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2019年06月18日 12:51:46    日报  参与评论()人

哈尔滨维多利亚妇产医院人流多少钱伊春市处女膜修复多少钱哈尔滨人流费用咨询 随着经济的发展,人类对环境的污染也日益严峻。在交额烂头之时,我们将目光交给那些兢兢业业的专家们。政府间气候变化专门委员会成立于1988年,专家组成员曾于2007年被联合授予诺贝尔和平奖。它最初是由联合国环境保护项目和世界气象组织联合发起组织的,目的是为了定期整合已有的关于气候变化原因与后果的研究结果和学界对这些研究结果的反应。专家组通常会提供大篇的技术报告及相应的简短摘要,用以描述社会发展对于气候变化产生的可能影响。然而,各国政府的“言行不一”让专家组的一些领导人不得不站出来,明确表示他们对于政策制定的意见,科学并不能告诉社会该做些什么,因为现实并不像理论上的那样简单。Can Climate Panel(专门小组) Have Climate Impact?I have an article in Tuesday’s Science Times(《科学时报》) assessing next steps for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(政府气候变化专门委员会). The panel, which shared the Nobel Peace Prize (诺贝尔和平奖)in 2007, was created in 1988 under the ed Nations Environment Program and World Meteorological Organization (联合国环境计划署和世界气象局)to aid governments by periodically reviewing the accumulated research on the causes and consequences of climate change and possible responses. But it was proscribed from recommending particular courses of action. The task of being policy relevant but policy neutral has become ever tougher, it seems. The massive(大量的) reports and shorter summaries(摘要) are certainly relevant to global and national energy policies, describing the possible climatic outcomes of a wide range of societal paths, from business as usual to aggressive emissions curbs. But so far, as the article notes, there’s scant(缺乏) evidence that world leaders, while lauding(赞美) the climate panel and publicly accepting its periodic conclusions, are taking them to heart. That disconnect(言行不一致) has prompted some leaders of the climate panel, including Rajendra K. Pachauri, its chairman since 2002, to speak out (毫无保留地说出)strongly in favor of certain policy choices, from deep cuts in emissions by developed countries (从降低发达国家的有害物质排放量)to steps taken on energy and climate by President Obama and Congress in the ed States. In an interview, Dr. Pachauri ily acknowledged that he presses for particular actions(明确地承认曾表达过类似的意见), but said he does so as an individual(但是是个人观点). He said this does not present a conflict. “When I e from the I.P.C.C(专家组的调查报告). I make sure that whatever I say is totally accurate,” he said. “But that doesn’t prevent me from expressing my own views. I do get criticism, but if you stand still you won’t get anywhere.” Gerbrand Komen, who was the longtime head of the Dutch government delegation at climate-panel plenary meetings(荷兰政府代表团的负责人参加专家组的全体大会) and is a former director of climate research at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute(荷兰皇家气象学院), said that the climate panel is, in essence, presenting mixed messages and assuming mixed roles. “I like to distinguish people trying to understand the world and people trying to change the world,” Dr. Komen said in an email. “I.P.C.C. (’policy relevant, but not policy prescriptive’(政策相关但不引导政策制定)) is in between. In all three groups [the climate panel's working groups on the science(科学问题组), impacts and adaptive response(气候变化影响和适应性应对组) and mitigation of human-caused warming(人为原因导致气候变暖应对组)] there are people that ignore uncertainty bands, and emphasize extremes, for various reasons: be it curiosity or the wish to influence policy. Modelers sometimes tend to forget that their models are only models.”Discussions of climate science and policy have seen endless fights over the appropriate role of scientists. Should they limit themselves to laying out the