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Education and religion教育与宗教信仰Falling away此消彼长How education makes people less religious—and less superstitious, too接受教育越多,宗教倾向越少—迷信倾向也越少。这是为什么?JUST one extra year of schooling makes someone 10% less likely to attend a church, mosque or temple, pray alone or describe himself as religious, concludes a paper* published on October 6th that looks at the relationship between religiosity and the length of time spent in school. Its uses changes in the compulsory school-leaving age in 11 European countries between 1960 and 1985 to tease out the impact of time spent in school on belief and practice among respondents to the European Social Survey, a long-running research project.多上一年学,成为教徒(在教堂,清真寺或佛寺等宗教场所独自祈祷)的概率就少10%;10月6日发表的一篇论文得出了上述结论。这篇论文是一项长期项目的成果,它通过社会调查的方法,调查了1960-1985年间,11个欧洲国家中义务教育年限的变化,以求揭示受教育程度对宗教倾向(包括思想上的皈依和行为上的尊奉)的影响。By comparing people of similar backgrounds who were among the first to stay on longer, the authors could be reasonably certain that the extra schooling actually caused religiosity to fall, rather than merely being correlated with the decline. During those extra years mathematics and science classes typically become more rigorous, points out Naci Mocan, one of the authors—and increased exposure to analytical thinking may weaken the tendency to believe.比较了背景相似但受教育程度不同的人群之后,作者可以负责任的说:上学越多的人,越是不容易信教。两个现象之间确实存在因果关系,而非仅仅具有相关性。作者之一的南茜·莫肯声称,研究所面向的那个时期,数学和自然科学课程变得愈发严格,这就强化了学生分析问题的能力。而一个人愈是习惯于用分析的眼光看问题,就愈是具有怀疑精神;相反,宗教则要求人们不经思考就加以接受:二者有着内在冲突。Another paper, published earlier this year, showed that after Turkey increased compulsory schooling from five years to eight in 1997, womens propensity to identify themselves as religious, cover their heads or vote for an Islamic party fell by 30-50%. (No effect was found, however, among Turkish men.) And a study published in 2011 that looked at the rise in the school-leaving age in Canadian provinces in the 1950s and 1960s found that each extra year of schooling led to a decline of four percentage points in the likelihood of identifying with a religious tradition. Longer schooling, it reckoned, explains most of the increase in non-affiliation to any religion in Canada between 1971 and 2001, from 4% of the population to 16%.今天早些时候发表的另一篇论文表明,土耳其于1997年将义务教育年限从五年增加到八年之后,女性的宗教倾向下降了约三到五成(不过没有调查土耳其男性的情况);宗教倾向通过被调查者的自我评价,是否裹头巾,是否持伊斯兰政党等变量加以度量。2011年发布的一项研究成果,着眼于20世纪50至60年代之间,加拿大各省义务教育年限的延长。研究发现,接受学校教育的时间每增加一年,固守宗教传统的概率就减少4%。这项研究认为,1971年至2001年的30年间,加拿大人口中不信教的比例从4%上升到16%,其中主要原因是受教育程度的提高。The most recent paper also showed that each extra year in the classroom led to a drop of 11 percentage points in superstitious practices, though these remain common. Two-fifths of respondents said they consulted horoscopes, and a quarter thought that lucky charms could protect them. Other research has shown that religious beliefs and practices seem to make people happier, and in some circumstances healthier and wealthier, too. But to argue that such benefits more than offset the gains from extra education would require a leap of faith.最近发表的这篇论文还表明,每多上一年学,迷信行为就减少11%(虽然后者依旧盛行)。四成的被调查者相信占星术;另有四分之一认为护身符能保佑他们。其他研究早已表明,宗教信仰可使人们内心更充实,并在某些条件下,使人更健康、更富足。不过为了这些好处,就希冀人们少受些教育的话,恐怕只能说是“诸君北面,我自西向”了。 译者:韦永睿 校对:沈晓旭 译文属译生译世 /201410/336877。

Michigan has more than 280 contaminated sites that are ;orphans.; That means the company that made the mess no longer exists and the state has to deal with it.But Michigan is running out of money to tackle these environmental problems. That was not good news for Antrim County, home to one of the largest contaminated sites in the country. State management of an underground plume of trichlorethylene (TCE) has been crucial here for years and will be needed in the future.A lack of state funding to clean up the plume is causing concern Its been more than a decade since residents like Ruth Ann Clark went onto city water because of the TCE contamination. Her water comes from Mancelona, about eight miles away from her