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楼主:妙手共享 时间:2019年09月19日 08:07:01 点击:0 回复:0
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Dear Annie: Today I mourn the loss of a dear friend. She was vibrant, energetic and full of life, but on a crisp autumn afternoon, she committed suicide.亲爱的安妮:今天我要悼念一位亲密的朋友。她曾是一位热情活泼,精力充沛,生机勃勃的女生,然而在一个萧瑟的秋天的下午,她自杀了。I do not know what transpired in the final hours of her life, but I do know she had been under a tremendous amount of stress. I have been in the health care profession for many years and am ashamed to say I missed the warning signs.我不知道在她生命的最后时刻发生了什么,但我知道她一直都承受着巨大的压力。我从事医疗保健行业多年,但羞愧的是我竟然忽略了这个警讯。I ask your ers to take the time to really listen to others and be aware of the warning signs of depression.—Michelle in Greensboro, N.C.恳请读者们花点时间去倾听别人,及时发现忧郁症的征兆。——北卡罗来纳州格林斯伯勒的米歇尔。Dear Michelle: Our condolences on your terrible loss. According to the National Institutes of Health, symptoms of depression include: persistent sad or anxious feelings; feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism; feelings of guilt, worthlessness and/or helplessness; irritability, restlessness; loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable; fatigue and decreased energy; difficulty concentrating and making decisions; insomnia, early-morning wakefulness or excessive sleeping; overeating or appetite loss; thoughts of suicide; persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment.亲爱的米歇尔:对于你痛失爱友,我们表示深切的慰问。国家卫生部公布抑郁症包括以下症状:长期感到悲伤和焦虑;感到绝望,厌世;有负罪感,否定自我的价值;坐立不安;对日常生活缺乏兴趣,丧失愉快感;整日无精打采,精力下降;无法集中注意力,反应迟钝;失眠,早醒或睡眠过度;暴饮暴食或食欲不振;产生自杀的念头;持续性疼痛,头疼,痉挛或消化不振,经治疗依然不见好转。It is easy to miss the signs if you arent looking because your friend or family member seems fine, but depression increases during the winter months. Please tell your loved ones how much they mean to you.如果不注意观察,很容易错失这些迹象,因为表面看来你的朋友或家人似乎都很健康。而且抑郁症在冬季会更加严重。请告诉你爱的人,他们对你来说有多重要。本文译文属201206/187356DOES a bill that does nothing actually do something? This is not a Zen koan, but a legislative one, being tested this month in Tennessee. The bill in question required the state’s education system to encourage students to “explore scientific questions” and “respond appropriately and respectfully to differences of opinion about scientific subjects”. It also protected teachers against punishment for “helping students understand, analyse, critique and review in an objective manner the scientific strengths and scientific weaknesses of existing scientific theories.” It passed with big majorities in both chambers, and became law on April 10th when Bill Haslam, Tennessee’s governor, declined to veto it.一个没有具体措施的法案果真能“无为而治”吗?这个本月在田纳西州试行的法案可不是禅宗的公案,而是确实具有法律效力的。上述法案要求田纳西州的教育制度鼓励学生“探讨科学问题”并“包容、尊重关于科学问题的不同见解”。根据法案,教师还能“帮助学生以客观的方式理解、分析、及考察现存科学理论中的优缺点”而不受处罚。法案在参众两院以多数票获得通过,4月10日,田纳西州州长比尔-哈斯拉姆(Bill Haslam)拒绝对法案进行否决,于是该法案在当日正式生效。At issue is whether this innocuous-sounding measure is actually a back door that would allow teachers to introduce creationism and intelligent design into science classrooms. Many are sure it is. The measure drew opposition from scientists and teachers both nationally and in Tennessee. Several Tennessee-based members of the National Academy of Sciences worry that the bill would weaken science education in the state. Around 3,200 Tennesseans signed a petition urging Mr Haslam to veto the bill. And the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) believes the measure “undermines science education in Tennessee public schools”.