克莱斯勒(Chrysler)的初步估算,去年12月美国汽车销量同比增长13%(经季节调整)。Low interest rates, coupled with news in December that the US economy recorded its fastest growth in a decade at 5 per cent in the third quarter, also made consumers more willing to spend on new cars, analysts said.此外,分析人士表示,低利率以及12月美国经济录得10年来最快增速的消息,令消费者更愿意花钱购置新车。去年第三季度,美国经济增长5%。The importance of falling petrol prices was underscored by the fact that the biggest beneficiaries were carmakers with the strongest line-ups of more fuel-hungry pick-up trucks and sports utility vehicles.油价下跌的重要性突出反映在这个事实上:最大的受益者是那些拥有最多皮卡和SUV系列的汽车制造商,这类车型往往耗油更多。Sales in December for General Motors, the US’s largest carmaker by sales, were 19 per cent up year-on-year. Sales for Chrysler, which manufactures the fashionable Jeep SUV and Ram pick-up truck brands, were 20 per cent ahead of December 2013.美国销量最大的汽车制造商通用汽车(GM)12月销量同比增长19%。生产时尚的Jeep SUV和Ram皮卡品牌的克莱斯勒销量同比增长20%。December’s strong figures partly reflected the US economy’s general strength, but the fuel price fall was the “icing on the cake”, she said: “If you’re spending less on gas, you have more money in your household budget and you can put that towards a new vehicle.”12月的强劲数据部分反映出美国经济的整体强势,但汽车信息网站autotrader.com分析师米歇尔#8226;克雷布斯(Michelle Krebs)表示,燃料价格下跌是“锦上添花”,“如果天然气出下降,家庭预算就会增加,可以用来购置新车。”The average price for a US gallon of fuel fell to .30 in the week starting December 29, according to Washington’s Energy Information Administration, 31 per cent down from a year earlier and 37 per cent down from June’s .64 peak.根据华盛顿美国能源情报署(Energy Information Administration)的数据,自12月29日开始的一周,美国燃料价格平均跌至每加仑2.30美元,同比下跌31%,较去年6月的3.64美元峰值水平下跌37%。 /201501/352633

  FACEBOOK. Instagram. Google. Twitter. All services we rely on — and all services we believe we don’t have to pay for. Not with cash, anyway. But ad-financed Internet platforms aren’t free, and the price they extract in terms of privacy and control is getting only costlier.我们对Facebook、Instagram、Google和Twitter提供的务十分依赖,并且坚信自己无需为使用这些务付费。至少无需付现金。但这些靠广告收入维持运营的互联网平台并不提供免费的午餐,它们以窥探用户隐私、操控用户行为的方式收取费用,并且代价只会越来越高昂。A recent Pew Research Center poll shows that 93 percent of the public believes that “being in control of who can get information about them is important,” and yet the amount of information we generate online has exploded and we seldom know where it all goes.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)不久前进行的一项民意调查显示, 93%的民众认为“对于哪些人可以获得他们的个人信息保持控制很重要”,但我们在网上产生的信息量急剧增长,而我们甚少知道信息的去向。Facebook and other social networking sites that collect vast amounts of user data are financed by ads. Just this week Instagram, which is owned by Facebook, announced plans to open users’ feeds to more advertisers. The dirty secret of this business model is that Internet ads aren’t worth much. Ask Ethan Zuckerman, who in the 1990s helped found Tripod.com, one of the web’s earliest ad-financed sites with user-generated content. He even helped invent the pop-up ad because corporations were wary of the user content appearing next to their ads. He came to regret both: the pop-up and the ad-financed business model. The former is annoying but it’s the latter that is helping destroy the fabric of a rich, pluralistic Internet.Facebook等大量搜集用户数据的社交网站都以广告为主要收入来源。