house.Clark has a small farm with llamas and donkeys. She says she spends more than 0 a month on water. She doesnt know if the TCE plume has reached her land yet, but shes not worried because she has clean water.;Its been okay,; she says with a smile.But its not okay for everyone in Antrim County. In fact, millions more dollars must be spent to keep all her neighbors safe. Where that money will come from is a critical question for this community.An expanding legacy of pollutionNot far from Clarks home is Summit Village, part of Shanty Creek Resort. The resort is one of the main drivers of economic growth in this area. It was purchased in 2007 and the new owners say theyve put another million into it.Realtor Donna Gundle-Krieg says a lot of money has been spent in Summit, one of three villages in Shanty Creek, where theres a hotel and conference center.;This is probably the area with the most expensive homes,; she says.But homes here will need to hook up to city water soon, because the TCE plume is moving towards them.Gundle-Krieg has a vacant lot listed in Summit Village for ,000. She doesnt expect to see a house on it anytime soon. She thinks it will be bought by someone who wants the beach access that goes with it on Lake Bellaire.There is some confusion about exactly what is happening with the water. Gundle-Krieg says she frequently comes across homeowners who say they werent told anything about the plume when they bought property and ask her what the situation is.Property owners between Mancelona and Bellaire have this trouble today because of a degreaser used to clean machinery 50 years ago.Herb Tipton got a job at Mount Clemens Metal Products in the 1960s.;The cleaning fluid was kind of a last resort,; Tipton says. ;It was expensive.;He says what they did use, they poured down the drain.;But I dont think anybody really knew the after-effects,; he says. ;Course, thats true all over the world.;Michigan comes up short for clean waterThe TCE plume sping across Antrim County might be the largest in the country, contaminating trillions of gallons of water.Thats too expensive to clean up, so the state has spent million to keep people from drinking the stuff. More will be needed to get clean water to everyone who will eventually need it. Thats why community leaders were surprised in 2014 when they were told there wasnt enough money to extend more water lines.They went to Lansing and proposed the state spend another million to expand and upgrade the city water system. The state offered 0,000.The idea that the state couldnt afford to protect drinking water in Antrim County sent shockwaves through the community last year.Dean Branson, with Three Lakes Association, says the states ability to manage this problem is critical. Without it, he says property becomes worthless since nobody will build a home on a lot that might not have clean water one day.;You arent going to pay anything for that lot,; Branson says. ;You arent even going to pay your taxes. Youre basically going to let it go back to the bank.;Branson helped work out a novel solution last spring. It involves the county sharing some of the costs of the next phase of work on the water system. Local governments seldom finance this kind of project. Its usually left to the state or federal government.The agreement was not easy to get. Some county commissioners said the state would find the money one way or another and voted against the plan. County officials insisted this is the only time theyll spend money on this problem.Who will pay?The agreement will protect everyone for a few years before more work is needed. Dean Branson says hes confident the state will be there to help.Thats because at a meeting this summer, a division chief from the Department of Environmental Quality told a room full of people that the state will protect their drinking water. On tape, Bob Wagner said if anyone asks the DEQ whether its safe to buy property in Antrim County, the