目前有争议的是,这份听似无伤大雅法案是否真的为教师在讲授科学课程时向学生灌输创世说和智慧设计论开了后门。很多人认为确实如此。这份法案遭到了田纳西州及全国各地的科学家和教师的反对。美国国家科学院中几位来自田纳西州的成员担心法案会降低美国科学教育的质量。田纳西州约有3200个人签署了一份请愿书,力劝比尔-哈斯拉姆否决该法案。美国公民自由联盟则认为,该法案“破坏了田纳西州公立学校的科学教育”。Supporters of the measure, such as state Senator Bo Watson, a co-sponsor, say this is alarmist poppycock. Evolution is part of Tennessee’s science curriculum, which the bill does not change. Many state and federal court cases have not only prohibited the teaching of creationism and intelligent design in public-school classrooms, but have also restrained teachers from introducing arguments against evolution in contravention of a school district’s curriculum. The original version of the bill warned that “the teaching of some scientific subjects” including “biological evolution, the chemical origins of life, global warming and human cloning, can cause controversy”; Mr Watson cut that language out. He insists the bill is simply meant to ensure that pupils learn “critical thinking” in science classrooms.如法案联合倡议人、州参议员波-华森(Bo Watson)等法案持者说那些都是危言耸听的废话。进化论是田纳西州科学课程的一部分,该法案并没有改变这点。之前许多州法庭和联邦法庭的判例不但禁止在公立学校中讲授创世说和智慧设计论,还不允许教师违反学区课程规定讲述任何反对进化论的观点。法案中原来有句话提醒人们注意:“讲授包括生物进化论、生命的化学起源、全球变暖及人类克隆在内的一些科学题材会引起争议”;波-华森将这一句删去了。他坚称该法案仅仅是旨在确保学生们在科学课堂上学会“批判地思考”。Josh Rosenau, of the National Centre for Science Education (NCSE), asks why the bill singles out science classrooms as a place where pupils should be urged to think critically. After all, some people believe the 1969 moon landing was faked or that the Holocaust is a hoax; why not require history teachers to inform pupils of both sides of those issues, too?国家科学教育中心的乔希-罗西诺(Josh Rosenau)质问道,为何法案规定只应在科学课堂上鼓励学生批判思考。要知道,有人可认为1969年人类登陆月球是假的,还有纳粹大屠杀就是个骗局;何不要求历史老师也告诉学生关于那些事件的两种观点?Tennessee’s bill is not unusual: since 2004 similar measures have been offered in no fewer than 13 state legislatures. Only in one other state has one become law. Many such bills, including Tennessee’s, share a common parent: a “Model Academic Freedom Statute on Evolution” written and posted by the Discovery Institute, a conservative think-tank that has long advocated intelligent design. This measure protects teachers’ and students’ rights to present and hear “the full range of scientific views regarding biological and chemical evolution,” but it does little in practice. It changes no curriculum and does not expressly lobby for creationism or intelligent design. Louisiana’s measure, which has been law for nearly four years, seems to have had no discernible effects. Instead, these bills seem a particularly successful bit of signalling. They let evolution sceptics express themselves in the right place: within the law and outside the classroom.田纳西州的这个法案并不罕见:自2004年起,至少13个州中有人向立法机构提出类似的法案,除田纳西州外只有1个州的法案正式生效。这些法案中的大部分,包括田纳西州的,都有一个共同起源:由探索研究所撰写并发布的《关于进化论的学术自由法规范》。探索研究所这个立场保守的智囊长久以来都是宣扬智慧设计论的。这个法规保护了老师和学生提出、倾听“关于生物和化学进化论的所有科学观点”的权利,但并没怎么落实。法规并没有改变学校的课程,也没有明确地为创世说或智慧设计论进行游说。路易斯安娜州的法案生效已将近4年,却似乎没什么明显效果。相反,这些法案看来在传达信息方面尤有成效,它们让进化论怀疑者在恰当的场所表达了自己意见。所谓恰当,即法律之内,课堂之外。201204/180075Why refrigerators hum?为何冰箱会发出声音?Why refrigerators hum,on toays moment of science.On the recent program we have discussed how fluorocarboncoolant cools your food by coming to a boil in coils hidden in your fridge.今天的科学一刻的主题是冰箱会发出声音的原因。在近期的节目中,在最近的节目中我们讨论了碳氟化合物冷却剂是如何通过在冰箱内置的盘管中达到沸腾状态来冷却食物的。How is this possible?