evidence, uncertainties and all, and let society respond however it may? Or should they be as free as any citizen to dive into the policy debate, as James Hansen of NASA and Dr. Pachauri (who is an engineer and economist) have done? And if you endorse such actions by Dr. Hansen(如果你赞同汉森士的说法), can you criticize them when the scientist/advocate stakes an entirely different ideological or economic position? In 2007, on the C-Span program “Close Up at the Newseum(聚焦新闻物馆),” I asked Patrick J. Michaels, a climatologist working with the Cato Institute who unabashedly labels his work “ advocacy science,” just what that phrase means. He offered a defense reaching back to Thomas Jefferson’s encouragement of scientists to be citizens.In the end, many people in this arena insist, the science frames the discussion, providing the best picture of consequences and opportunities while laying out ranges of risk and uncertainty. In its 21 years, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(政府气候变化专门委员会) has played a unique role in facilitating just that framing, many panel members and experts on science and policy say. But in the end, I hear again and again, science doesn’t have a role in telling society what to do. If only things were that simple. Kenneth Caldeira, a climate specialist whom I’ve interviewed about ocean acidification(海洋酸化), geo-engineering(地质工程学), climate tipping points(气候剧变点) and other questions, says there is substantial peril in “describing policy prescriptions as if they’re a scientific conclusion.” He bases his thinking on some fundamentals of philosophy, as laid out by David Hume long ago. “You can’t get an ought from an is,(你不能仅从事实的描述中推出我们现实中应该做什么)” Dr. Caldeira told me.Keke View:政府间气候变化专业委员会(IPCC)IPCC是一个政府间机构,它向UNEP和WMO所有成员国开放。在大约每年一次的委员会全会上,就它的结构、原则、程序和工作计划作出决定,并选举主席和主席团。全会使用六种联合国官方语言。 IPCC设有三个工作组:第一工作组评估气候系统和气候变化的科学问题;第二工作组的工作针对气候变化导致社会经济和自然系统的脆弱性、气候变化的正负两方面后果及其适应方案;第三工作组评估限制温室气体排放和减缓气候变化的方案。另外还设立一个国家温室气体清单专题组。每个工作组(专题组)设两名联合主席,分别来自发展中国家和发达国家,其下设一个技术持组。 /200908/80752哈尔滨治疗宫颈炎的妇科医院

黑龙江省哈尔滨第五医院咨询师哈尔滨女性医院哪家好 I#39;ve been snapping photos of everything in front of me for the last week. If we#39;ve passed, even for a moment, I probably have a picture of your face.过去一周我一直在抓拍出现我面前的每样东西。如果我们曾擦肩而过,哪怕就一瞬间,我也可能会有你的脸部照片。I#39;m not a spy, but I#39;ve been using gear you might associate with 007. New matchbook-size cameras that clip to your tie or shirt let you capture a day#39;s worth of encounters, then upload them to the Internet to be remembered forever.我并非间谍,但我的装备也许会让你想到007。新式的火柴盒大小的相机可夹在领带或衬衫上,让你能够抓拍值得记录的瞬间,然后上传至互联网永久保存。Why on Earth would anybody want to do that? After trying out two devices that recently began shipping, the 9 Narrative Clip and 9 Autographer, I think the answer for many will be why wouldn#39;t you?怎么会有人想干这种事?在试用了新近上市的279美元的Narrative Clip和399美元的Autographer两款设备之后,我想对很多人来说,是为什么不呢?Yes, I took gigabytes of boring photos of me sitting in front of a computer at work. But when I took the tiny cameras hiking or hanging out with kids, they produced Instagram-worthy shots. (I also discovered surprising uses, like when I scanned my photo log to discover where I#39;d misplaced my watch.)没错,我拍了大量自己坐在电脑前工作的无聊照片。但当我徒步或和孩子们出去玩的时候,这些袖珍相机会拍出很适合分享到Instagram的快照。(我还发现了意外的妙用,比如通过检索照片记录来找出我把手表丢在了哪里。)Wearable cameras are a potential solution to the growing annoyance of people holding their phones in front of their faces throughout birthday parties, concerts and other important moments, instead of just living them.