answer will be ;yes.;;Its safe. Its fine,; he said. ;There is no risk. Its all managed. Thats our message.;Where the money will come from to keep that commitment is the question.More than 280 contaminated sites were identified in Michigan in 2014 that still need work, including the TCE plume coming from Mancelona, and there is no more money to start new projects. In fact, Wagner says the state might have to pull back on groundwater monitoring at some of these sites next year.The pool of money that has been used for this work in recent decades came from voter approved bonds. Voters have agreed to let Michigan borrow more than billion since 1988 for an array of environmental initiatives. Finding a new long-term funding source is one of the goals laid out in Michigans new water strategy, a comprehensive approach to a variety of water-related issues. Conversations about how that could happen are just beginning in Lansing.201601/422134。

Race in America美国种族问题The fury of Ferguson弗格森市的暴怒Race is Americas deepest problem, but multiple small changes can mitigate it种族问题是美国最根深蒂固的问题,但各种细微的改变可以使之缓解。RIOTS are rarely so widely anticipated. By 8pm on November 24th, when the prosecutor in Ferguson, Missouri, announced the grand jurys decision not to charge a police officer with a crime for shooting an unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, cops in riot gear were aly in place and barriers surrounded municipal buildings. Mr Browns parents and Barack Obama called for calm. Yet soon Americas TV screens were full of burning police cars, crowds coughing on tear gas, and young black men throwing bricks and smashing shops. Americas history of racial injustice looked as potent as ever.人们通常很难预测什么时候会发生暴动。11月24日晚8点,当密苏里州弗格森市的检察官宣布大陪审团的决定:不起诉向手无寸铁的黑人青年Michael Brown开的警察,穿戴了防暴装备的警察已经整装待命,并在市政大楼周围安置围栏。Brown的父母和奥巴马总统要求双方冷静。然而很快地,美国各大电视的屏幕上都播放了燃烧的警车、人群在催泪弹中咳嗽、黑人青年投掷砖块砸烂商店。美国少数族裔难求公正的历史似乎又再一次清晰地展现在世界面前。That would be the wrong conclusion to draw. Looking back at the riots in Los Angeles in 1992 that followed the acquittal of four white police officers who had savagely beaten a black motorist, Rodney King, a lot has changed. America has a black president. The LA riots, which left 53 dead, happened in one of Americas great cities, and sparked violence in others. This time the focus was a struggling suburb; in Los Angeles black teenagers protested peacefully alongside white ones.这种结论是错误的。回顾1992年发生在洛杉矶的暴乱,起因是4个白人警察残忍地殴打了一个黑人托车手Rodney King,自此之后很多事情都改变了。美国有了黑人总统。这起暴乱发生在美国最大的城市之一洛杉矶,导致了53人死亡,暴力也蔓延到了其他城市。这一次焦点落在了麻烦不断的市郊;洛杉矶事件中黑人青年和白人一起和平地进行示威活动。Blacks plainly still suffer prejudice across America: they account for 86% of the vehicle stops made by police in Ferguson. But Americas race problem is increasingly one of class. Blacks biggest problem is now poverty, which is most visible in places such as Ferguson. Like many post-war suburbs across America, Ferguson is stuck between the prosperous white exurbs of St Louis and the citys somewhat revitalized centre. In 1990 its population was three-quarters white; by 2010, it had become two-thirds black. The sub-prime mortgage crisis hit it hard. Many of its homeowners still owe more than they own.很明显黑人在美国忍受着偏见:弗格森市86%被警察叫停的汽车都是黑人驾驶。但是美国的种族问题日益突出远不止如此。黑人现在最大的问题是贫困,这一点在像弗格森市这种地方很明显。和其他战后的美国市郊一样,弗格森市被夹在繁荣富裕的圣路易斯白人远郊社区与或多或少获得振兴的市中心之间。1990年,该市人口有四分之三是白人;到了2010年,黑人已经占了三分之二。次贷危机给它带来的打击是沉重的。很多房主仍然资不抵债。Solving the problems of places like Ferguson is less about passing more anti-discrimination laws than about rekindling economic growth and sping the proceeds. But there are also ways of making politics and policing work better that would contribute greatly to racial harmony in America.解决弗格森市问题的方法不在于实施更多反歧视法案,而应该重新振兴经济增长并增加居民收入。但也有一些更好的安保工作方法能促进美国的种族和谐。