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In the last few months we#39;ve seen owl cocktail bars, porridge cafes and even a micropig picnic, and the trend of bizarre pop-ups doesn#39;t seem to be stopping anytime soon.还记得前几个月的猫头鹰主题鸡尾酒吧、DIY麦片粥咖啡屋和迷你猪野餐吗?这种稀奇古怪的主题餐饮似乎仍旧是潮流。The latest one? A fox cafe.比如最新出现的:狐狸咖啡馆。Stevie the Fox will be open for three weeks at a ;secret location; from May 25th from 9-6 pm each day.5月25日起,“史蒂夫和狐狸”主题咖啡馆将营业三周,营业时间是早九点到晚六点。Dining with foxes isn#39;t something most people would be eager to do, but organisers hope the cafe will change the way people think about the animal.或许与狐狸共同进餐并非人们最想做的事,但主办者希望通过这个咖啡馆改变人们对狐狸的看法。On their website, they state ;foxes often receive a lot of bad press due to nuisance they cause in urban areas from destroying bin bags, digging gardens, fouling on the street and making noises throughout the night.在这家咖啡馆的网站上,他们声明:在城市里,由于狐狸们老是破坏箱子,在花园里刨土,弄脏街道,还在晚上吵吵闹闹,所以大家对狐狸的印象都不太好,认为它们是讨厌鬼。;Our aim is to change that perception and show you how foxes are playful gentle creatures.;而我们的目标就是,改变这种看法,让大家看到狐狸机灵温柔的一面。For #163;15 customers will be allowed an hour and a half in the cafe which serves hot drinks, Fox#39;s Biscuits and Fox#39;s Glacier Mints.每位顾客花费15英镑,就可在这家咖啡馆享用热饮、狐狸点心和狐狸冰薄荷糖。With an array of animal-related cafes and restaurants under our belt aly, who knows what the next one will be - tortoise cafe, anyone?如今,各种动物主题的咖啡馆和餐馆层出不穷,谁知道下一个出现的会是什么主题呢,可能是乌龟咖啡馆? /201504/371848Le Richer looks like dozens of other modernised Paris cafés, with 1960s-style chairs, exposed stone walls brightened with mirrors, and bay windows looking on to an unremarkable Right Bank street. The coffee provides the first clue that something is different: made with beans from the fashionable Left Bank roaster Coutume, it reveals an attention to detail increasingly common in bistros but still rare in the neighbourhood café. The same care goes into the inventive food served at lunch and dinner, which easily rivals that of much pricier restaurants in Paris.Le Richer与巴黎诸多现代风格的咖啡屋大同小异——配备着上世纪60年代风格的椅子、裸露的石墙因挂有镜子而显得蓬荜生辉,透过飘窗可眺望右岸地区(Right Bank)的寻常街道。它提供的咖啡就是展现自己与众不同的第一道风景线:其咖啡豆来自时尚左岸地区(Left Bank)的Coutume咖啡烘焙店,Le Richer对每个细节都精益求精,这在巴黎的餐厅越来越司空见惯,但在周边咖啡屋仍属凤毛麟角。同样的事无巨细态度还体现在独出心裁的午餐和晚餐,与巴黎价格不菲的高档餐厅相比,它们的水准毫不逊色。Combining the warmth of a local hangout with the high standards of a modern bistro, Le Richer belongs to a handful of hybrids that are transforming Parisian café culture. Instead of contenting themselves with bitter mass-produced coffee and a predictable of salads, croque-monsieurs and steak-frites, these gastro cafés are allowing ambitious chefs to express themselves in a casual setting.Le Richer把本地人流连忘返的温馨感与现代风格小餐馆的高水准合二为一,作为为数不多的混合经营咖啡馆,正在改变巴黎的咖啡文化。它们并不为大量提供苦咖啡以及一般的沙拉、法式火腿干酪热三明治(croque-monsieurs)以及薯条牛排(steak-frites)而沾沾自喜,相反,这些美食荟萃的咖啡屋允许有抱负的厨师在宽松的环境中肆意发挥。Le Richer was created by Charles Compagnon of the nearby bistro L’Office. His no-reservations annex might look more relaxed but Le Richer’s young chefs are turning out sophisticated dishes such as veal cheek with creamy polenta, daikon radish and grapes. Churros are a speciality for dessert, perhaps with walnut crème anglaise, prunes and figs. The chatty waiters joke with customers at the bar, while the bartender shakes up cocktails such as the cucumber slide or the kiwi-kiwi. The organic and natural wines come from passionate small producers, as does the tea served in the afternoons.Le Richer由夏尔#8226;孔帕尼翁(Charles Compagnon)在毗邻L’Office小餐馆的地方创办。它不接受预订的附加条件也许看起来很随意,但年轻厨师精心推出了用奶油玉米、白萝卜以及葡萄搭配的牛颊肉这等精美绝伦的大餐。巧罗丝(churros)则是本店的特色甜点,也许再配以英式核桃奶油酱、梅干以及无花果。健谈的务员不时与顾客在酒吧间开着玩笑,而酒吧间务员则在调制cucumber slide与kiwi-kiwi鸡尾酒。这些天然有机葡萄酒由小型酒庄精心酿制,它供应的下午茶同样如此。A precursor to places like Le Richer was Café Constant, the popular bistro annex of Michelin-starred chef Christian Constant’s more formal restaurant Le Violon d’Ingres. Constant has since opened a second casual restaurant, Les Cocottes, and helped launch the seafood restaurant Les Fables de la Fontaine – both also on rue St-Domininque in the smart 7th. But Café Constant remains his favourite place to perch at the bar with an unlit cigar in his mouth and survey his mini-empire. Though it closes between lunch and dinner, it’s open all morning for breakfast, making it a friendly meeting spot in this neighbourhood of moneyed families and politicians.Le Richer这类咖啡屋的“始作俑者”是远近皆知的Café Constant,它是米其林星级厨师克里斯蒂安#8226;康斯坦特(Christian Constant)名下较为正规的Le Violon d’Ingres餐厅的分设咖啡屋。康斯坦特随后又开设了一家更为休闲的Les Cocottes餐馆,并且帮助开设了Les Fables de la Fontaine海鲜酒楼——这两家餐厅都位于时尚第七区的圣多米尼克街(rue St-Domininque)。但Café Constant仍是康斯坦特最喜欢的咖啡屋,他喜欢坐在酒吧间,嘴里叼着雪茄,得意地扫视自己的“迷你帝国”。尽管它在午餐与晚餐之间关门歇业,但整个上午都都开门供应早餐,这使它成为附近富裕家庭与政客们青睐的聚餐之地。Instead of the complex food served at Le Richer, Café Constant’s kitchen focuses on revisiting such childhood classics as eggs mimosa, veal cordon bleu and roast chicken – and even a French grand-mère would have trouble rivalling its versions. If some more modern dishes make it on to the , such as grilled prawn tart with baby spinach salad and frothy lemongrass sauce, the desserts are the stuff of nostalgic fantasies: profiteroles, floating island, crème caramel, flaky apple tart. Often abused in ordinary cafés, these puddings reclaim their rightful place here.与提供复杂美食Le Richer不同的是,Café Constant专注于提供让食客重温鸡蛋含羞草、蓝带牛肉以及烤鸡这些儿时的美味佳肴——制作水准甚至连法国老奶奶也望尘莫及。如果说用凉拌嫩菠菜及起泡柠檬香草酱搭配的烤虾挞是菜单中不断推陈出新的现代菜,那么空心甜饼、覆有蛋白的蛋糕、焦糖蛋奶以及片状苹果馅饼就是回味无穷的经典怀旧甜点。在一般咖啡屋通常不受待见的这些甜点在这儿算是重新找到了自己的归宿。Another restaurant offshoot is Buvette, where the chef simmers free-range chicken in red Burgundy for classic coq au vin, a dish rarely seen in bistros nowadays. Behind this cosy café billing itself as a “gastrothèque” is Jody Williams, who opened a nearly identical restaurant in Greenwich Village in 2011 before realising that Paris could also benefit from a dose of old-fashioned French cooking.另一家高档餐厅下设的咖啡屋是Buvette,那儿的大厨用勃艮第红酒慢炖散养鸡,烹制出经典的酒闷仔鸡(coq au vin),这道菜如今在小餐馆里已经难觅踪影。这家自诩美食荟萃(gastrothèque)的温馨咖啡店店主是乔迪#8226;威廉姆斯(Jody Williams),他2011年在格林尼治村(Greenwich Village)开设了几乎一模一样的餐厅,而后意识到传统法式烹饪也可大飨巴黎的美食饕餮。Croissants sit on the counter beside American cakes in the morning, while at lunch and in the late evening the croque-monsieur on country b with pickles on the side puts most Paris cafés to shame. Heartier dishes such as l’os à moelle (bone marrow) and cassoulet take centre stage at dinner, though small plates – black pudding with apple on toast, or salads (perhaps raw Brussels sprouts tossed with Parmesan shavings) – are also available. As at Le Richer, the coffee, wine and cocktails are top-notch.每天早上,羊角面包与美式蛋糕一起摆在柜台上;而午餐以及晚餐时,放在乡村面包上的法式火腿干酪热三明治,旁边再配以腌菜,让巴黎多数咖啡屋无地自容。骨髓以及豆焖肉等热菜尽管用小盘子盛放,却是晚宴的压轴菜——此外还供应吐司面包上放着苹果黑布丁及沙拉(或许是洒着干酪屑的生球芽甘蓝)。在Le Richer咖啡屋,咖啡、葡萄酒以及鸡尾酒都是出类拔萃的水准。Where the down-to-earth yet charming café Le Cherche Midi once stood, Café Trama has created a winning formula with its old-meets-new decor of vintage tiles and Swedish furniture – and food that reflects the same spirit. Among the dishes listed on the blackboard are lentils with poached eggs and mackerel, and an unlikely but successful steak tartare flavoured with ginger and lemongrass.在原先实在却又可人的Le Cherche Midi咖啡屋原址上,Café Trama咖啡屋创建出成功模式——用仿古瓷砖与瑞典式家具打造出传统与现代合二为一的装修风格,而它的饮食也体现了同样风格。菜单就写于黑板上,其中包括了荷包蛋与鲭鱼搭配小扁豆,以及可欲不可求却又美味无比的生姜与柠檬香草做就的鞑靼牛扒。