在生日聚会、音乐会及其他重要场合,人们总是把手机举在面前到处拍,而不懂得享受当下,这样的行为越来越令人讨厌。可穿戴相机或许是很好的解决办法。But there#39;s a cost to amassing so much photographic evidence. The tiny cameras made others uncomfortable when they found out they were being recorded. Some friends wouldn#39;t hug me; gossiping colleagues kept asking, #39;Is that thing on?#39; These devices upset a fundamental (though arguably flawed) assumption that even in public, you aren#39;t being recorded.但要积累足够多的照片也不是轻而易举的事。当人们发现袖珍相机正在拍摄自己时,会感到很不自在。一些朋友不再拥抱我了;八卦的同事们总是问:“那玩意儿开着吗?”这类设备颠覆了一个基本观念(虽然不一定正确):就算是在公开场合,随便拍人也是不应该的。Makes you squirm, doesn#39;t it? One reason I wanted to review these cameras is that this kind of technology isn#39;t going away. #39;Always on#39; cameras are becoming popular in home electronics like the Xbox One and a new wave of streaming security systems. Now you can buy cameras that attach to your wrist, ear, bike helmet and eyeglasses.让人不舒,对吧?我之所以想对这种相机发表的一个原因是此类技术正方兴未艾。“无间断”摄像头正在Xbox One等家用电子设备以及新一轮流媒体视频安全系统产品中日益受到追捧。现如今,你可以买到戴在手腕和耳朵上、安装在自行车头盔和眼镜上的相机了。The two cameras I tested are meant for everyday use. On the surface, they seem very similar: plastic clip-ons that silently take photos and store them until you upload them to a phone or computer. They arrange the photos in a contact sheet on your phone and use software to highlight the most interesting shots, or give you a sped-up of your day.我试用的这两款相机是为日常使用设计的。其外观大同小异,都是可夹式塑料外壳,它们默默地拍照并存储,直到你把照片上传到手机或电脑里。它们把照片储存在手机的图片索引里,还会用软件高亮最有趣的照片,或者快速播放照片,以视频的形式把你的一天呈现出来。The Narrative is the least obtrusive. It could be easily mistaken for a tie clip. The Narrative has no buttons or screen, and just one function: It takes a photo of whatever is in front of it every 30 seconds, more than 2,000 a day, with quality comparable to the iPhone 4#39;s camera.Narrative很不起眼,很容易被误认为是领带夹。它没有按键和显示屏,只有一个功能:每隔30秒拍下它面前的景象。一天下来就有超过2,000张照片,其画质堪比iPhone 4的摄像头。A sensor makes sure the photos are always upright, no matter how the clip is oriented, while a GPS chip inside notes where you are each time it takes the photo. Tap on the Narrative twice and it will snap a photo right away.无论相机处于何种方位,它的感应器都会确保照片端正。同时,内置的GPS芯片会记录每张照片的拍摄地点。连续敲击两下,相机就会立刻抓拍一张。The pricier Autographer is three times larger, making it flop over when I attached it to my shirt pocket. It packs a 5-megapixel camera with fisheye lens and five sensors -- including an accelerometer, compass and thermometer -- in order to take a picture when it thinks your surroundings have changed. It can use Bluetooth to transfer shots wirelessly to a phone or computer right away. All of this extra tech means the battery lasts about 10 hours, compared with the Narrative#39;s 30.Autographer价格较贵,比Narrative大三倍,夹在衬衫衣兜上会外翻。它配置了一个500万像素的鱼眼镜头和五个传感器――其中包括加速计、指南针和温度计――这使它能感知周遭环境变化,及时拍照。它还可通过蓝牙即时把快照无线传输到手机或电脑上。所有这些额外的技术配置意味着它的电池只能续航约10小时,而Narrative是30小时。What are you supposed to do with all of those photos? More than 1,000 shots taken on my hike this Sunday weren#39;t worth keeping. But 15 were delightful, unposed shots of my friends and their kids at sunset. You can#39;t get a 7-year-old kid to look that naturally happy with a regular camera pointing in his face, but the candid camera did. I could imagine taking one of these cameras to special events or on vacation.该怎么处理这么多照片呢?我周日徒步途中有1000多张快照都没有保留价值,但有15张非常赞,抓拍到了我朋友和他们的孩子在日落时分最自然的瞬间。让一个七岁的孩子在普通镜头前表现得如此开心大方是不可能的,但袖珍相机做到了。