Facebook旗下的Instagram本周刚刚宣布,打算把用户信息流开放给更多广告主。这种商业模式有一个不可告人的秘密:互联网广告不值多少钱。不妨问问伊桑·朱克曼( Ethan Zuckerman),他在1990年代帮助创办的Tripod.com,是最早的靠用户产生内容、靠广告获取收入的网站之一。他甚至帮忙发明了弹窗广告,因为一些公司很在意它们的广告旁边出现什么样的用户原创内容。他对推出这两样东西——即弹窗广告和以广告为基础的商业模式——感到后悔。前者很烦人,而后者则正在帮助摧毁一个丰富、多元的网络世界的基本结构。Mr. Zuckerman points out that Facebook makes about 20 cents per user per month in profit. This is a pitiful sum, especially since the average user spends an impressive 20 hours on Facebook every month, according to the company. This paltry profit margin drives the business model: Internet ads are basically worthless unless they are hyper-targeted based on tracking and extensive profiling of users. This is a bad bargain, especially since two-thirds of American adults don’t want ads that target them based on that tracking and analysis of personal behavior.朱克曼指出,Facebook每个月可以从每个用户身上赚取20美分的利润。这个数目少得可怜,尤其是考虑到该公司声称每位用户平均每个月花在Facebook上的时间多达20小时。微不足道的利润率推动着这种商业模式的运行;而且,除非是在精确追踪和大规模分析用户行为的基础上极具针对性地投放广告,否则互联网广告基本一钱不值。这是一门糟糕的生意,尤其是考虑到三分之二的美国成年人并不希望网站在追踪和分析其个人行为的基础上把他们列为某个广告的目标受众。This way of doing business rewards huge Internet platforms, since ads that are worth so little can support only companies with hundreds of millions of users.大型网络平台是可以从这种生意模式中得到回报的,因为只有拥有数以亿计的用户的企业才能靠价格如此低廉的广告生存下去。Ad-based businesses distort our online interactions. People flock to Internet platforms because they help us connect with one another or the world’s bounty of information — a crucial, valuable function. Yet ad-based financing means that the companies have an interest in manipulating our attention on behalf of advertisers, instead of letting us connect as we wish. Many users think their feed shows everything that their friends post. It doesn’t. Facebook runs its billion-plus users’ newsfeed by a proprietary, ever-changing algorithm that decides what we see. If Facebook didn’t have to control the feed to keep us on the site longer and to inject ads into our stream, it could instead offer us control over this algorithm.以广告为基础的互联网企业把我们的网络互动搞得面目全非。人们之所以云集在网络平台上,是因为这些平台可以把我们联系起来,让我们接触到全世界的海量信息——这是一项非常关键、非常有价值的功能。然而,为了自身的利益,以广告为主要收入来源的这些企业会和广告主站在一边,操控我们的注意力,而不是让我们随心所欲地进行网络交往。很多用户都以为,在自己的信息流里可以看到朋友发布的所有东西。但事实并非如此。Facebook以一种不断变化的专有算法控制着十多亿用户的动态信息流,这种算法决定着我们能看到哪些内容。如果Facebook不必靠控制信息流来让我们在更长的时间里留在它的网站上或者把广告插入我们的信息流之中,那它就可以让我们控制这种算法。Many nonprofits and civic groups that were initially thrilled about their success in using Facebook to reach people are now despondent as their entries are less and less likely to reach people who “liked” their posts unless they pay Facebook to help boost their updates.许多非营利组织和民间团体最初都曾为Facebook的传播效果而兴奋,现在却十分沮丧,因为他们发布的内容抵达那些为他们点赞的用户的可能性越来越小了,除非他们花钱让Facebook帮助推送自己发布的最新信息。What to do? It’s simple: Internet sites should allow their users to be the customers. I would, as I bet many others would, happily pay more than 20 cents per month for a Facebook or a Google that did not track me, upgraded its encryption and treated me as a customer whose preferences and privacy matter.那该怎么办?很简单:网站应该允许用户成为客户。我会非常愿意每月付20美分以上,只要Facebook或谷歌不追踪我的行踪,并升级加密系统,把我当成客户对待,而且重视我的喜好和隐私。我相信许多其他人也愿意这么做。