Most tempting of all are the cakes, including a chestnut fondant made from a secret Trama family recipe and an exquisite lemon tart. The coffee is from Veronese roaster Gianni Frasi, and the same care goes into the list of organic and natural wines. Open from 11am to 10.30pm and with surprisingly reasonable prices, Café Trama has become one of the best places to linger in this chic neighbourhood.最让人垂涎欲滴的莫过于各种蛋糕,其中包括用特拉马家族(Trama famil)独门配方制作的板栗软糖与无比精致的柠檬塔。咖啡则来自意大利维罗纳烘焙厂家Gianni Frasi,而各种天然有机葡萄酒同样精挑细选。Café Trama咖啡屋的营业时间是从上午11点到晚上11:30,而且价格颇为公道(这很出乎意料),它已成为巴黎时尚第七区最为流连忘返的地方。Rosa Jackson is a cooking teacher and food writer based in Nice and Paris罗莎#8226;杰克逊是长驻尼斯与巴黎的烹饪教师及美食作家 /201501/355059Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac have written a rollicking account of the acquisition of Chinese art and antiquities by Americans who came to China in the 19th and 20th centuries and took back vast collections from caves, palaces and the back rooms of dealers in Beijing. In “The China Collectors: America’s Century-Long Hunt for Asian Art Treasures,” the authors describe how lovers of Chinese art roamed the country hunting for sculptures, wall panels, furniture, porcelain and paintings that are now housed in important museums in the ed States. Some of the artworks they tried to send back were ruined in the process.卡尔·E·梅耶(Karl E. Meyer)和沙林·布莱尔·布莱萨克(Shareen Blair Brysac)此前的写作已经对19世纪与20世纪来华收购中国艺术品和古董的美国人作了生动的刻画,这些美国人从洞穴里,宫殿里,还有北京商人的密室里拿走了大量的藏品。在《中国藏家:美国追寻亚洲艺术珍宝的百年》(The China Collectors: America’s Century-Long Hunt for Asian Art Treasures)一书中,二人描绘了这些热爱中国艺术的人如何在中国各地游荡,搜寻雕像、壁画、家具、瓷器,还有画作,这些珍品现在都收藏于美国各大展览馆。一些艺术品还在运输过程中被损毁了。Whether their forays represented a rapacious plundering of China’s past or the fortuitous preservation of antiquities that might otherwise have been destroyed by war or greed in China is a theme of constant debate. Mr. Meyer, a former editorial writer for The New York Times, and Ms. Brysac, a documentary producer with a degree in art history, straddle the fence on that question. They have plumbed personal papers, historical records and memoirs of the main characters to piece together a startling tale of Americans who went to great lengths to obtain the artifacts that became part of a booming trade in the ed States and Europe. In an interview, they described their findings:他们的侵袭究竟是算作对中国历史的疯狂掠夺,还是说在无意中让文物能够得以保存,使其免遭战火和贪婪之人的损毁,一直以来都是争议的焦点。梅耶和布莱萨克在这个问题上也莫衷一是。梅耶此前是《纽约时报》一名社论作家,布莱萨克则是一名拥有艺术史学位的纪录片制片人。他们研究了很多个人文件、历史记录,还有一些主要人物的回忆录,以此拼凑出了一部关于一群美国人为了得到艺术珍品而长途跋涉的惊人故事,这些艺术珍品日后都成为了欧美火热交易的一部分。在此次采访中,他们聊起了自己的研究成果。Q. What was the inspiration for “The China Collectors?” 问:这本《中国藏家》的灵感是什么?Ms. Brysac: We had been invited to be members of St. Antony’s, a graduate college at Oxford. However, we needed a project. In 1997, while we researching our first joint book, “Tournament of Shadows” on the Great Game in Asia, we had uncovered files in the Harvard archives relating to the acquisition of the great “Empress” frieze from Longmen in China, now in Kansas City. The correspondence between Laurence Sickman, then a scout for the newly founded Nelson Gallery in Kansas City, and his Harvard mentor Langdon Warner was exceptionally frank — to summarize: “Go for it!” This was off our topic then. But in 2012, we looked into it and discovered that provenance research on Chinese art was in its infancy, and there were many archives that had not been mined. We were sure we had a book. 布莱萨克:我们当时被邀请前去圣安东尼学院——哈佛一家研究生院——学习,我们就需要一个项目。早在1997年,我们在为第一本合著的书《阴影之旅》——那是一本关于亚洲大弈的书——做研究的时候,我们就在哈佛档案堆里发现了那些和收购“皇后礼佛图”(the great “Empress”frieze)相关的文件,当时是在中国龙门收购的,现在浮雕保存在堪萨斯城。劳伦斯·希克曼(Laurence Sickman)是当时堪萨斯城新成立的纳尔逊画廊(Nelson Gallery)的探员,他与其哈佛导师兰登·华纳(Langdon Warner)在信件中写得异常直白,简单地说就是:“快去拿!(Go for it!)”但当时这些东西和我们的题目不相干。而在2012年的时候,我们又仔细看了看,发现关于中国艺术品来源的研究还在初始阶段,还有很多档案还无人处理。我们当时就很确信我们可以写本书了。Q. One of the most remarkable episodes is about Langdon Warner and the Dunhuang caves. The use of cloths soaked in thick glue applied to the walls to remove murals sounds so crude. How did that work? Where are the murals now? Where is the Tang Dynasty bodhisattva that he pried from its base? 问:提到兰登·华纳,最有趣的一件事情是关于敦煌莫高窟的。他们在墙上用被黏稠胶水浸透的布来取下那些壁画,听起来很原始。是怎样能拿下来的?现在那些壁画在哪里?那座被他从底座撬走的唐代菩萨现在哪去了?Ms. Brysac: The method the Harvard art historian Langdon Warner used for removing the paintings in 1924 was based on that developed for detaching frescoes in Europe. But the Dunhuang paintings were not true frescoes. The techniques the Chinese artists used on the cave surfaces were quite different. Although Warner followed the best practices of the time, the caves were icy, the hot glue froze and became unworkable, so pigment remained on the walls when the strips were removed. Then he had to transport the 12 painting fragments and the Tang bodhisattva for 18 weeks in a springless cart, wrapped in his underwear. 布莱萨克:哈佛艺术史学家兰登·华纳在1924年移除这些画作的方法,是基于欧洲移除湿壁画的方法改进而来的。但敦煌的壁画并不是真的湿壁画。中国艺术家们在穴壁上用的技法很不一样。尽管华纳按照的是当时最好的办法在处理这些壁画,但洞穴里很冷,那些热胶水冻了起来就没法用了,所以那些布被拿起的时候后,画色还残留在墙上。然后他用衬衫包起这12片壁画和那座唐代菩萨,用一辆颠颠簸簸的马车运着它们,走了整整18个星期。By the time they reached Cambridge, where they are now in the Harvard Art Museums, they were in a very bad state of preservation, and the conservator had a difficult time removing the glue-soaked pigment. Only five of the fragments and the bodhisattva sculpture are in good enough condition to be exhibited. However, the Getty Conservation Institute is now involved in the preservation of the Dunhuang material, including the remaining cave paintings.等到它们被运到坎布里奇(Cambridge),也就是它们现在被保存的哈佛艺术展览馆(Harvard Art Museums)的时候,它们保存的状况非常糟糕,文物管理人员费了好大功夫才移动了那些被浇水浸透了的壁画。其中只剩下五片壁画和那座菩萨雕像保存足够完好,得以展出。但现在盖蒂保护研究所(Getty Conservation Institute)也参与了这些敦煌文物,包括这些残存壁画的保护。Q. Laurence Sickman, who later became the director of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, was involved with some of Warner’s exploits. Could you explain? 问:劳伦斯·希克曼后来成了纳尔逊-阿特金斯艺术物馆(Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art)的总监,他也参与了华纳的探险之旅。能说说他吗?Ms. Brysac: Warner had had his eye on the Longmen caves in Henan Province since 1909, but he had been unable to obtain funding from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, where he was then working, to explore them. The grottoes contain thousands of Buddhist statues. Both the French scholar #201;douard Chavannes and the American collector Charles Lang Freer had them photographed between 1907 and 1911, and soon, dealers using Chavannes’s images in China and Europe were sending local peasants out to hack away at the unguarded sculptures.布莱萨克:早在1909年,华纳就盯上了河南的龙门石窟,但他当时没法拿到波士顿美术馆(Museum of Fine Arts)的资金去进行发掘,他当时在那家展览馆工作。龙门石窟里有着数千座佛像。法国学者爱德华·沙瓦讷(#201;douard Chavannes)和美国收藏家查尔斯·朗·弗利尔(Charles Lang Freer)在1907至1911年间给这些佛像拍了照片,不久之后,中国和欧洲的商人们就开始按着沙瓦讷的照片,雇一些当地的农民去把这些无人照看的佛像盗走。Three Harvard-trained scholars, Warner, Sickman and Alan Priest, a curator at the Metropolitan Museum, had fixed upon what Priest described as the “Elgin Marbles of China,” two friezes from the Binyang cave showing the donors, Empress Wenzhao and the Emperor Xiaowen, with their courtiers. Sickman made notes and rubbings of the Empress frieze while it was still intact in 1931. But by late 1932, fragments — bits of hands, heads — began to appear in Beijing antique shops. When Sickman revisited the caves in 1933, he wrote Warner that “whole figures had been chipped from walls and niches.” What should he do?