我想我会带个袖珍相机去特殊活动或度假的。Judging based on price, shape and battery life, the Narrative would seem to be the better product. But after using both cameras, I realized the Autographer was superior because its design better respected my interactions with friends and strangers alike.综合价格、外形和电池续航来看,Narrative看起来是更好的产品。然而在试用过这两款相机之后,我意识到Autographer更胜一筹,因为它的设计更好地尊重了我与朋友及陌生人之间的互动。Very few people noticed I was wearing the Narrative#39;s tiny clip. It made me feel like a creep for not disclosing to friends and people on the street that I was photographing them. It offers no indication it#39;s taking a picture and continues snapping away unless you turn it over or put it into a pocket (which you need to remember to do when you go to places like the toilet). After wearing it for a few days, I decided to tape a camera icon on it.只有很少几个人注意到了我戴着Narrative。不告诉朋友和街上的行人自己在拍他们让我觉得自己像个怪人。它没有任何拍照提示,并且除非你把它翻过来或放进兜里(当你要去洗手间等场所时一定记住这点),否则它会不断地拍摄。在戴了几天之后,我决定给它贴上一个相机图标。The Autographer announces itself as a camera. Each time it snaps, a faint blue light flashes on its front. More important, its lens is highlighted by a bright yellow circle and has a rotating cover so everyone can see when it is and isn#39;t watching.Autographer则会标榜出自己的相机属性。当它拍照时,机身正面会闪一下微弱的蓝光。更重要的是,其镜头用一个醒目的黄圈标出,还有个旋转镜头盖,这样所有人都能看出它是否正在拍摄。In short, Autographer#39;s design helps keep people from being jerks. The fisheye lens means you can#39;t accidentally take head-on photos of people unless you are very close to their faces. Since the camera connects wirelessly to your phone, you can review your shots right away -- and delete shots if anybody asks. By default, Autographer only saves all your photos on your computer or phone rather than its own servers.简言之,Autographer的设计有助于防止人们被偷拍。鱼眼镜头使你不会无意间拍到别人的正脸,除非你离他们的面部非常近。由于它与你的手机无线连接,所以你可以立即查看照片,如果有人要求的话也可以立即删除。根据默认设置,Autographer只会把照片保存到你的电脑或手机内,而不是它自己的务器内。All these concerns are rooted in civility. There#39;s nothing actually illegal about using one of these cameras in most venues in the U.S., outside of restrooms, casinos and other businesses that expressly forbid them.所有这些顾虑都是出于礼仪考虑。除了洗手间、及其他明文禁止拍照的场所之外,在美国大部分场所使用这种相机都没什么不合法的。Narrative#39;s Swedish creators say their clip wouldn#39;t make a good spy camera because it isn#39;t as small as the latest snoop gear and its 30-second automatic timer is too arbitrary. Also, their research found people who spotted it did generally understand that the device was a camera. #39;If you want a camera to spy on your friends, we don#39;t want you as a customer,#39; company co-founder Oskar Kalmaru said, #39;And we intentionally made the Narrative Clip bad for use in cases like that.#39;Narrative的瑞典制造商称其产品并不是一款好的间谍相机,因为它没有最新的侦查装置小巧,并且30秒的自动计时器太刻板了。同时他们的研究表明,注意到Narrative的人基本上都会认识到它是个相机。公司联合创始人奥斯卡#12539;卡尔玛鲁(Oskar Kalmaru)说:“如果你想要一款相机来侦查你的朋友,那我们并不希望你成为我们的客户。我们是有意让Narrative Clip在这种情况下表现不佳的。”The U.K.-based makers of Autographer take the extraordinary step of including an etiquette guide in its box, with suggestions like #39;pause your image capture if you are in proximity to people you don#39;t know for a long period of time.#39;Autographer的英国制造商则更进一步,在包装盒内附上了一份礼仪指南,包括诸如“若您长时间近距离接触不认识的人,请暂停拍摄图像”这样的建议。For me, wearing either camera meant I was constantly on guard, y to turn it off if a situation became too private to capture.就我而言,戴着任何一款相机都意味着我得时刻保持警惕,如果遇到了不宜拍摄的私密场景,要马上把它关掉。