Many people say that no significant number of users will ever pay directly for Internet services. But that is because we are misled by the mantra that these services are free. With growing awareness of the privacy cost of ads, this may well change. Millions of people pay for Netflix despite the fact that pirated copies of many movies are available free. We eventually pay for ads, anyway, as that cost is baked into products we purchase. A seamless, secure micropayment system that sps a few pennies at a time as we browse a social network, up to a preset monthly limit, would alter the whole landscape for the better.许多人说,很多用户是永远都不会愿意直接为网络务付费的。不过,这是因为我们被误导了,以为这些务就应该是免费的。随着人们越来越多地意识到为广告付出的隐私代价,这种情况可能就会改变。尽管许多盗版电影可以免费获得,仍然有成百上千万用户为Netflix的务付费。我们终究还是要为广告付出代价,这个成本被加在了我们购买的商品里。如果有一种无缝、安全的微付系统,可以让我们每次在浏览社交网络的时候都付个几分钱,而且最多不超过预先设定的每月付上限,整个情况可能就会向更好的方向改变。There are other obstacles. Someone has to build those viable, privacy-preserving micropayment systems — but Silicon Valley is known for its entrepreneurial spirit, right? And we’re not starting from scratch. Micropayment systems that would allow users to spend a few cents here and there, not be so easily tracked by all the Big Brothers, and even allow personalization were developed in the early days of the Internet. Big banks and large Internet platforms didn’t show much interest in this micropayment path, which would limit their surveillance abilities. We can revive it.我们还面对其他的障碍。必须得有人建立这些可行的、能够保护隐私的微付系统——不过,硅谷最出名的就是创业精神,对吗?而且我们也不是从零开始。在互联网诞生的初期,就已经有人开发出了这样的微付系统,它们可以允许用户不时地付几分钱、从而不会那么轻易被所有的“老大哥”追踪,甚至还可以享受个性化务。那时,大和大型互联网平台对这种限制其监控能力的微付手段没有多大兴趣。我们现在可以让它复活。Our payments could subsidize access in poorer countries the way ads aly do. If even a quarter of Facebook’s 1.5 billion users were willing to pay per month in return for not being tracked or targeted based on their data, that would yield more than billion per year — surely a number worth considering.我们的付款可以补贴贫穷国家的网络接入设备,就像广告目前所做的那样。在Facebook15亿用户中,哪怕有四分之一愿意每月付1美元,来确保自己的数据不会受到追踪或者成为目标,每年也可以产生超过40亿美元的收益。这个数字显然值得考虑。Facebook’s chief executive, Mark Zuckerberg, seems to have plenty of money, but I’d like to give him some of mine. I want to pay a small fee for the right to keep my information private and to be able to hear from the people I want — not the sponsored-content makers I want to avoid. I want to be a customer, not a product.Facebook的首席执行马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)似乎不缺钱,不过我还是想付给他一些钱。我想要付一小笔费用,让信息不被泄露,而且确保我看到的信息来自我想要看到的人——而不是我想要避开的赞助内容制造者。我想要成为客户,而不是产品。Mr. Zuckerberg has reportedly spent more than million to buy the homes around his in Palo Alto, Calif., and more than 0 million for a secluded parcel of land in Hawaii. He knows privacy is worth paying for. So he should let us pay a few dollars to protect ours.据说扎克伯格已经斥资逾3000万美元购买他在加州帕洛阿尔托的住宅附近的房屋,还斥资超过1亿美元购买夏威夷的一块幽僻土地。他知道为隐私付出金钱是值得的。因此,他应该让我们花几美元来保护自己的隐私。 /201506/380096。