这是如何实现的?When you boil water on the stove, you supply heat energy by turning on the burner. In your fridge, liquid coolant boils at very chilly temperatures, but it still requires heat energy. The coolant absorbs this heat energy from the air inside the fridge. By the time all the coolant has boiled and evaporated into gas, the fridge has reached Arctic temperatures.当你在炉子上烧水的时候,你会打开燃灶来提供热量。在你的冰箱内部,虽然液态冷却剂是在很低的温度下沸腾,但它仍然会需要热能。冷却剂吸收的热能来自于冰箱内的空气。当冷却剂沸腾并蒸发为气体后,冰箱内的温度就接近北极地区了。What happens when the temperature starts to rise again? In order to repeat this chilling performance, the gas coolant has to release heat energy and change back to liquid state. To release heat, the coolant is forced into a second set of coils outside the fridge, in back. Sometimes these coils feel pretty warm.当温度重新上升的时候会发生什么?为了重复前面的降温过程,气态的冷凝剂必须释放热能并转化为液态。而为了释放热能,冷却剂需要被排到冰箱后部裸露在外的螺旋管内。有时候,这些螺旋管摸起来会感觉相当热。How does the gas coolant that just chilled your fridge make the coils warm?这些刚才还用来降温的气态冷却剂,现在为何却能使管道发热了呢?The secrets in the refrigerators hum. That humming is a pump that compresses and warms the gas while forcing it into the coils. Its like pumping up a bicycle tire; the tire feels warm because youve compressed the air inside.秘密就在于冰箱的发出的声音。这种嗡嗡声来自于用来把冷却剂压缩到外部螺旋管并使它发热的一个压缩泵。就像给自行车胎打气一样,轮胎摸起来会有点热,因为你把空气压缩进去了。Through compression, the gas coolant in the coils has become warmer than room temperature and can now release its heat energy to the air. As it releases heat, the gas cools and condenses back to liquid state. When your fridge hums, its releasing heat energy and changing fluorocarbon back to liquid state. Then it can cool your food by coming to a boil once more.通过压缩,螺旋管内气态冷却剂的温度变得比室温更高,这样便可能把热量释放到空气中。在气体释放热量物同时,它会重新变回液体状态。当你的冰箱嗡嗡响时,它是在向外释放热量并把碳氟化合物冷却剂重新转为液态。这样它就可以再一次通过沸腾给你的食物降温了。 /201207/188786

Business商业Intellectual property知识产权Inventive warfare发明之战Battles over patents are becoming fiercer and more expensive专利之战,愈演愈烈,愈烈价更高THIS deal is all about patents.这笔交易归根结蒂就是谋求专利。That was the near universal view of Googles announcement this week that it was taking over Motorola Mobility, a maker of handsets and other devices, for a colossal .5 billion.这是多数人对谷歌本周宣布以125亿美元天价收购手机及其他电子产品制造商托罗拉这一消息的普遍看法。Indeed, the purchase will provide Google with an awful lot of patents: around 17,000 of them issued and another 7,500 pending.实际上,此项交易为谷歌带来数量极其庞大的专利:约1.7万项已审批,另外7500项待审批。They should help Google in its efforts to get more smartphones and other mobile devices running on its Android operating system.这些专利有助于谷歌获得更多运行安卓操作系统的智能手机以及其他移动设备。But it could also make the battles over patents nastier and more costly.但是这也会使对专利的争夺愈演愈烈,代价更高。A scramble for patents had aly begun.专利争夺战早已打响。In December four companies, including Microsoft and Apple, paid 0m for around 880 patents and applications owned by Novell, an ailing software firm.早在12月,包括微软及苹果在内的四间公司就付境况不佳的Novell4.5亿美元以购买约880项专利和应用程序。In July those two and four others, including Research in Motion, maker of the BlackBerry, spent .5 billion on 6,000 patents owned by Nortel, a bankrupt Canadian telecoms-equipment maker.今年七月,其中的两间公司及包括黑莓厂商动态研究公司在内的另外四家公司购买加拿大倒闭的电信设备厂商Nortel的6000项专利。Before its latest deal, Google bought 1,000 patents from IBM.此前,谷歌就从IBM公司购买了1000项专利。Firms are also suing each other.同时,各公司之间也是纠纷不断。Apple claims its technology has been copied by Samsung and Motorola in their Android phones.苹果声称其技术已被三星及托罗拉在其安卓系统中盗用。Oracle is suing Google for up to billion, claiming that Android infringes its patents. Microsoft is suing Motorola over Android too.