We might eventually get used to the idea that we#39;re being constantly watched, but for now I think a baseline rule ought to be some kind of notice: I#39;m taking your photo.也许终有一天我们会习惯时刻被监视这个概念,但在现阶段我认为一个基本准则应当是某种告知:我正在给你拍照。The experience made me realize we need a big public conversation about how to live with ubiquitous sensors. Part of that means developing criteria to judge technology beyond basic hardware or software design. Let#39;s call it the #39;relationship test#39;: How does this piece of technology change not just my life, but how I interact with you?这两款相机的体验使我意识到,我们需要一场公开大讨论,讨论如何去忍受无处不在的传感器。这种讨论还意味着形成评判除基础软硬件设计之外的科技的标准,让我们称之为“关系测试”吧:这项技术如何改变了我的生活以及我与你互动的方式? /201402/276436大庆市妇科检查

黑龙江省哈尔滨二院生殖科 There are countless open source projects with crazy names in the software world today, but the vast majority of them never make it onto enterprises’ collective radar. Hadoop is an exception of pachydermic proportions.如今的软件界有着数不清的开源项目,它们拥有疯狂的名字,但其中的大多数从来都没有入过企业的法眼,只有Hadoop是个例外。Named after a child’s toy elephant, Hadoop is now powering big data applications at companies such as Yahoo YHOO 2.57% and Facebook FB -0.46% ; more than half of the Fortune 50 use it, providers say.Hadoop的名字来源于一个小孩的玩具,如今已被用于雅虎(Yahoo)和Facebook等公司的大数据程序中。供应商表示,《财富》50强中有半数以上的公司都在用它。The software’s “refreshingly unique approach to data management is transforming how companies store, process, analyze and share big data,” according toForrester analyst Mike Gualtieri. “Forrester believes that Hadoop will become must-have infrastructure for large enterprises.”根据弗雷斯特研究公司(Forrester)分析师麦克o瓜尔蒂耶里的说法,这个软件“在数据管理上采用了令人耳目一新的独特方法,改变了各公司存储、处理、分析和分享大数据的方式。”弗雷斯特认为Hadoop会成为大型企业必备的架构。Hadoop在2012年的全球市值为15亿美元,而到2020年,人们估计它的价值将会达到502亿美元。Globally, the Hadoop market was valued at .5 billion in 2012; by 2020, it is expected to reach .2 billion.一个草根的开源项目最终成了行业标准,并不是一件常有的事。Hadoop是如何做到的?It’s not often a grassroots open source project becomes a de facto standard in industry. So how did it happen?“一个拥有迫切需求的市场”‘A market that was in desperate need’分析公司RedMonk共同创始人和首席分析师史蒂芬o奥格雷迪说:“Hadoop是由基础的差异化技术、获得许可的开源代码库和迫切需要解决数据爆炸的方法的市场三者结合形成的巧合。从这一点上来说,它的成功并不令人意外。”“Hadoop was a happy coincidence of a fundamentally differentiated technology, a permissively licensed open source codebase and a market that was in desperate need of a solution for exploding volumes of data,” said RedMonk cofounder and principal analyst Stephen O’Grady. “Its success in that respect is no surprise.”这个软件的创造者是道格o卡廷和麦克o卡法雷拉。它与许多其他发明一样,都是应需而生。2002年,两人都在为一个叫做Nutch的开源搜索引擎工作。卡廷说:“我们取得了一些进展,在小范围的机器上运行了它。但我们仍然不清楚要怎么扩大它的使用范围,让它像谷歌(Google)一样被成千上万的机器使用。”Created by Doug Cutting and Mike Cafarella, the software—like so many other inventions—was born of necessity. In 2002, the pair were working on an open source search engine called Nutch. “We were making progress and running it on a small cluster, but it was hard to imagine how we’d scale it up to running on thousands of machines the way we suspected Google was,” Cutting said.之后不久,谷歌就谷歌文件系统(Google File System)和MapReduce发表了一系列学术论文,卡法雷拉说:“于是我们很快就清楚了,Nutch需要拥有一些类似的架构。”Shortly thereafter Google GOOG -0.34% published a series of academic papers on its own Google File System and MapReduce infrastructure systems, and “it was immediately clear that we needed some similar infrastructure for Nutch,” Cafarella said.卡廷解释道:“谷歌处理问题的方法与众不同,十分有用。”目前为止,人们通常认为“你需要为每一个想要完成的分布式任务建立专门的系统”,而在这一点上,谷歌提供了一个通用的自动化架构来完成分布式计算。卡廷说:“它能够处理分布式计算中的那些困难的部分,如此一来,人们就可以专心编写自己的程序。”