华纳、希克曼还有当时大都会艺术物馆(Metropolitan Museum)的馆长阿兰·普利斯特(Alan Priest),这三名哈佛毕业的学者,把目光锁定到了龙门石窟宾阳洞的两条浮雕上,它们被普利斯特称作是“中国的埃尔金大理石雕”,描绘了建洞施主文昭皇后和孝文帝,以及他们的使臣。在1931年皇后礼佛图还完好的时候,希克曼对该浮雕做了记录和临摹。但在1932年末——一些浮雕的手、头——开始出现在北京的古董商店内。在希克曼1933年再次造访石窟时,他对华纳写道,“整个人像都被从石壁和壁龛里弄下来了。”他该怎么办呢?The Fogg and the Nelson agreed together to provide funds to acquire all the pieces and reassemble them in Kansas City. Priest and the Met acquired the other pieces from a Beijing dealer who was then commissioned to acquire the remaining heads directly from the site. Sickman continued to express regret over the looting at the site. “I would give almost anything if it [the Empress frieze] had never left the Pin-Yang cave.”福格艺术物馆(The Fogg)和纳尔逊艺术物馆于是同意一同出资,买下所有残片并将其带到堪萨斯城重新组装。普利斯特和大都会艺术物馆从一个北京商人那里买下了所有其他的残片,他当时被委托从洞窟直接买下剩下的头像。希克曼此后一直对这次抢掠表示后悔。“如果能让它(皇后礼佛图)从未离开宾阳洞,我愿意付出几乎一切。”Q. C.T. Loo was the leading dealer of Longmen sculptures. What happened to his collection? And what about the Longmen grottoes? What condition are they in? 问:卢芹斋(C.T.Loo)是龙门雕像的最主要经销商。他的藏品最后怎么样了?龙门石窟呢?它们现在是什么状况?Ms. Brysac: C.T. Loo is viewed by the Chinese as the archvillain who abetted the destruction of their cultural heritage, because, unlike the American and Canadian curators, he was native-born. Loo conducted a mail-order business providing photos to dealers who then hired local peasants to steal sculptures now in many collections in the ed States and Europe. He was an early supporter of the Kuomintang, so was well connected with Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Chinese and was able to get artwork out of the country, thus skirting China’s export laws. His Chinese inventory was confiscated by the Chinese Communists when they took over, but his galleries in New York and Paris continued to sell his stock. Upon his retirement, his New York gallery was taken over by Frank Caro. As to Longmen caves, they are now protected as a Unesco World Heritage site. 布莱萨克:卢芹斋被中国人看作是一个煽动毁坏他们文化古迹的大坏蛋,因为,和那些美国和加拿大的收藏家不同,他是一个中国人。卢芹斋当时的生意是信件预定式的,他提供照片给经销商,然后他们再雇佣当地农民去偷出那些雕像,现在那些雕像很多都收藏在欧美。他是国民党的早期持者,和蒋介石的国民党人关系很好,所以能够绕过中国的出口法律,把很多艺术品运出国。在国民党掌权后,他的很多中国藏品被没收了,但他在纽约和巴黎的艺廊还继续出售他的藏品。在他退休的时候,他的纽约艺廊被弗兰克·卡罗(Frank Caro)接手了。至于龙门石窟,它现在被联合国教科文组织列为了世界文化遗址。Q. Some American diplomats at the turn of the 20th century seem to have felt no qualms about taking out huge caches of Chinese art treasures. Herbert Squiers, the first secretary at the ed States Legation, loaded up rail cars with artworks and then sold them to buy a 700-ton state-of-the-art yacht. Was there no shame at that time? 问:在20世纪初,一些美国外交官好像对于拿走大量中国文化遗产没有丝毫不安。赫尔伯特·斯奎尔(Herbert Squiers),时任美国公使馆一等秘书,运走了几个火车车厢的艺术品,然后卖了它们,买了一架700吨的时髦游艇。那时候就没有点羞耻心吗? Mr. Meyer: There was a developing sense of shame. As we write, by 1901, “looting had become bad form; at least a pretense of virtue was expected.” Thus, when The New York Times questioned the Metropolitan Museum about accepting donations from Squiers in 1901, an unnamed spokesman responded, “The Metropolitan Museum of Art does not accept looted art,” and since Squiers was “a gentleman without question,” it would be presumed his works “had been honestly got.” 梅耶:当时也有一丝羞耻感在慢慢发酵的。我们在书里写道,到1901年的时候,“抢掠已经变成了一件坏事;至少也要装得有一点道德感。”因此,当《纽约时报》在1901年质疑大都会艺术物馆接受斯奎尔的捐赠时,一位未具名的发言人回应称,“大都会艺术馆不接受抢掠来的艺术品,”但因为斯奎尔“无疑是一位绅士,”所以我们认为他的捐赠是“正当得来的。”As the years passed and disorders gripped China, even the pretense of virtue lessened. When Squiers auctioned his prizes a decade or so later, the sale catalogs underscored the imperial provenance of key works.而随着时间流逝,中国陷入动乱,即使是那种虚伪的道德感都被削弱了。当十多年后当斯奎尔将他的藏品拍卖时,那次的出售目录无疑突显了关键藏品的帝国主义来源。Q. You write that the Chinese government has basically depended on the art market to restore treasures to China. Chinese collectors pay large sums to bring back porcelain, sculpture, paintings. But might this approach change, and China demand that American museums return artworks? 问:你写道中国政府至今很大程度上是依靠艺术品市场来将这些珍宝带回中国。中国的收藏家花了大笔的钱才将那些瓷器、雕像、画作带了回来。这种方式会发生变化吗,中国会要求美国的物馆归还艺术品吗? Mr. Meyer: To date, Beijing has yet to formally demand the restitution of objects now in American museums. It has relied instead on market tools to secure recovery of disputed works at auctions, or through private sales, using as proxies either private collectors or the state-owned Poly Group. But yes, museum curators and directors are on the alert for changing signals. 梅耶:目前来说,北京方面还没有正式要求归还这些收藏于美国物馆的珍品。中国一直依赖于市场工具拿回这些有争议的艺术品,或是通过拍卖,或是私人出售,他们用私人收藏家或是国有的保利集团(Poly Group)等代理人来进行这些操作。但没错,物馆的馆长和总监们都对在警惕、留心这种变化。As best as we could determine, the likely response to any formal demand would be, one, that the museum has a valid sale receipt and export license for objects acquired before 1970, the cutoff date for importing antiquities; two, that the work has been better protected and preserved than if it remained in situ; three, that yielding on legal grounds would fix a precedent for a swarm of other demands. Finally, four, if the original sale transaction now looks bad, it accorded with common practices over the era. For example, curators argue, though the reputed purchase of Manhattan from Native Americans for now looks bad, should we now give them the island?我们现在最多能确定的就是,任何正式的请求可能只会得到这样的答复:第一,物馆拥有1970年之前所购买物品的有效的出售收据和出口凭,1970年是进口古董文物的切割日期;第二,这些文物和如果留在遗址现场相比,得到了更好的保护和保存;第三,如果在法理上让步,会立下一个先例,继而引来一大堆其他的要求。最后,第四,即使说一开始的这些交易看起来不好,但它们也是符合当时的惯例的。比如,物馆员们会说,那次从美国当地人手中买下曼哈顿的著名交易只花了24美元,如果那次交易也看起来不太好的话,我们要不要把这座岛还给他们呢?But we at least owe an honest account of the original sale, as our book tries to offer regarding Chinese collections.但的确,我们至少还缺少一个对这些初期买卖的一个公正的描述,在关于中国藏品这部分,这也是我们这本书旨在努力提供的。Q. Is there unease at some American museums with substantial Asian collections that one day they may have to return some of their favorite things to China? 问:那么对于一些收藏了大量亚洲藏品的美国物馆来说,他们有没有感到一丝不安?即某天他们可能要把一些他们最珍爱的藏品归还给中国呢? Mr. Meyer: Museum officials worry that they may have to return some prizes to China, but opportunities also beckon for extended loans, swaps and other collaborative ventures. Chinese visitors now constitute the fastest-growing segment of cultural tourism, and flocks of mainland students are now enrolled in major U.S. universities. Against this, insiders credibly complain about a hard-driving mercantilism on the part of Chinese cultural officials seeking to maximize profits in loan programs. But, taken as a whole, the horizons are bright. 梅耶:物馆的官员们当然担心有一天他们要把一些藏品还给中国,但是关于一些延期贷款、置换、合资的机会也会随之而来。目前中国的参观者在文化旅游业里是增长最迅速的群体,而且成群的中国大陆学生也在美国主要大学就读。而与之相反,业内人士据信也在抱怨中国文化官员身上来势凶猛的重商主义,他们一直想要将贷款项目利润最大化。但总的来说,前途是光明的。Q. Your book comes out as the Robert H. Ellsworth collection, considered to be one of the finest private collections of Asian art, has been auctioned in New York for more than 1 million. What does that sale say about the desirability of Chinese antiquities in the ed States, and in China? 问:在你们的新书面世之际,罗伯特·H·埃尔斯沃斯(Robert H. Ellsworth)的藏品在纽约卖出了1亿3千100万美元,他的藏品被认为是关于亚洲艺术最好的私人藏品之一。