  Lenovo, the world’s largest vendor of personal computers, is a company that has been able to create a positive reputation with customers; it was, in fact, recently ranked by the Reputation Institute as one of the world’s most reputable companies. Now, its reputation has come under fire, and the trust that customers once had in Lenovo as a safe place to store their data is in question.联想是全球最大个人电脑厂商,在消费者中的口碑一直颇为正面。实际上,企业信誉咨询机构Reputation Institute最近还将联想评为全球声誉最好的公司之一。而现在,联想的声誉遭到了冲击。消费者曾相信把数据放在联想电脑里很安全;现在,这种信任也受到了质疑。As customers, we put our lives in the hands of impersonal companies who we trust will deliver the products and services they claim without seeking unfair advantages over us. But as privacy becomes a bigger concern, who can we trust?作为消费者,我们把自己交给公司,相信他们将按承诺提供产品和务,不会占我们的便宜。然而,随着隐私问题越来越让人担心,我们还能相信谁呢?In recent research that I’ve conducted, my colleague, Mae McDonnell, and I show that companies with positive reputations benefit from a “halo effect,” even when they have been accused of wrongdoing. However, when a company is proven guilty of a transgression, the halo effect turns into a “halo tax.”” In other words, companies with good reputations are punished more severely than companies with weaker reputations when the evidence of their wrong doing is stacked against them. Consider the data breach at Target TGT 0.62% last year. Prior to the breach, consumers largely had a positive view of the company and trusted them implicitly with their private information, but once it became clear that Target’s lax policies were responsible for the breach, consumers’ judgments became much harsher. Their reputation suddenly became a liability. If there had been more ambiguity about Target’s guilt, the company’s reputation might have led consumers to place the blame elsewhere.在最近的研究中,我和同事麦克唐奈指出,声誉良好的公司可以从“光环效应”中受益,即使它们被指控做了坏事。不过一旦违法行为被实,“光环效应”就会变成“光环负担”。换句话说,面对不利据,声誉好的公司受到的打击将超过声誉不那么好的公司。大家可以回忆一下去年零售商塔吉特客户数据泄露时的情景。数据泄露前,大多数消费者对该公司印象良好,而且毫无保留地向后者透露自己的个人信息。然而,一旦事实明是塔吉特松懈的政策造成了数据泄露,消费者对该公司的评价就一落千丈。声誉突然变成了塔吉特的负担。如果塔吉特的“罪行”不是那么明朗,该公司的声誉可能会让消费者的矛头指向别处。It’s no wonder that Lenovo is being publicly shamed for its unwise choice to install malware on computers. Lenovo has worked hard to build a positive reputation. They had earned the trust of their customers, but the scandal over malware installation on their computers has suddenly put that reputation at risk. The reputation they once counted as their greatest asset is now a liability as customers, analysts, investors, and hacktivist groups like Lizard Squad turn against them for this violation of trust.在自己的产品中安装流氓软件,这种不明智行为让联想受到公众指责,这一点儿也不奇怪。此前联想一直在努力为自己打造良好声誉,而且已经赢得了顾客的信任。但流氓软件问题立刻给该公司带来了信誉风险。联想曾将声誉视为最重要的财产,现在它却成了负担,因为消费者、分析师、投资者以及Lizard Squad等黑客团体都为联想辜负了别人信任而将矛头指向这家公司。And seriously, what were they thinking?那么,联想当初到底是怎么想的呢?Although it’s impossible for outsiders to know what led Lenovo to install the software, people can and will draw their own conclusions. The fact that the company’s decision seems so inconceivable will only make customers’ judgments against the company that much harsher. Count that towards the halo tax on Lenovo.尽管外人不可能得知联想电脑预装该软件的原因,但大家都可以自己推断。这项决定看起来非常不可思议,这只会让消费者对联想的评价下降得更厉害。在估算联想的“光环负担”时应该考虑到这一点。Moving forward, Lenovo should be concerned about the long-term implications of this scandal. To rebuild bridges, the company should be more transparent about their privacy policies and the types of software they prepackage with their PCs. People who have placed the details of the most personal aspects of their lives on Lenovo computers will certainly think twice about whether Lenovo deserves that trust. In an era where people live much of their personal and professional lives through their computers and mobile devices, we can’t afford to put our trust in a company whose reputation doesn’t merit it.今后,联想应该担心的是本次流氓软件事件的长期影响。为了重建沟通渠道,该公司应该让自己的隐私政策及其产品中预装了哪些软件变得更透明。曾把自己最私密的生活细节存储在联想电脑上的人当然会重新考虑该公司是否配得上这样的信任。现在,我们的很大一部分个人和职业生涯都要依赖电脑和移动设备,在这样一个时代,我们可不能信任一家不守信誉的公司。 /201503/364318