甲骨文公司起诉谷歌公司,称安卓系统侵权,要求索赔60亿美元。Nokia recently settled a similar quarrel with Apple.微软公司也起诉托罗拉的安卓系统。诺基亚公司最近刚刚与苹果公司解决一个类似冲突。What is going on?这到底是怎么回事?Some say companies are attaching more value to intellectual property.有人说这与各公司更看重知识产权有关。Indeed, the Google deal seems to have been priced on a cost-per-patent basis, causing the share prices of other firms with lots of patents to rise.实际上,谷歌这笔交易似乎就是通过每项专利的成本估算而最终定价,致使拥有专利众多的公司的股价攀升。Others, however, think the battles reflect deficiencies in the patent system forcing firms to pay vast sums to protect technologies they have developed. The answer is a bit of both.但是,也有人认为此类争夺正反映了专利认体系的缺陷——迫使公司大笔投入保护其开发技术。二者兼有。System failure体系缺陷Kent Walker, one of Googles senior lawyers, grouses at being forced to spend a lot of money defending the company against frivolous lawsuits by rivals.谷歌的一名高级律师肯特?沃克尔就抱怨说,公司不得不花大笔钱应对竞争对手杂七杂八的诉讼。Others counter that as computing goes mobile, it favours information-technology firms that have invested in research for years and that Google was naive—or idealistic—to broaden its IT business without having a stack of patents.有些人则辩解称,随着移动电话的计算机化,多年投入于研发的信息技术公司会备受宠爱,而谷歌太幼稚—或者说理想化,想在没有专利储备的情况下就扩展其IT业务。There is a retort to that, too: that incumbents can use patents as barriers to entry, which is why Americas antitrust regulators are showing interest in them.对此说法也有不同意见:现有公司可利用专利作为市场准入的障碍—这就是为什么美国反垄断监管者对专利感兴趣的原因所在。In April the Department of Justice demanded changes to Novells patent sale to protect open-source software.四月,美司法部要求Novell公司对专利出售细则做出变动,以保护开源软件。Nowadays, innovations in IT usually rely on many small improvements involving numerous technologies, which means it is not always clear precisely which inventions a patent covers.时至今日,IT产业的创新大多依赖于众多技术的点滴改善,这就意味着通常搞不清一项专利到底与哪些发明有关。The open secret is that everyone infringes everyone elses patents in some way.大家都不同程度侵犯彼此的专利,这已是心照不宣。This creates an incentive for firms to build up their patent portfolios to strengthen their position in negotiations, leading to what some liken to an arms race.这就无形中促使公司逐渐扩大专利组合,来增加谈判筹码,这多少有些像军备竞赛。The legal tussles usually end in cross-licensing deals, in which small sums of money change hands.法律纠纷通常以协议交换专利使用权而告终,只有少量现金易手。This is considered preferable to a mutually destructive exchange of endless lawsuits.人们普遍接受这要比彼此没完没了的诉讼,互相伤害好。The patent battle has become more contentious than ever.专利争夺战越来越有争议,前所未有。One reason is the mobile phone has provided a new platform of computing that firms want to dominate.原因之一就是移动电话提供了各公司竞相抢占的计算新平台,而各公司对此垂涎欲滴。Also, such a backlog of applications built up at Americas patent office now more than 1m, with a waiting time of around three years that standards slipped.还有,申请书在美国专利局堆积如山现在有超过1百万项待批,总共要等待约三年时间。Dubious patents were granted, helped in part by court rulings that allowed patents to stand on some software and business methods that many thought no one could lay claim to.有争议的专利获得通过,这部分得益于法庭允许某些软件及经营模式获得专利,而这些人们普遍认为没有人会申请专利。In Europe and Japan, where patentability standards are higher, this is less of a problem.在专利标准较高的欧洲和日本,就没有此类问题。Making things even more troublesome is that as lawsuits became particuarly lucrative some companies entered the fray to feed off them.更麻烦的是诉讼特别有利可图,一些公司因此加入到混战当中,以此为业。Non-practicing entities, which have intellectual property but no actual products, include such august bodies as the Harvard Medical School.非执业实体机构有知识产权,但是没有实际产品,哈佛医学院这类众相追捧的机构就属此列。