这次拍卖你们认为有没有说明中国文物在欧洲和中国的受追捧程度呢? Mr. Meyer: The Ellsworth sale, in our estimate, is the last of its kind in America, and probably the West in general. It is no longer possible for a private person to assemble a collection of such magnitude. Times are long past when Chinese art was an underpriced bargain, when foreigners could shop in the mainland, and when collectors were still at the kindergarten level in their knowledge of Asian art. Robert Ellsworth was at once an innovative, pioneering dealer and a serious scholar. The sale totals may tell us a lot about the present and future of China collecting. 梅耶:埃尔斯沃斯的这次拍卖,按我们的估计,应该是在美国,甚至可能在整个欧洲的最后一次这种拍卖了。对于一个私人藏家来说再也没有可能收集到这个量级的藏品了。那些中国艺术品还是低价买卖,外国人能够在大陆进行收购,而且藏家们关于亚洲艺术的知识还停留在幼儿园阶段的老日子一去不复返了。罗伯特·埃尔斯沃斯曾是一个敢于创新的先驱商人,还是一个严肃的学者。这次拍卖的总价可以告诉我们很多关于中国收藏界现今与未来的事情。 /201504/370011I have a very 2014 question for you: How would you respond if you found out that a man living down the street regularly has sexual intercourse with a horse?我有一个非常适合在2014年提出的问题:如果你发现住在同一条街上的邻居定期和一匹马性交,你会作何反应?Would you be morally disgusted? Consider him and his behavior an abomination? Turn him in to the police? (This would be an option in the roughly three-quarters of states that — for now — treat bestiality as a felony or misdemeanor.)你会不会产生道德层面的厌恶感?将他和他的行为视为变态?会不会让警察逮捕他?(这个选项可以在大概三分之一的州得以实现-目前这些州将人兽性交视作一项重罪或者品行不端罪。Or would you perhaps suppress your gag reflex and try hard to be tolerant, liberal, affirming, supportive? Maybe you#39;d even utter the slogan that deserves to be emblazoned over our age as its all-purpose motto and mantra: Who am I to judge?或者你也许会压制住你的呕吐反射症状并努力想要对这种行为表达容忍,自由主义,肯定,甚至持态度?也许你甚至会吼出一句在我们这个时代备受推崇,多用途的口号和咒语:我又有什么资格来评判别人呢?Thanks to New York magazine, which recently ran a completely nonjudgmental 6,200-word interview with a ;zoophile; who regularly enjoys sex with a mare — unironic headline: ;What it#39;s like to date a horse; — these questions have been much on my mind.真要感谢《纽约杂志》。它于近期刊登了一篇6200字的非主观报道。它采访了一位名为“zoophile”的人,他定期同一匹母驴进行性交-采访报道的题目颇具讽刺意义:同一匹马约会是什么感受。我近期一直在想着这些问题。They should be on yours, too.你们也真应该思考一下。Because this is a very big deal, in cultural and moral terms.这是一件大事,不论是文化层面还是道德层面。No, not the fact of bestiality, which (like incest) has always been with us, but the fact of an acclaimed, mainstream publication treating it as a matter of complete moral indifference. (Aside, of course, from the requisite concern about animal abuse — a nonhuman analog to the pervasive emphasis on consent as the only relevant moral criterion for judging sexual behavior. The interview dispenses with this worry by informing us that the zoophile regularly brings his equine lover to orgasm orally — and that she often initiates acts of intimacy, showing that she appears to enjoy their sexual interactions.)不,困扰我们的并不是人兽性交这件事(类似乱伦),而是一股收到赞扬的,主流出版物将这种事情视作对于道德的完全无视。(当然,除此之外。关于这件事情的争议还有: 对于这个非人类代替物会产生动物虐待行为的普遍担心,到普遍将同意与否视为唯一一个评判性行为的相关道德标准。受访者让我们排除了这种担心,他表示,他通过口交定期给他的马爱人性高潮。并且他的马儿会经常模仿亲密的行为,已示自己对于这种性交的喜爱。Am I worried that large numbers of people will soon choose to shack up with their pets or farm animals? Not at all. I can#39;t imagine that very many people will ever be drawn to bestiality, no matter how casually it is treated in the media.我会担心有很多人会选择“搞上”他们的宠物或家畜吗?完全不。无论媒体对兽交的态度如何随便,我都不认为会有多少人被吸引。Why, then, is the New York interview a big deal? Because it#39;s perhaps the most vivid sign yet that, in effect, the ed States (and indeed the entire Western world) is running an experiment — one with very few, if any, antecedents in human history. The experiment will test what happens when a culture systematically purges all publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing, virtue and vice, elevation and degradation.然而,为什么这种现象被纽约媒体采访成一个大新闻?因为它也许是最生动的迹象表明,美国(实质是整个西方世界)实际上正在运行一个实验,一个很少甚至未曾出现过人类历史先例的实验。这个实验将测试当一个文化去系统地,全面地否认所有人们公认的价值观,善恶观,荣辱观时,会发生什么。Moral and religious traditionalists have seen this coming and warned about its consequences for years. And indeed, they are the ones raising the loudest ruckus about the New York interview.道德和宗教上的保守人士已经预见到这种情形并在多年来一直警告其后果。事实上,他们也是对纽约的采访反响最大的。I share some of their concerns. But there are at least two problems with their analysis of the experiment.我对他们的担心有一些赞同,但他们的实验分析至少存在两个问题。First, the trads are wrong to blame the purging of publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing on the sp of relativism. Viewed from inside traditionalist notions of virtue and vice, a culture that seeks to redefine ;normal; to include zoophilia might seem like a culture defined by relativism. But it isn#39;t. Rather, it#39;s a culture fervently devoted to the moral principle of equal recognition and affirmation — in a word, to an absolute ethic of niceness. Moral condemnation can be mean, and therefore it#39;s morally wrong — that#39;s the way growing numbers of Americans think about these issues.首先,传统人士不应该把大众价值观的丢失归咎于相对主义的传播。从传统观念上美德和恶习的角度来看,一个试图将人兽交重新定义为“正常”的文明似乎是由相对主义定义的。但它并不是,相反,这个文明热烈地忠于某些道德准则,而这些道德准则基于公众的普遍认知与许可——总而言之,这个文明忠于绝对意义上的美德。道德上的谴责可以很残忍,因此它在道德上是错误的——这正是越来越多的美国人在思考这些问题时用的方式。Of course, these nonjudgmental Americans would think differently — they would continue to publicly affirm notions of human flourishing and condemn acts that diverge from the norm — if they confidently believed in the foundation of these judgments. But increasingly, they do not. Judeo-Christian piety used to supply it for many, but no longer.当然,这些不偏不倚的人们有着不同的见解,他们将继续肯定人类公认的价值观并谴责与之相违背的行为——只要他们能肯定地相信着这些判断的基准。然而这样的人却越来越少。犹太教和基督教带来的虔诚信仰提供了许多道德基准,但已不再有过去的影响力。Then there#39;s the option of basing our judgments on what conservative bioethicist Leon Kass once called ;the wisdom of repugnance; — that is, on our commonsense moral intuitions. But as the liberal philosopher Martha Nussbaum has argued, the ;ick factor; just isn#39;t a reliable basis on which to make moral evaluations. And we know that from lived experience. Interracial romances once seemed icky, but then they didn#39;t. Next it was homosexual acts that passed through the looking glass from repellant to respectable. Faced with this slippage and uncertainty — with a long string of reversals in moral judgment — it#39;s no wonder that the ethic of unconditional niceness increasingly trumps all other considerations.然后,出现了一种选择,让我们的判断基于保守派生物伦理学家Leon Kass一度所说的“厌恶的智慧”——就是说,基于我们的常识中的道德直觉。但如自由主义哲学家Martha Nussbaum所辩驳的那样,是否感觉“令人作呕”并非一个可靠的道德评估依据。我们从各种生活经验中已知道这一点。不同人种间的爱情曾经受到厌恶,后来则不会。然后同性恋行为也在经历从被排斥到被尊重的过程。面对这样的易变与不确定性——带有一大堆观点相抵的道德观——难怪有关无条件美德的伦理正日益压倒所有其他的观念。And that brings us to the second way in which the trads go wrong — in speaking confidently about how we#39;re ;galloping toward Gomorrah.; This implies that they know exactly where the experiment is going to end up. The truth is that they — and we — have no idea at all. Because there has never been a human society built exclusively on a morality of rights (individual consent) and an ethic of niceness, with no overarching vision of a higher human good to override or compete with it.而这让我们见识到了传统出现问题的第二个面向—— 自信的谈论我们如何”快速的接近罪恶之城”。这意味着他们知道这个实验的最终结局是怎样的。真相是他们——还有我们——根本就不知道结局是怎样的。因为人类历史中从来没有出现过单单以权利道德(个体的同意)和友善伦理为基础的人类社会,没有一个更高人类善行的总体设想来推翻它或者与它进行竞争。As I noted above, I find it hard to imagine that more than a tiny fraction of human beings will ever choose to engage in sex acts with animals, even if and when the taboo has been thoroughly deconstructed and the behavior mainstreamed by dozens of sympathetic stories in the media. I suspect the same is true about incest and polyamory. Most people will continue to live boring, mundane sex lives, monogamously committed to one human being of the opposite sex at a time.