“The way Google was approaching things was different and powerful,” Cutting explained. Whereas so far at that point “you had to build a special-purpose system for each distributed thing you wanted to do,” Google’s approach offered instead a general-purpose automated framework for distributed computing. “It took care of the hard part of distributed computing so you could focus just on your application,” Cutting said.卡廷和卡法雷拉【如今分别是Cloudera首席架构师和密歇根大学(University of Michigan)计算机科学和工程专业的助理教授】知道,他们得做出自己的架构——不仅是为了Nutch,也是为了造福其他业内人士——他们明白自己想把它做成开源。Both Cutting and Cafarella (who are now chief architect at Cloudera and University of Michigan assistant professor of computer science and engineering, respectively) knew they wanted to make a version of their own—not just for Nutch, but for the benefit of others as well—and they knew they wanted to make it open source.卡廷说:“我不喜欢商业的那些事,我只是个搞技术的。我喜欢写代码,与同事合作解决问题,完善我们的产品,而不是试着把它卖掉。我更愿意告诉别人‘这一点上它做得不错,那一点上太糟糕了,也许我们可以改进一下。’能够当一个彻底诚实的人感觉很好,而在商业环境中,你很难保持这一点。”“I don’t enjoy the business aspects,” Cutting said. “I’m a technical guy. I enjoy working on the code, tackling the problems with peers and trying to improve it, not trying to sell it. I’d much rather tell people, ‘It’s kind of OK at this; it’s terrible at that; maybe we can make it better.’ To be able to be brutally honest is really nice—it’s much harder to be that way in a commercial setting.”但是这两人知道,这项技术一旦取得成功,将会具有巨大的潜力。卡廷说:“如果我没判断错,这是项很有用的技术,许多人都想用,那我就能付我的房租了,我们的初创公司也就没那么大风险了。”But the pair knew that the potential upside of success could be staggering. “If I was right and it was useful technology that lots of people wanted to use, I’d be able to pay my rent—and without having to risk my shirt on a startup,” Cutting said.对卡法雷拉而言,“将Nutch开源,部分原因是想要看到搜索引擎技术摆脱少数几家公司的垄断,但这也是一项战略决定。如此一来,我们就最可能得到来自大公司的工程师的帮助。我们特地选择了一个能让其他公司最轻松地参与进来的开源许可。”It was a good decision. “Hadoop would not have become a big success without large investments from Yahoo and other firms,” Cafarella said.这是一项英明的决定。卡法雷拉说:“如果没有雅虎和其他公司的大量投资,Hadoop可能不会这么成功。”‘How would you compete with open source?’“没谁拼得过开源产品?”So Hadoop borrowed an idea from Google, made the concept open source, and both encouraged and got investment from powerhouses like Yahoo. But that wasn’t all that drove its success. Luck—in the form of sheer, unanticipated market demand—also played a key role.所以Hadoop借用了一个来自谷歌的点子,把这个概念开源,然后得到了雅虎等大公司的鼓励和投资。但这并不是导致它成功的全部因素。运气——完全没有预想到的市场需求——也在其中起到了关键因素。“I knew other people would probably have similar problems, but I had no idea just how many other people,” Cutting said. “I thought it would be mostly people building text search engines. I didn’t see it being used by folks in insurance, banking, oil discovery—all these places where it’s being used today.”卡廷说:“我知道其他人可能会碰到类似的问题,但我不知道居然这么多人都有。我觉得大部分用户都会是文本搜索引擎的开发人员,可没料到许多从事保险业、业和石油勘探业的人也会用它——它已经在这些领域得到了应用。”Looking back, “my conjecture is that we were early enough, and that the combination of being first movers and being open source and being a substantial effort kept there from being a lot of competitors early on,” he said. “Mike and I got so far, but it took tens of engineers from Yahoo several more years to make it stable.”回首往昔,卡廷说:“我猜我们开展得足够早,作为第一批推动者,我们做的又是开源产品,也付出了大量努力,这一切让我们与许多早期竞争者区分了开来。麦克和我已经研发了很久,不过来自雅虎的几十位工程师又花了好几年时间才让这个架构变得稳定。”And even if a competitor did manage to catch up, “how would you compete with something open source?” Cutting said. “Competing against open source is a tough game—everybody else is collaborating on it; the cost is zero. It’s easier to join than to fight.”