  Google and Samsung sought to stake out their claims to dominate the market for software that powers internet-connected television at the annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.谷歌(Google)和三星(Samsung)在举行的年度消费电子展(Consumer Electronics Show)上展开较量,寻求主宰联网电视机的软件市场。The duelling announcements intensified a tech rivalry as the “internet of things” picked apart the close partnership that the two companies have used to rule the smartphone market.带有决斗意味的宣布加剧了科技巨擘之间的一场角力,“物联网”拆散了两家公司联手统治智能手机市场的密切合作伙伴关系。The US technology group announced that Android TV, its latest attempt to break into smart TV software after the flop of its initial Google TV technology, would be shipped on sets made by three manufacturers this year — Sony, Sharp and TP Vision, the former TV division of Philips. Reinforcing its deepening alliance with Google in living-room technology, Sony also said it would sell speakers embedded with Google Cast, enabling users to stream music direct to speakers. Google’s Cast technology was developed to stream to TVs, but the company announced partnerships this week to extend it to music, rivalling Apple’s Airplay technology.美国技术巨头谷歌宣布,Android TV将搭载在3家制造商——索尼(Sony)、夏普(Sharp)和TP Vision(原飞利浦(Philips)电视部门)——今年生产的互联网电视上。在最初的Google TV技术失败后,Android TV成为谷歌进入智能电视软件行业的最新一次尝试。索尼正在加强与谷歌在起居室技术上的联盟关系,该公司还表示,将出售搭载Google Cast的音箱,让用户将音乐以流播形式直接传送至音箱。谷歌Cast技术的研发目的本来是将视频发送到电视上,但该公司本周宣布了几项合作计划,将其扩展至音乐,与苹果(Apple)的Airplay技术展开竞争。Meanwhile, Samsung highlighted plans to put its Tizen operating system on all of the internet-connected TVs it makes this year. The software was developed for smartphones as a way to reduce Samsung’s reliance on Google’s Android operating system, but has yet to make a mark in the handset business.同时,三星重点介绍了将在今年生产的所有联网电视上搭载Tizen操作系统的计划。该软件原为智能手机研发,以此降低三星对谷歌Android操作系统的依赖,但至今未能在手机业务上打开局面。Instead, it has been included in other connected devices, including a version of Samsung’s Gear smartwatch. But including Tizen in smart TVs marks its first use in a mass-market device.相反,Tizen已经在其他连接设备上应用,其中包括三星智能手表Gear的其中一款。但是,Tizen应用于智能电视,标志着该软件首次用于大众市场设备。Compared with the smartphone world, which is dominated by Google and Apple, the nascent market for software for smart TVs has aly become fragmented. LG, Samsung’s South Korean rival, laid out plans at CES to focus on its smart TV software, the WebOS operating system it acquired from Hewlett-Packard in 2013.与谷歌和苹果主宰智能手机世界相比,为智能电视而设计的软件的新生市场已经呈现割据的格局。LG是三星的韩国竞争对手,其在消费电子展上宣布了将专注研发其智能电视软件WebOS操作系统的计划,该系统是2013年LG从惠普(Hewlett-Packard)收购的。Samsung accounts for about a quarter of annual smart TV sales, according to Strategy Analytics, compared with the roughly 15 per cent market shares of LG and Sony.据Strategy Analytics的数据,三星占智能电视年销量大约四分之一,而LG和索尼的市场份额大致为15%。 /201501/352916

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