正如我在上面所提到的,我根本无法想像会有很多人愿意与动物性交,即使这样的禁忌被重新结构以及主流媒体对这样的行为表示同情。我觉得这样的道理同样可以应用在乱伦和一夫多妻制上。大多数人将继续过无聊的世俗的性生活,并且坚持异性的一夫一妻制。So what, then, is there to worry about? Why is this cultural experiment a big deal?所以还有什么好担忧的?这样的文化实验又有什么了不起的呢?Because it stands as a stunning testament to our ignorance about ourselves. Roughly 2,500 years since Socrates first raised the question of how we should live, several centuries since the Enlightenment encouraged us to seek and promulgate scientific knowledge about the universe and human nature, Western humanity seems to have come to the conclusion that we haven#39;t got a clue about an answer. There is no consensus whatsoever about what ways of life are intrinsically good or bad for human beings.因为它对于我们自身的无知给予一个惊人的明。大约2500年前苏格拉底首次提出我们应该如何生活的问题,几个世纪以来的启蒙文化促进我们去寻找和传播关于宇宙和人类的本性,西方人文科学好像得出了结论那就是我们还没有得到最终的。关于人类如何去生活在本质上没有评判的标准。为什么要结婚和有孩子呢?如果这是你想要的,当然听起来很不错。你准备好恋爱多元化了吗?只要每个人都同意,又有乐趣。那么和马谈恋爱做爱能怎么样呢?关键要确保没有人会伤害,伤害是狭隘的定义(包括物理伤害和侵犯个人喜好)。That#39;s all we#39;ve got. Or at least all we#39;re left with, now that we#39;ve shed the (ostensibly) discredited notions of human virtue that most people once affirmed.这是我们所拥有的一切文化。或者至少这些都被我们继承了,既然我们已经摆脱了虚伪的人类表面观念和美德。Is that good enough? Can we do without a publicly affirmed vision of human flourishing? Fulfilling personal preferences (whatever they happen to be), seeking consent in all interactions, and abiding by the imperative of universal niceness — is that sufficient to bring happiness? Or will a world that tells us in a million ways that we are radically undetermined in our ends leave us feeling empty, lost, alone, unmoored, at sea, spiritually adrift?那样足够好吗?我们可以脱离大众观念去那样做吗?满足个人偏好(无论他们发生什么),寻求交流的一致,尊重普世法则——这足以带来幸福吗?或者我们根本无法确定我们来自哪里去向何方(结局的无法预料),那种空虚,失落,孤独,无依无靠就像在大海中漂流然而这个世界用一百万种方式告诉我们那根本就无法解决。I have no idea.搞不懂哎。But I suspect we#39;re going to find out soon enough.但是我们会尽快搞清楚的。 /201501/3537603.Newspapers3.报刊雏形The Romans were known to contribute to public discourse through the use of official texts detailing military, legal and civil issues. Known as Acta Diurna, or ;daily acts,; these early newspapers were written on metal or stone and then posted in heavily trafficked areas like the Roman Forum. Acta are believed to have first appeared around 131 B.C. and typically included details of Roman military victories, lists of games and gladiatorial bouts, birth and death notices and even human interest stories. There was also an Acta Senatus, which detailed the proceedings of the Roman senate. These were traditionally withheld from public view until 59 B.C., when Julius Caesar ordered their publication as part of the many populist reforms he instituted during his first consulship.古罗马会发布《罗马公报》(或称《每日纪闻》),里面会涉及到处理军事、法律和民事的问题,让民众通过文章了解这些事项的结果;这些内容,会写在金属或刻在石头上,放在诸如古罗马广场这样的闹市区,供民众浏览,这便是报纸雏形。据考,《罗马公报》最早出现于公元前131年,设及内容相当广泛,包括罗马军事捷报、比赛事项、格斗回合场次、出生喜讯和讣告等,甚至还会写些民众喜欢的故事。此外还有《元老院记事录》,用来记录罗马元老院会议的讨论和决议,虽然也算报纸雏形,但其内容保密,禁止公诸于众。直到公元前59年,古罗马执政官尤列乌斯·凯撒(Julius Caesar)在第一任期内实行民主改革,下令公布元老院及公民大会的议事记录,这些内容才得以流传开来。2.Concrete2.混凝土Many ancient Roman structures like the Pantheon, the Colosseum and the Roman Forum are still standing today thanks to the development of Roman cement and concrete. The Romans first began building with concrete over 2,100 years ago and used it throughout the Mediterranean basin in everything from aqueducts and buildings to bridges and monuments. Roman concrete was considerably weaker than its modern counterpart, but it has proved remarkably durable thanks to its unique recipe, which used slaked lime and a volcanic ash known as pozzolana to create a sticky paste. Combined with volcanic rocks called tuff, this ancient cement formed a concrete that could effectively endure chemical decay. Pozzolana helped Roman concrete set quickly even when submerged in seawater, enabling the construction of elaborate baths, piers and harbors.罗马混凝土的出现使得许多古罗马建筑,诸如万神庙、斗兽场、古罗马广场屹立至今。罗马人首次利用混凝土建造房屋大约源于2100年前,那时,混凝土被广泛应用于地中海地区所有的建筑中,包括引水渠、桥梁以及纪念碑等等。罗马混凝土在强度上远不如现代混凝土,但罗马混凝土独特的成分使其更加持久耐用。罗马混凝土是罗马人利用熟石灰和一种在维苏威火山地区发现的粉尘物(Pozzolana)与水混合制成的具有高粘性的糊状物。加入了火山凝灰岩的罗马混凝土具有超强的抗化学腐蚀性,而维苏威火山地区的粉尘物(Pozzolana)使得罗马混凝土即使在海水中也能够迅速凝结硬化,得益于此,罗马人精心建造了浴场、码头和港口。1.Aqueducts1.引水渠The Romans enjoyed many amenities for their day, including public toilets, underground sewage systems, fountains and ornate public baths. None of these aquatic innovations would have been possible without the Roman aqueduct. First developed around 312 B.C., these engineering marvels used gravity to transport water along stone, lead and concrete pipelines and into city centers. Aqueducts liberated Roman cities from a reliance on nearby water supplies and proved priceless in promoting public health and sanitation. While the Romans did not invent the aqueduct—primitive canals for irrigation and water transport existed earlier in Egypt, Assyria and Babylon—they used their mastery of civil engineering to perfect the process. Hundreds of aqueducts eventually sprang up throughout the empire, some of which transported water as far as 60 miles. Perhaps most impressive of all, Roman aqueducts were so well built that some are still in use to this day. Rome#39;s famous Trevi Fountain, for instance, is supplied by a restored version of the Aqua Virgo, one of ancient Rome#39;s 11 aqueducts.古罗马拥有大量的公共设施,诸如公厕、地下排污系统,喷泉和公共浴池等等,大大方便了罗马人的生活。但是如果没有罗马引水渠的发明,一切与水有关的创新设施都将无法实现。第一条引水渠建造于公元前312年,在重力作用下,以石管、铅管和陶管作为输水管道把水引入城区。引水渠解决了罗马城的用水问题,对城市公共健康和卫生设施的发展也发挥了极其重要的作用。在引水渠出现之前,埃及、巴比伦和亚述人用原始运河引水灌溉,而罗马人则利用土木工程技术对运河进行改进,从而发明了引水渠。罗马帝国时期,数百条引水渠遍布整个帝国,其中一些水渠甚至长达60英里。水渠的伟大之处在于其历经千年岿然不动,时至今日,部分水渠仍在发挥作用,令人叹为观止。罗马著名的特莱维喷泉(Trevi Fountain)正是位于古罗马十一条大型水渠之一的维戈水渠(Aqua Virgo)的水源所在地。审校:省略珺 橘子 /201507/387725

Back in the 1990s when I was in my early teens, I was sent to the school office at Hoda Girls Middle School for being found in possession of a Michael Jackson tape.早在90年代当我还处在少年时,我被送到HODA女中的校办因为我被发现持有迈克尔杰克逊的录像带。The school counselor forced to deal with me pulled her headscarf forward and glanced warily at the tape on her desk. ;Do you know this singer? Does anybody know whether he is a man or a woman?; she asked, not waiting for an answer before continuing, ;they live like animals. They only want to satisfy their sexual urges. It makes no difference whether they sleep next to a man or a woman. They don#39;t care if they have babies from dogs or…;辅导员被迫向前扯下她的头巾来对付我,且谨慎地扫视了她桌上的录像带。“你知道这个歌手吗?有人知道他是男还是女吗?”她问道。没有等待再继续,“他们活的像个动物。他们只想满足他们的性冲动。他们是否睡在男人或女人旁都没有差别。如果他们的孩子来自于或是什么…他们也不会关心”She lowered her voice and asked me: ;Did you know that this very same singer or dancer or whatever you want to call him has relations with animals?; She pronounced the sentence as though she knew every detail of Michael Jackson#39;s relations with animals. It was the first time that I had ever heard about bestiality, something that according to my counselor was very common in the West.她降低了她的嗓音问我:“你知道这个歌手或舞者或无论什么你想称呼他的人与动物有交往吗?”她断然的宣判好像她知道迈克尔杰克逊和动物有交往的每个细节一样。这是我第一次听说兽交,在我辅导员看来某事在西方特别的寻常。