The police are not an army警察不是军队Fergusons political institutions have not kept up with its demography. Of the citys six-member council, five are white. The hapless mayor, James Knowles, is a white Republican who was re-elected in 2013 in an election in which fewer than one in eight eligible voters turned out. He is in charge of the police force, in which three out of 53 officers are black. Such disparities feed the belief—held by blacks across the country—that both justice and law-enforcement systems are racist.弗格森市的政治制度并没有跟上其人口的发展。市政委员6个人中有5个是白人。James Knowles这个倒霉的市长是个白人共和党员,在2013年的一次投票参与率不到八分之一的选举中再次当选的。他掌管市区警力,其中53个警官中只有3个是黑人。如此的不平衡让全美境内的黑人都相信——不管是司法系统还是执法系统都是种族歧视的。Police brutality reinforces that belief. If there was one lesson from the attack on Rodney King, it was that police officers should behave like civilians, not an occupying army. Around 500 people were killed last year by the police—though since nobody counts, nobody really knows.警方的野蛮行为也加剧了这种观念。如果说能从Rodney King事件中学到什么教训的话,应该就是警察应该像一个市民而非一个占领军人。去年大约有500人被警察杀死——尽管自此之后没有人再统计过,也没有人真的知道。In Ferguson, bad policies help to explain why distrust turns to anger. Take, for example, the way the town is financed. In 2013 a fifth of Fergusons general revenues—some .6m, in a city of 21,000 people—were derived from fines and asset confiscation. That is equivalent to 4 a year for every man, woman and child in the city. Paying fines, even for minor traffic offences, can involve queuing for hours. Those who miss court dates can be jailed until they pay, accumulating more fines along the way. Slowly but surely, the justice system has become an elaborate mechanism for criminalising poverty.在弗格森市,错误的政策导致不信任演变成愤怒。比如该镇的财政政策。2013年,拥有21000人口的弗格森市五分之一的财政收入——约260万美元,是来自于罚款和不动产收缴,相当于人均124美元,无论男女还是儿童都包括在内。即便是为最轻微的交通违规付罚款也要排数小时的队。那些算错了日子的人可能会被关起来直到交钱为止,期间还会累积更多的罚款。越来越肯定的是,司法系统已经成为一个为惩罚因贫犯罪的人们而精心设置的体系。Smaller cities should stop using their police forces and courts as tax-collectors. Police shootings should be taken much more seriously, and the federal government should stop enabling small police forces to buy military-grade weapons. Proper gun control laws would help: policemen who fear they will be shot are more likely to kill suspects. In their absence, body-mounted cameras might constrain police behaviour.小城市应该停止把警察和法院作为收税机器的做法。警察开应该被更认真地对待,联邦政府也应该阻止小范围的执法警察购买军队级别的武器。适当的控制法应该会有帮助;害怕歹徒先开的警察更有可能击毙嫌犯。如果不能用以上的办法,随身摄像头应该能限制警察的行为。Efforts should also be made to increase voter turnout. Ferguson, like many small cities, holds its municipal elections at odd times in odd-numbered years, when little else is on the ballot. If they coincided with national elections, more people would be paying attention. And attempts to restrict voting—by banning Sunday polls, restricting voting hours and requiring people to produce ID—should be resisted.除此之外也应该努力增加投票人的参与率。就像其他小城市一样,弗格森市在奇数年会偶尔举行市政选举,但很少有其他人会参与选举。如果正好时间赶上国家大选,会有更多的人关注。其他限制投票的做法——比如禁止周日民意调查、限制投票时间、要求人们出示身份明等——应该叫停。Such measures will not inspire great speeches. But the fact that the answers to Americas racial problems now lie in a more vibrant economy and the nitty gritty of politics and policing is itself a form of progress.这些措施听起来并不激动人心。但现实是,解决美国种族问题的关键取决于更有活力的经济和具体的政策,而治安管理本身则是一种进步。译者:邓小雪译文属译生译世 /201504/371345。

The Centers for Disease Control published a study back in 2013 that said the age at which a child ate solid foods was linked to an increased risk in childhood obesity, 早在2013年疾病控制中心发表一项研究,称孩子吃固体食物的年龄与增加的儿童肥胖风险有关。with children who ate solid food earlier in life more likely to become obese. 那些越早吃固体食物的孩子更容易变得肥胖But on Wednesday, the CDC released a new study that shows there is actually no link between the age at which a child first eats solid food and their risk of obesity. 但在周三,疾病预防控制中心发布一项新的研究,称儿童首次吃固体食物的年龄与肥胖风险之间没有联系。This second study followed children up to age 6, and said that there was no link between the two factors.第二次研究随访6岁以前儿童,并称两者之间没有联系。译文属。201605/443045。