But some NPEs are derided as trolls because their sole purpose seems to be to exploit the legal system by demanding licensing fees from companies, sometimes for questionable patents.但是有些非职业实体机构因为其唯一目的就是利用法律体系,从使用公司收取专利费,而被贬称为诱饵公司。Over the past 15 years, the median award to NPEs of damages for patent infringement has doubled while that for other firms has declined.过去15年里,裁决非职业实体机构侵权赔偿损失的平均赔偿数额增加一倍,而对其他公司的裁决减少。Court rulings in America have begun to clip the trolls beards by making it harder to win injunctions and by strengthening the criteria for whether an invention is truly non-obvious.美国法院裁决已设法防止诱饵公司钻空子,使诱饵公司更难获得禁令并就一项发明是否真的非显而易知性强化评判标准。Microsoft has seen the number of suits filed in the famously plaintiff-friendly district court of Eastern Texas fall from 17 in 2007 to just two so far this year, says Brad Smith, Microsofts general counsel. However, as big companies have improved their defences, the trolls have changed their tactics and are now going after start-ups.在以偏向于原告而出名的德克萨斯州东部的地方法院,对微软提起的诉讼从2007年的17件降至今年的仅2件,微软法律总顾问布拉德?史密斯说。但是,随着大公司胜诉增加,诱饵公司也一改策略,开始觊觎初创公司。New legislation could change things.新法案有望扭转乾坤。David Kappos, director of Americas patent office, says the America Invents Act could amount to the most sweeping reforms to the US patent system in 175 years.美国专利局局长大卫?卡波斯说,美国发明法有望彻底改变美国175年历史的专利体系。It is expected to be passed this autumn, Barack Obama has indicated that he will sign it, and big IT and drug companies support it.该方案预计会在今年秋季通过,巴拉克?奥巴马已表示他会签署通过该方案,而且大型IT公司和制药企业也对该法案给予持。But many entrepreneurs and venture capitalists do not, arguing that it does not fix any of the systems big problems and risks creating new ones.但是许多企业家和风险投资人却对此嗤之以鼻,认为这不会解决这一体系的大问题,而有制造新问题的风险。The most contentious point is a change to determine who is the rightful inventor.最有争议的一点是决定合法发明人的定义产生了变化。Instead of being the first to invent, the successful applicant would be the first to file, the standard used worldwide.美国采用世界通行的标准,法律认可的发明人不再是首位发明人,而是首位成功注册人。Harmonising Americas rules with those in other countries would be a step towards greater co-operation and efficiency in patent examinations globally.美国的规则与其他国家一致,是为全球专利检验加大合作与提高效率迈出的一步。Big companies like the proposal because it gives them more legal certainty that someone will not appear claiming they came up with the idea first.大公司喜欢这一提议,因为在法律上他们有更大的胜算,确信有些人不会出庭宣称自己首先想出创意。But inventors like Steve Perlman, the founder of WebTV and other firms, argue that it forces companies to file for patents before their inventions are fully developed.但是WebTV及多家公司的创始人史蒂夫?帕尔曼这样的投资人辩称,这会迫使公司在发明完全开发出之前就注册专利。That, says Mr Perlman, would lead to yet more incremental improvements rather than big innovative steps and put a toll on Americas competitiveness.帕尔曼先生说,那会更多地导致创新渐进增长,而非跨越式创新发展,托美国的竞争力的后腿。For the moment, though, companies are amassing ever larger arsenals of patents.尽管如此,现在各公司增加的专利储备越来越多。Google, for one, was hit by eight lawsuits in April alone—more than in the first five years of its 13-year existence, says Mr Walker.就拿谷歌来说,四月就接受了八起诉讼—比其成立13年历史中中前五年的接受诉讼都多,沃克尔说。See how far we have strayed from the notion of innovation, that we need to acquire patents to fend off potential suits, he says of the firms overall strategy.来看看我们到底已偏离创新概念多远了。我们需要以获得专利来防范诉讼,他谈到公司的总体战略时说。That money could have been spent on engineers, to much more productive use.那些钱本可以花在工程师身上,用在刀刃上。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/229283

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