I thought back to that moment in the school office when I statements this week by Mehdi Bayati, the cleric who directs Iran#39;s Strategic Center for Chastity and Modesty. Back when I was in middle school, both my religion teacher and that school counsellor dedicated long hours to how Western men and women have lost their taste for one another, how they are emotionally broken and have turned to animals to satisfy their desires. All this was meant to encourage young students to observe the Islamic hejab, instilling fears in what would become of a society in which women were not sufficiently chaste.当我读到这周Mehdi Bayati,一个指导伊朗的贞洁和谦逊的战略中心的牧师的报告时我回想起了在校办的那个时刻。在我念中学时,我的宗教老师和辅导员都长时间的专注于西方的男女是怎么失去对彼此的审美的,情感是怎么破裂的和怎么满足自己的欲望转向于动物的。所有的这一切是为了鼓励年轻的学生去观察穆斯林的面纱,逐渐灌输去恐惧一个女人不够纯洁的社会。Without hejab, deviance creeps in没有着装规定,越轨行为便蔓延开来(hejab:1.伊朗的着装规范,伊朗法律规定,女性在公共场合必须戴头巾(头发与脖颈不能外露),穿过臀的衣,如果穿裙子,则需至脚背。男性在公共场合则不能穿无袖衣或短裤2.也可指女性佩戴的头巾,面纱)Mehdi Bayati has been putting forward the same argument as my middle school teachers. ;The growth of feminism in the West and the fact the 60 percent of Western women prefer to sleep with dogs rather than men is the result of the absence of hejab and the diminished threshold of women#39;s sexual arousal,; he told the Resa News Agency, run by the Qom seminary.Mehdi Bayati一直在谈的的论点和我的初中老师们不谋而合。“西方女权运动的发展以及西方有60%的女性更愿意和动物睡觉而不是男人这个事实,正是西方着装规定的缺失和女性的性意识觉醒的门槛降低的后果。”他告诉库姆(伊朗西北部城市)神学院旗下的新闻通讯社。He did not specify the source of this figure, but referred to the provocative nature of women#39;s hair. ;It is said that the Prophet Mohammad stated that women#39;s hair sexually arouses men,; he said, conceded that ;perhaps modern science has not proven this; but ;it was said by somebody who only speaks the truth.;他没有具体说明数据的来源,然后他又提到了女性头发的撩拨人的天性。他说:“据说先知穆罕默德曾说过,女人头发性感地撩拨着男人”,尽管他承认“现代的科技可能无法明这种说法”,但(他同时又说道)“这是一位只说真理的人说的。”Invoking one of the less frequently discussed rationales for imposed dress codes, Bayati also said that ;the absence of hejab lowers the libido of men and this would not benefit women.;引用了一个争论较少的强制着装规范的根本原因(先知穆罕默德的话)之后,Bayati又说:“不戴头巾降低了男人的性欲而这对女性是不利的”Iranian clerics have long promoted Islamic hejab by arguing about sexual corruption or deviance in the West, but one of the strangest comments came earlier this year from the cleric Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary, a member of ultra-conservative Endurance Front and the head of an organization called Foundation for Promoting the Way of the Martyrs.伊朗的教士长期以来一直通过对西方的性堕落或者说性越轨行为的抨击进而来提倡伊斯兰教的着装规范,其中最奇怪的说法之一是今年早些时候由Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary提出的,他是极端保守忍耐阵线的一员,同时也是“发扬殉道者之路基金会”的领导者。Western satellite television can even pollute an embryo卫星电视甚至可以污染胎儿He declared that relations between Western women are sexually promiscuous in a manner not even found in the natural world. ;In the West when one woman has relations with several men, they take pride in it,” he said. “But animals are different and a female of the species does not have relations with several males at the same time.;他宣称西方女性的性生活的淫乱程度在动物界中甚至都找不到。“在西方,如果一个女人跟几个男性保持性关系,她们会引以为傲”他说到,“但是动物却不一样,雌性动物不会同时跟几个雄性保持性关系。”Mandegary, like many hardliners, believes Iranian culture has become too Westernized and distant from true Islamic culture. In a speech he asked Iranian men and women to abstain from sex after watching satellite TV so that the embryo would not be polluted by the banality. “Unfortunately some people are not careful about the moment of conception,” he said in warning. ;They do it after watching satellite TV and listening to inappropriate music. But all this affects the embryo.;跟许多强硬派一样, Mandegary认为伊朗文化已经被过分西化并且远离了真正的伊斯兰文化。在一次演讲中,他呼吁伊朗的男女在看完卫星电视之后不要发生关系,这样就可以使胎儿免于腐朽事物的污染。“不幸的是有一些人并不重视受的那一刻,”他警告说,“他们在看完卫星电视之后做爱并且听一些不合适的音乐。但是这些都会影响胎儿。”Even leggings have been pulled into the fray. Recently tight leg apparel has become the focus of controversy among Islamic Republic officials, and were even brought to the floor of parliament by the Tehran MP Ali Motahari. In an open session he displayed pictures of women in leggings and argued in remarks broadcast on television that ;sexual deviations, homosexuality and bestiality are results of unbridled behavior and the trampling of morality, which hejab would prevent.;甚至连打底裤都被牵连进了这场争论。最近紧身装已经成为伊朗官员们争论的焦点,并且还被德黑兰议员Ali Motahari展示给了伊朗议会的所有与会者,在一次公开的会议中,他展示了一些穿打底裤的女性的照片,并且在电视直播中争辩道:“性变态,同性恋以及人兽性交都是放纵行为以及践踏道德的后果,而头巾可以防止这些”Americans even kiss differently美国人甚至连亲吻都很奇特Another bizarre comment comes from Mohsen Gharaati, a cleric who is the representative of the Supreme Leader at the Literacy Campaign and a frequent TV personality. In a speech he declared that ;Westerners have been cheated when it comes to sex.; He then compared a kiss between an American boy and girl with the kisses that he used to get from his grandmother.另一种奇怪的言论来自Mohsen Gharaati,文化运动中最高领袖的代表同时也是一位经常上电视的电视名人。再一次演讲中他说道:“在涉及到性的方面时,西方人被愚弄了。”他接着把美国男孩女孩之间的接吻同他的祖母经常对他的亲吻做了比较。;When I was in America, I saw boys and girls who were kissing each other but it was as though they were kissing a brick wall,; he said. ;The kisses were not solid because perhaps this was the 96th person they were kissing that day. But when our grandmother kissed us it felt like she was sucking us in.; When the audience laughed he added that ;they think freedom would benefit them but they were cheated.;“当我在美国时,我发现男孩女孩在接吻的时候像是在亲吻墙壁一样,”他说,“这种接吻并不固定,因为很有可能对方是自己今天接吻的第九十六个人。但是当我们祖母亲吻我门的时候,他好像要把我们吞下去似的。”当听众笑的时候他又补充说道“他们认为自由会使他们受益,但是他们被欺骗了。”I turned to Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari, a reformist cleric who spent three years in prison for his political positions, to help me understand the religious or social context for such views. ;These words astonish me as much as they amaze you,; he said. ;I ask myself whether these gentleman are delusional or have been given wrong information. But I cannot find a clear answer for such nonsense.;Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari,一位主张改革的教士并且曾因他的政治主张而入狱三年,我向他请教,帮我找到这种观点的宗教或者社会方面的背景。“这些话不仅使你,也同样使我十分惊讶,”他说,“我不知道他们是在欺骗大众或者是得到的消息有误。但是对于这些胡言乱语我(无论从社会方面还是宗教方面都)找不到一个合理的解释”A sensible cleric#39;s view一位理智的教士的观点Eshkevari noted that such views have a long history, and cited Abolhassan Banisadr, the first president of the Islamic Republic, who returned from Paris and justified imposed hejab by saying that #39;women#39;s hair radiates a spark that arouses men.#39;Eshkevari注意到,这类观点在很早以前就有了,并且举出一个例子——伊朗首任总统Abolhassan Banisadr,他从巴黎回国之后说:“女性的头发散发着一种刺激男性性欲的气质”通过这来明强制要求佩戴头巾是正确的。Banisadr, according to Eshkevari, also interpreted a Koranic verse to mean that some women aroused when beaten. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi interpreted the same verse in the same way about seven years ago, Eshkevari says, concluding that physical harm arouses some women. ;If an Islamic thinker and a Western-educated man such as Banisadr resorts to everything to justify himself, what do you expect from Ayatollah Shirazi?; Eshkevari said.据Eshkevari说,Banisadr还把《古兰经》中的一个章节诠释为“当女性被打时,她们的性欲会被激起”,“伊朗伊斯兰教什叶派领袖Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi在七年前也用相同的方法解释了同一章节,” Eshkevari说,“并且得出结论:人身伤害会激起一些女性的性欲。”“如果一个伊斯兰教的思想家,并且接受过西方的教育,像是Banisadr,都不择手段地来明自己是正确的,那么对于Ayatollah Shirazi还能有什么期待呢?”他说道。But it is not only clerics and Islamic ideologues who use offensive words and images to describe the sexual life of Westerners. Last winter the commander of the Basij paramilitary force General Naghdi used this theme to criticize nuclear negotiations with the Americans. “Thirty-five percent of babies who are born in America are bastards,” he said, without citing a source for his statistics.