A new art project thats made a stop in Michigan is trying to empower women and value girls by recognizing their potential. Girl Noticed has a message and is stating in ten-foot-tall terms.Watching someone sketch is interesting. Watching someone sketch a mural on a wall is fascinating because of the scale. But, theres a problem when you do a mural on an outdoor brick wall using charcoal and chalk. Its going to weather away. It will eventually fade to nothing.And the artist Im watching says thats part of the message.;We go through our lives feeling invisible a lot of times, feeling unnoticed, or feeling like were noticed for the wrong reasons,; Lori Pratico said as she stepped down from the ladder.She says she wants people to re-think what they notice about women before the chance fades away and they miss the best part of someone.;Because were so saturated with the media and how were supposed to look, and how were supposed to act, and the roles were supposed to play. And is that really who we are as women?; Pratico asked.Pratico and her partner in this project, photographer Elizabeth Sanjuan, have put together three mural projects in their home state of Florida. This mural on the brick wall of Ann Arbors Jefferson Market and Cakery is the first trip out-of-state. They plan projects for all 50 states over the next three years.Lori Pratico in front of a Girl Noticed mural in Florida.The words ;Notice Me; are drawn in large letters above a chalk and charcoal portrait of a woman. Its a drawing of Chris Avers from Algonac near Lake St. Clair. She drove up while I was visiting.This is the first time the artist and the subject of the mural have met in person.Pratico chooses someone who inspires her for each mural. Shes featured a 16-year-old who beat cancer. Another subject was a young student with Asbergers who was bullied at school. Pratico chose Chris Avers because Avers posted on Facebook that she was 23 years sober.;Its kind of funny that this happened because I really put it out there on Facebook which I (normally) dont. I thought, You know what? I just dont even want to be ashamed anymore. It is what it is. You dont even need to see my face. Just know that sobriety is a choice and its an awesome choice. Its not an easy choice, especially at the beginning, but its the best choice youll make,; Avers said.Part of this project is interactive. Visitors are asked to write on a post-it note, revealing what they want people to notice about them. Then they put those notes on the wall along side the mural.For Avers, that note was easy.;Ill say notice my sobriety. Thats what Im here for. Its what Im showing up for. Heck yeah.;The artist, Lori Pratico, says most women understand the message from Girl Noticed. Theyre tired of being noticed for their appearance, but not for their skills, or ability, or fierceness. But Pratico says a lot of men laugh, wink, and nudge because they know what they notice about women.David Adgate is not one of those kind of men. He was visiting Jefferson Market and was curious about the mural.;Its a really cool project. You know, Ive never heard of anything like this before and, you know, these are people, these are women. We need advocates like this. These are really cool.;I ask him what he would want to be noticed for.;You know, if I wanted to be noticed for anything, I think it would be for what I do to serve and empathize because I think, you know, when that happens in other people, I see it and it helps me to be better. So. Yeah,; Adgate responded.Lori Pratico says she hopes the mural and the post-it notes start a dialogue, or at least start people thinking.;A lot of women really even have a hard time filling out that post-it note because they dont think about it. Theyve gotten to a point in their life where they just dont even think about what they want noticed about themselves,; Pratico said.This Michigan mural is being installed right across the street from an elementary school. Pratico says she hopes those young girls get the message and think about how theyd like to be noticed.Support for arts and cultural reporting on Michigan Radio comes in part from a grant from the Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs and the National Endowment for the Arts.201504/370982。