卡廷表示,即便有竞争者想要迎头赶上,“你又怎么能拼得过开源产品呢?和开源产品竞争是非常困难的事——其他所有人都会为它做贡献,他们没有成本。加入他们比对抗他们更容易。”IBM IBM -0.24% , Microsoft MSFT -1.30% , and Oracle ORCL 0.00% are among the large companies that chose to collaborate with Hadoop.国际商业机器公司(IBM)、微软(Microsoft)和甲骨文(Oracle)就在那些选择同Hadoop合作的大公司之列。Though Cafarella isn’t surprised that Web companies use Hadoop, he is astonished at “how many people now have data management problems that 12 years ago were exceedingly rare,” he said. “Everyone now has the problems that used to belong to just Yahoo and Google.”尽管卡法雷拉并不奇怪网络公司会使用Hadoop,但他表示,他对“这么多人都碰到了12年前极为罕见的数据管理问题”感到震惊。“曾经只有雅虎和谷歌才存在的问题,现在困扰着每一个人。”Hadoop represents “somewhat of a turning point in the primary drivers of open source software technology,” said Jay Lyman, a senior analyst for enterprise software with 451 Research. Before, open source software such as the Linux operating system were best known for offering a cost-effective alternative to proprietary software like Microsoft’s Windows. “Cost savings and efficiency drove much of the enterprise use,” Lyman said.信息技术研究公司451 Research的企业软件高级研究员杰伊o莱曼表示,Hadoop代表了“一种开源软件技术的主要推动者的转折点。”在这之前,开源软件比如Linux操作系统,是因为提供了微软Windows这类专有软件之外的合算选择,才声名鹊起。“企业使用它们,大部分都是出于节约成本、提高效益的考量。”With the advent of NoSQL databases and Hadoop, however, “we saw innovation among the primary drivers of adoption and use,” Lyman said. “When it comes to NoSQL or Hadoop technology, there is not really a proprietary alternative.”不过,随着非关系型数据库(NoSQL)和Hadoop的出现,莱曼说,“我们看到使用者中出现了有创新之举的推动者。非关系型数据库和Hadoop技术并不真正属于专有技术之外的其他选择。”Hadoop’s success has come as a pleasant surprise to its creators. “I didn’t expect an open source project would ever take over an industry like this,” Cutting said. “I’m overjoyed.”Hadoop的成功对创造者来说是一种惊喜。卡廷说:“我没有想到一个开源项目能够像这样引领着行业。我太高兴了。”And it’s still on a roll. “Hadoop is now much bigger than the original components,” Cafarella said. “It’s an entire stack of tools, and the stack keeps growing. Individual components might have some competition—mainly MapReduce—but I don’t see any strong alternative to the overall Hadoop ecosystem.”它仍然发展得如火如荼。卡法雷拉说:“比起最早的组件,Hadoop现在庞大多了。它已经成了一整套工具,而且还在继续扩充。单个的组件也许会遭遇竞争者——主要是MapReduce——但我没有见过能够取代整个Hadoop系统的强大对手。”The project’s adaptability “argues for its continued success,” RedMonk’s O’Grady said. “Hadoop today is a very different, and more versatile, project than it was even a year or two ago.”RedMonk的奥格雷迪说,这个项目的适应性“能够让它不断成功。现在的Hadoop非常与众不同,比起一年或者两年前,它的功能更加强大了。”But there’s plenty of work to be done. Looking ahead, Cutting—with the support of Cloudera—has begun to focus on the policy needed to accommodate big data technology.不过未来还有许多工作要做。接下来,在Cloudera的持下,卡廷要开始专注于研究与大数据技术配套的法律政策。“Now that we have this technology and so much digitization of just about every aspect of commerce and government and we have these tools to process all this digital data, we need to make sure we’re using it in ways we think are in the interests of society,” he said. “In many ways, the policy needs to catch up with the technology.卡廷说:“现在我们有了这项技术,商业和政府的方方面面几乎都已经大幅数字化了,我们也有处理所有这些数据的工具。我们现在需要保使用它们是出于造福社会的目的。从许多方面看,政策都需要紧跟技术的脚步。”“One way or other, we are going to end up with laws. We want them to be the right ones.”“不管怎样,我们最终都要涉及法律。我们希望它们用在正当的地方。” /201407/309508哈尔滨市道外区妇幼保健所无痛人流多少钱讷河县人流需要多少钱

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