但是不只是教士和伊斯兰教理论家使用攻击性的语言或者比喻来描述西方人的性生活。去年冬天,准军事力量组织Basji(伊斯兰武装力量动员队)的指挥官Naghdi将军就曾就这个方面来批评伊朗与美国进行的核谈判。“在美国出生的婴儿有35%都是私生子,”他说道,但并没有指出数据的来源。All manner of Godlessness in the West西方的所有不敬神的行为A few months later Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, a member of Iran#39;s Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, went even further in a speech about human rights. ;In Western societies 75 percent of children do not know their fathers and are raised by their mothers,; he told his audience. Defending death by stoning he asked ;Why do Western countries consider this punishment against human rights?; He answered his own question by saying that ;there are no sexual complexes in Islam because in Islam marriage makes faith complete whereas in Christianity marriage is not a godly affair.;几个月之后,伊朗文化革命最高委员会成员之一Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi进行了一次更深层次的关于人权的演讲,他告诉听众:“在西方社会,有75%的孩子是完全由母亲抚养长大的,他们不知道自己的父亲是谁。”为了给石刑(注:一种钝击致死的死刑执行方式,即埋入沙土用乱石砸死)辩护,他问道:“为什么西方国家认为这种刑罚违背了人权?”他自问自答的说道:“伊朗没有混乱的性关系是因为在伊朗,婚姻给人以彻底的信念(生活下去),而基督教的婚姻却不是一件神圣的事情。”Last month Hassan Abbasi, the head of the Center for Doctrinal Strategic Studies in the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps and a theoretician in the office of Supreme Leader, claimed that the ;Western human rights approves of incest. Incest is very rare in animals but the Western man has debased himself so much that he supports incest as a human right.;上个月,伊斯兰革命卫队的宗教战略所的带头人、最高领袖办公室的专家组成员之一Hassan Abbasi讲到:“西方所谓的人权提倡乱伦,而乱伦即使在动物界中也很少见,但西方人却自取其辱的把乱伦也认为是人的一种权利。”;In America 100 percent of men have free sexual relations after marriage,; he said in another speech, which was aired on TV. ;While in Iran perhaps two men out of ten thousand might marry a second wife. Listen to them shout about equality between men and women.;“在美国,每个男人在婚后都会依旧保持自由的性生活”他在另一个电视上公开的演讲上说到,“然而在伊朗,一万个男人中可能最多有两个人会娶第二个妻子。听听,(这就是)他们叫嚷着的男女平等!”Abbasi then referred to Anousheh Ansari, an Iranian-American astronaut and the first Iranian woman in space. ;The basis of the Shi#39;a thought is chastity and the West uses women to destroy Shi#39;ism. Why did they send this woman Anousheh Ansari into space with a few men? They want to kill chastity. This is the main plank of feminism and feminism is the foundation of American lifestyle.;Abbasi接下来又提到了Anousheh Ansari,一个伊朗裔美籍女宇航员并且是第一个进入太空的伊朗女性。“什叶派的基本思想就是(保持)贞洁,而西方却通过女人来破坏什叶派的教义。他们为什么会把Anousheh Ansari这个女人和几个男性宇航员一块送入太空?他们想消灭贞洁。这也是女权运动的基本纲领并且女权主义又是美国生活方式的基础”Reading and researching such statements, I wonder how widely held such attitudes still are today, among mainstream Iranians. On a whim I went on Facebook and searched for my old school counselor, who in her profile picture still wears hejab but not as strictly as in those days.阅读并且研究这些说法之后,我在想,当今伊朗人的主流社会中人有多大范围的人持有这种观点。由于一时的性质,我到脸谱网上搜索了一下以前我们学校的辅导员,在她的一张侧面的相片中她仍然戴着头巾,但并没有以前那么严格了。I noticed a picture of her daughter, who was our classmate, and out of curiosity visited her page. She was not wearing hejab but more surprising that that, is married to an Englishman. I was reminded of what her mother, the school counselor, told us so many years ago: ;Ninety percent of Westerners have sexual problems. They are not aroused and most of them have relations with animals.;我注意到她女儿的一张相片,我跟她女儿是同学,由于好奇我访问了她的主页。我发现她并没有戴头巾,并且更使人惊讶的是她跟一个英国男人结婚了。这是我想起了她的母亲,我们学校的辅导员,曾经告诉我们说:“90%的西方人都有性方面的问题。他们很难被激起性欲并且他们大多数都跟动物发生关系” /201501/354104

Mit einem dreit#228;gigen Streik ab 2. April legen die Piloten die Lufthansa weitgehend lahm. Die Gewerkschaft Vereinigung Cockpit und die Unternehmensführung streiten um übergangsrenten sowie um Pl#228;ne von Lufthansa-Chef Carsten Spohr, eine neue Billigtochter zu gründen. Bis zum Jahresende werden die Piloten noch mehrfach in den Ausstand treten, der Konflikt ist bislang nicht beigelegt.4月2日开始持续3天的飞行员罢工令汉莎航空陷入瘫痪。公会与企业高层为了养老改革的过渡问题及汉莎总裁Carsten Spohr再成立一个新的子公司的计划争吵不休。之后直至年底飞行员又举行了多轮罢工,而冲突至今悬而未决。Am 4. April erschie#223;t ein Polizist in der afghanischen Provinz Ghost die deutsche Fotografin Anja Niedringhaus. Das Foto ist eine ihrer letzten Aufnahmen - es zeigt Frauen nahe Kabul, die sich für die Wahl registrieren. Am 25. Juli wird der Attent#228;ter in Kabul zum Tode verurteilt.4月4日,德国籍女摄影师Anja Niedringhaus在阿富汗的霍斯特省被一名警察开打死。这张照片是她的遗作之一。画面上展示了喀布尔附近进行选举登记的妇女。杀人凶手于7月25日在喀布尔被判处死刑。Am 13. April greift ein Waldbrand auf die chilenische Hafenstadt Valparaiso über. 2900 H#228;user gehen in Flammen auf. Mindestens 15 Menschen kommen ums Leben.4月13日,一场森林大火袭击了智利的港口城市瓦尔帕瑞索。2900座房屋被焚毁,至少15人遇难。Am 14. April verschleppt die radikalislamische Miliz Boko Haram mehr als 200 Schülerinnen aus einer Schule in Chibok im Norden Nigerias. In Lagos demonstrieren Einheimische immer wieder für die Freilassung. Auch international beteiligen sich Prominente wie Amerikas First Lady Michelle Obama oder die Schauspielerin Angelina Jolie an der Kampagne ;Bring Back Our Girls;. Mehrere M#228;dchen k#246;nnen sp#228;ter fliehen, doch von den meisten fehlt bis heute jede Spur.4月14日,极端伊斯兰武装科圣地在尼日利亚北部城市Chibok的一所学校中绑架了超过200名女生。在拉各斯,当地人持续游行要求释放这些女生。国际社会也给予了持,包括美国第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马以及演员安杰利娜·朱莉等人都参加了“还我们女儿”的运动。一些女孩后来逃了出来,但是大多数人至今依然下落不明。Am 16. April sterben bei einem Schiffsunglück vor der südkoreanischen Küste mindestens 295 Menschen. An Bord der F#228;hre ;Sewol; waren 476 Personen, darunter viele Schüler. Das Schiff soll überladen gewesen sein. Der Kapit#228;n wird am 11. November zu 36 Jahren Haft verurteilt. Das Foto zeigt Angeh#246;rige von Passagieren, die vom Ufer aus die Bergungsarbeiten beobachten.4月16日,韩国海岸发生了造成至少295人死亡的海难。“世越号”上载有476名旅客,包括许多学生。这艘船严重超载。船长于11月11日被判处36年监禁。这张照片展示了乘客的亲属在岸边看着救援工作的进行。Bei einem Lawinenunglück am 18. April kommen am Mount Everest 16 Sherpas - nepalesische Bergführer - ums Leben. Von den rund 8000 Euro Gebühren, die jeder Everest-Tourist zahlen muss, bekommen die Sherpas nur einen Bruchteil. Versichert sind die meisten nicht. Seit 1953 haben mehr als 3000 Menschen mit Hilfe der #246;rtlichen Sherpas den 8850 Meter hohen Berg erklommen. Mehr als 400 Menschen starben dabei.4月18日,珠穆朗玛峰上的一场雪崩造成16名夏尔巴人遇难。夏尔巴人是尼泊尔籍登山向导的称呼,每一名珠峰游客要缴纳大约8000欧元的费用,而夏尔巴人只能得到其中微不足道的一部分,而且他们大多数人没有保险。自1953年以来已经有超过3000人在当地夏尔巴人的帮助下登上了这座8850米高的山峰,超过400人死在了途中。Papst Franziskus spricht am 27. April vor Hunderttausenden Gl#228;ubigen in Rom seine Vorg#228;nger Johannes XXIII. (1958-1963) und Johannes Paul II. (1978-2005) heilig. Dies ist bisher einmalig in der Kirchengeschichte.4月27日,教皇方济各在罗马数十万名信徒面前册封其前任若望二十三世及保禄二世为圣人。这在教会历史上还是头一遭。Mit dem Song ;Rise like a Phoenix; gewinnt die #246;sterreichische Dragqueen Conchita Wurst am 10. Mai den 59. European Song Contest.5月10日,奥地利异装癖歌手肯奇塔·沃斯特以一曲“如凤凰般升起”获得了第59届欧洲歌唱大赛冠军。In Serbien und Bosnien-Herzegowina setzen die schlimmsten Regenf#228;lle seit 120 Jahren Mitte Mai ganze Landstriche unter Wasser.5月中旬,塞尔维亚和波黑迎来了120年内最大的降雨,整个国家都泡在了水里。Nach umstrittenen Referenden in der Ostukraine sagen sich Separatisten in den Gebieten Lugansk und Donezk von Kiew los. Sie wollen künftig zu Russland geh#246;ren.在充满争议的公投后,东乌克兰的分裂分子宣布卢甘斯克和顿涅茨克脱离基辅。他们也想在日后并入俄罗斯。Am 12. Mai enden nach mehreren Wochen die Parlamentswahlen in Indien. Die hindu-nationalistische Partei BJP erzielt die absolute Mehrheit im Unterhaus. Ihr umstrittener Spitzenkandidat Narendra Modi wird neuer Ministerpr#228;sident. Die Entscheidung beunruhigt vor allem Muslime. Denn Kritiker werfen Modi vor, Hass gegen Minderheiten zu schüren und für ein Massaker an Muslimen im Jahr 2002 mitverantwortlich zu sein.5月12日,持续数周的印度议会选举结束。印度民族主义政党BJP获得了绝对多数的持。极富争议的党魁穆迪成为新任印度总理。这一结果首先激怒了穆斯林。批评者指责穆迪敌视少数民族,并对2002年发生的屠杀穆斯林事件负有责任。Bei einem Grubenunglück in der westtürkischen Stadt Soma sterben 301 Bergleute. 485 Arbeiter werden gerettet. Das Unglück l#246;st erneut massive Proteste gegen Ministerpr#228;sident Recep Tayyip Erdogan aus, der bei einem Besuch in Soma solche Unglücke als unvermeidlich bezeichnet.土耳其西部城市索玛的一场矿难造成301名矿工遇难。485人获救。这场矿难引发了一系列反对总理埃尔多安的抗议,因为他在访问索玛时声称类似的事故是无法避免的。Viele Betroffene des Grubenunglücks werfen der türkischen Regierung Gleichgültigkeit vor. Besonders emp#246;rt sie, dass Erdogan-Berater Yusuf Yerkel w#228;hrend einer Demonstration gegen die Regierung auf einen Demonstranten eintritt. Erdogan entl#228;sst ihn daraufhin.许多矿难的受害者指责土耳其政府对他们漠不关心。最令他们的愤怒的是,埃尔多安的顾问Yusuf Yerkel在反政府的游行中脚踢一名示威者。埃尔多安随后将其解雇。Bei einem Anschlag auf das Jüdische Museum in Brüssel am 24. Mai erschie#223;t der franz#246;sische Islamist Mehdi Nemmouche vier Menschen. Er wird in Marseille verhaftet und nach Belgien ausgeliefert.5月24日,布鲁塞尔的犹太人物馆遭到袭击。法国籍极端穆斯林Mehdi Nemmouche杀了4人。他在马赛被捕并被移交给比利时。Papst Franziskus betet am 25. Mai an der Grenzbefestigung zwischen Israel und dem Westjordanland in Bethlehem. Er besucht zum ersten Mal den Nahen Osten.5月25日,教皇方济各在伯利恒的边防站祷告。这是他第一次访问中东。Am 25. Mai gewinnt Petro Poroschenko mit rund 54 Prozent die Pr#228;sidentenwahl in der Ukraine. Ex-Regierungschefin Julia Timoschenko erh#228;lt nur 13 Prozent. Der Milliard#228;r und Besitzer eines Sü#223;warenkonzerns war einer der wichtigsten Geldgeber der Opposition, gilt aber dennoch als pragmatisch und kompromissf#228;hig. Den W#228;hlern verspricht er eine weitere Ann#228;herung an die EU.5月25日,波罗申科以54%的得票率赢得乌克兰总统大选。前总理提莫申科只获得了13%的选票。这位百万富翁兼糖果业大亨是反对派最大的金主之一,不过他被视为一个务实且愿意妥协的人。他向选民保会进一步向欧盟靠拢。Am 25. Mai wird auch das europ#228;ische Parlament gew#228;hlt. Die konservative Europ#228;ische Volkspartei landet mit 29,4 Prozent vorn, gefolgt von der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Europas (25,4). Die Wahlbeteiligung sinkt auf 42,5 Prozent. In vielen Mitgliedsl#228;ndern verzeichnen die rechtspopulistischen Parteien starke Zugewinne.5月25日,欧洲议会也进行了大选。保守的欧洲人民党获得了29.4%的持率,紧随其后的是欧洲社会民主党(25.4%)。投票率降到了42.5%。在许多国家右翼民粹主义政党都获得了大胜。Start einer Sojus-Raket am 28. Mai in Baikonur in der kasachischen Steppe. Mit an Bord ist der deutsche Astronaut Alexander Gerst. Bis zum 10. November bleibt er in der Internationalen Raumstation ISS.5月28日,联盟号火箭在哈斯克斯坦拜科努尔发射升空。德国宇航员Alexander Gerst随火箭前往国际空间站并一直待到了11月10日。In der Nacht auf den 28. Mai überwinden Hunderte Afrikaner die Grenzz#228;une zur spanischen Enklave Melilla in Nordafrika. Laut Flüchtlingshilfswerk UNHCR versuchen im Jahr 2014 zudem mehr als 207.000 Menschen, über das Mittelmeer nach Europa zu fliehen. Bei der gef#228;hrlichen überfahrt seien mindestens 3419 Menschen ertrunken oder verdurstet.5月28日夜,数百名非洲人越过了西班牙在北非的飞地梅里亚的边境。根据联合国难民组织的统计,在2014年共有207000人试图通过地中海前往欧洲。至少3419人在这趟危险的航行中淹死或渴死。Am 2. Juni kündigt K#246;nig Juan Carlos von Spanien seine Abdankung an. Der Monarch hatte fast 40 Jahre lang an der Spitze Spaniens gestanden und vor allem den übergang seines Landes von der Franco-Diktatur zur Demokratie gepr#228;gt. Zuletzt hatten aber mehrere Skandale seinen Ruf angekratzt.6月2日,西班牙国王胡安·卡洛斯宣布退位。他在位40年,帮助国家从弗朗哥独裁统治过渡为民主政体。不过最近发生的一系列丑闻损害了他的声望。In Hongkong sind Zehntausende in den Victoria-Park gekommen, um der Opfer des Massakers in Peking vom 4. Juni 1989 zu gedenken. Die Menschen stehen auf den sechs Fu#223;ballfeldern des Parks und halten Kerzen in den H#228;nden. Hongkong ist der einzige Ort in China, an dem an die blutigen Ereignisse erinnert werden darf. Die ehemalige britische Kronkolonie wird als eigenes Territorium nach dem Grundsatz ;ein Land, zwei Systeme; autonom verwaltet.香港,数十万人聚集在维多利亚公园纪念8x8事件中的牺牲者。人们手捧蜡烛站满了公园里的6个足球场。香港是中国唯一一个允许纪念此事件的地方。这个前英国殖民地依照“一国两制”的原则进行自治。In der Normandie wird am 5. Juni der Landung der Alliierten vor 70 Jahren gedacht. Am Himmel sind Fallschirmspringer zu sehen. Sie wollen mit der Aktion an die Absprünge w#228;hrend des D-Day erinnern.6月5日,诺曼底纪念盟军登陆70周年。天空中可以看到降落伞,他们想用跳伞活动来纪念D-Day。Im Norden des Irak fliehen Hunderttausende aus der Stadt Mossul in die kurdischen Gebiete des Landes. Die Terrormiliz IS hatte zuvor weite Teile der Gro#223;stadt sowie wichtige Verwaltungsgeb#228;ude, Milit#228;rposten und den Flughafen eingenommen.伊拉克北部,数十万人逃离苏尔前往库尔德人地区。恐怖组织伊斯兰国占领了苏尔的许多城区,包括重要的管理机关、军事据点和机场。In Nordrhein-Westfalen verursacht ein Unwetter schwere Sch#228;den. Sechs Menschen sterben. Das Foto zeigt eine Stra#223;e bei Schmallenberg im Sauerland nach einem Hagelschauer.北威州的极端天气造成了大量损害,并导致6人死亡。照片上是雹暴后的道路。Zwei m#228;chtige Tornados bewegen sich am 16. Juni mit einem Abstand von nicht einmal einem Kilometer auf den Ort Pilger im US-Bundesstaat Nebraska zu. Sie zerst#246;ren den kleinen Ort fast vollst#228;ndig.6月16日,两场强力的龙卷风在距离美国内布拉斯加州小镇不到一公里的地方多次掠过。它们彻底摧毁了这个小地方。Am 12. Juni beginnt die Fu#223;ball-Weltmeisterschaft in Brasilien. Am 16. Juni besucht Bundeskanzlerin Merkel die deutsche Mannschaft in der Kabine. Die Stimmung ist sichtlich gel#246;st - die DFB-Elf hatte zuvor in ihrem Auftaktspiel Portugal mit 4:0 besiegt.6月12日,巴西世界杯开幕。6月16日总理默克尔拜访了德国队的更衣室。大家的心情看起来都很不错,它们刚刚在揭幕战上以4:0击败了葡萄牙。Elf Tage nach seinem Unfall wird der deutsche Forscher Johann Westhauser aus Deutschlands tiefster H#246;hle, der Riesending-H#246;hle in den Berchtesgadener Alpen, gerettet. Er hatte sich bei einem Steinschlag in 1000 Meter Tiefe den Kopf verletzt. An der spektakul#228;ren Rettungsaktion beteiligen sich Hunderte Helfer auf fünf L#228;ndern - sie ziehen und tragen Westhauser über Tage durch enge Sch#228;chte, Schluchten und senkrechte W#228;nde.德国研究院Johann Westhauser在遭遇事故11天后被从人位于贝希特斯加登阿尔卑斯山脉的德国最深的雷森丁洞穴中救出。他在1000米深的地方被落石击中了头部。来自5个国家的数百名救援者参与了救援行动,他们耗费了数天的时间,用拖拉和背负的方式通过狭窄的坑道和垂直的洞壁把Westhauser弄了出来。Am 19. Juni tritt Felipe VI. die Nachfolge seines Vaters Juan Carlos als spanischer K#246;nig an. Der 46-j#228;hrige Monarch schw#246;rt im Madrider Parlament, die in der Verfassung festgelegten Aufgaben zu erfüllen.6月19日,费利佩六世继承父亲胡安·卡洛斯成为西班牙新国王。这位46岁的君主在马德里议会宣誓要完成宪法赋予他的使命。Am 29. Juni ruft die Terrormiliz Islamischer Staat (IS) in Syrien und im Irak ein islamisches ;Kalifat; aus.6月29日,恐怖组织伊斯兰国宣布在叙利亚和伊拉克建立“哈里发”国。Am 30. Juni werden in der N#228;he von Hebron im Westjordanland die Leichen dreier israelischer Jugendlicher gefunden. Die jungen M#228;nner waren zwei Wochen zuvor entführt worden, die radikalislamische Hamas bekennt sich sp#228;ter zu der Tat. Kurz vor dem Fund hatten noch Tausende Israelis in Tel Aviv für die Freilassung der Schüler demonstriert. Als Anfang Juli ein pal#228;stinensischer Jugendlicher verschleppt und ebenfalls ermordet wird - mutma#223;lich ein Racheakt - setzt dies eine Spirale der Gewalt in Gang.6月30日,在靠近希伯伦的约旦河西岸地区发现了3名以色列少年的尸体。这三人于两周前被绑架,极端伊斯兰组织哈马斯后来宣称对此事件负责。就在发现尸体前不久,数千名以色列人还在特拉维夫游行要求释放这几个学生。7月初,一名巴勒斯坦少年在被绑架后遭到杀害——这可能是一次报复行动——又一轮暴力循环由此拉开帷幕。 /201412/351341

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