2019年06月27日 12:11:47|来源:国际在线|编辑:安中文
In April 1815, the most powerful volcanic blast in recorded history shook the planet in a catastrophe so vast that 200 years later, investigators are still struggling to grasp its repercussions. It played a role, they now understand, in icy weather, agricultural collapse and global pandemics — and even gave rise to celebrated monsters.1815年4月,有史以来最强烈的火山爆发令这颗星球陷入巨大的灾难,200年后,研究者们仍在努力搞清它的后果。现在他们明白,这场爆发对气候变冷、农业崩溃和全球流行病都有影响,甚至导致了某些著名怪物的出现。Around the lush isles of the Dutch East Indies — modern-day Indonesia — the eruption of Mount Tambora killed tens of thousands of people. They were burned alive or killed by flying rocks, or they died later of starvation because the heavy ash smothered crops.在荷属东印度群岛(也就是如今的印度尼西亚)郁郁葱葱的海岛,坦拉火山(Mount Tambora)的爆发令数万人丧生。他们遭到活埋、被从天而降的石块砸死,浓重的火山灰令庄稼颗粒无收,不少人更是死于其后的饥荒。More surprising, investigators have found that the giant cloud of minuscule particles sp around the globe, blocked sunlight and produced three years of planetary cooling. In June 1816, a blizzard pummeled upstate New York. That July and August, killer frosts in New England ravaged farms. Hailstones pounded London all summer.更让人惊讶的是,研究者们发现,火山微粒形成的巨大云层蔓延全球,遮蔽阳光,造成了为期三年的全球气候变冷。1816年6月,一场暴风雪侵袭了纽约北部。当年的7月和8月,新英格兰的农场受到霜灾的致命破坏。伦敦整个夏天都遭到雹灾。A recent history of the disaster, “Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World,” by Gillen D’Arcy Wood, shows planetary effects so extreme that many nations and communities sustained waves of famine, disease, civil unrest and economic decline. Crops failed globally.吉伦·达尔西·伍德(Gillen D’Arcy Wood)的新著《坦拉:改变世界的火山爆发》(Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World)追溯了那段灾难的历史,展现它严重的全球影响,因为这场灾难,全世界很多国家和社区都遭到一波接一波的饥荒、疾病、社会动荡和经济衰退。全球农作物都出现减产。“The year without a summer,” as 1816 came to be known, gave birth not only to paintings of fiery sunsets and tempestuous skies but two genres of gothic fiction. The freakish progeny were Frankenstein and the human vampire, which have loomed large in art and literature ever since.1816年是“没有夏天的一年”,那一年不仅诞生了无数以烈日和暴风雪为题材的油画,也诞生了两大类哥特小说:这两个畸形的产物分别是弗兰肯斯坦的怪物和人形吸血鬼,它们至今仍在艺术与文学世界扮演着重要角色。“The paper trail,” said Dr. Wood, a University of Illinois professor of English, “goes back again and again to Tambora.”伍德士是伊利诺斯大学的英语教授,他说“相关书面记载可以一再追溯到坦拉”。The gargantuan blast — 100 times bigger than Mount St. Helens’s — and its ensuing worldwide pall have been the subject of increasing study over the years as scientists have sought to comprehend not only the planet’s climatological past but the future likelihood of such global disasters.坦拉火山爆发比圣海伦斯山火山爆发剧烈十倍,为整个世界蒙上了一层尸衣,后世对它的研究日益增多,科学家们希望掌握的不仅仅是地球过去的气候学资料,也希望能了解未来是否会有可能发生类似的全球性灾难。Clive Oppenheimer, a volcanologist at the University of Cambridge, who has studied the Tambora catastrophe, put the chance of a similar explosion in the next half-century as relatively low — perhaps 10 percent. But the consequences, he added, could run extraordinarily high.克莱夫·奥芬海默(Clive Oppenheimer)是剑桥大学的火山学家,一直研究坦拉火山灾难,他认为,在接下来的50年里,发生类似爆发的可能性非常低,大约只有10%。但是一旦发生,其后果会相当严重。“The modern world,” Dr. Oppenheimer said, “is far from immune to the potentially catastrophic impacts.”“现代世界远远没有发展到不受灾难影响的地步,” 奥芬海默士说。Before it exploded, Tambora was the tallest peak in a land of cloudy summits. It lay atop the tropic isle of Sumbawa, its spires rising nearly three miles. Long dormant, the mountain was considered a home to gods. Villages dotted its slopes, and nearby farmers grew rice, coffee and pepper.在爆发之前,坦拉是这片云雾缭绕的山地中的最高峰。它位于热带的松巴哇岛上,顶峰将近三英里高(一英里约合1609米——译注)。这座火山蛰伏已久,被认为是神祇的居所。山坡上星星点点地分布着村庄,附近的农民种植稻米、咖啡和胡椒。On the evening of April 5, 1815, according to contemporary accounts, flames shot from its summit and the earth rumbled for hours. The volcano then fell silent.根据当代的说法,1815年4月5日,火焰从顶峰冒出,大地开始颤抖,长达数个小时,之后火山重新陷入寂静。Five days later, the peak exploded in a deafening roar of fire, rock and boiling ash that was heard hundreds of miles away. Flaming rivers of molten rock ran down the slopes, destroying tropic forests and villages. Days later, still raging but by then hollow, the mountain collapsed, its height suddenly diminished by a mile.五天后,山峰爆发出火焰、岩石与热灰,声音震耳欲聋,几百英里外都能听到。熔岩沿着山坡流淌,毁坏了热带雨林和村庄。几天后,火山还在活跃,但内部已经空了,山体开始塌陷,高耸的山峰最后只剩一英里高。Locally, an estimated 100,000 people died. Sumbawa never recovered.当地有大约10万人丧生。松巴哇岛再也未能复原。The repercussions were global, but no one realized that the widesp death and mayhem arose from an eruption halfway around the world. What emerged was regional folklore. New Englanders called 1816 “eighteen hundred and froze to death.” Germans called 1817 the year of the beggar. These and many other local episodes remained unknown or unconnected.灾难带来了全球性后果,但是没有人意识到蔓延全球的死亡与灾难发源于地球中部的一场火山爆发。只有地区性的民间说法流传开来。新英格兰人说1816年是“冻死人年”。德国人说1817年是“乞丐之年”。这些,还有其他很多地方的零星说法一直未能连贯起来。It was scientists who began to stitch together the big picture, especially the peculiar link between fiery volcanism and icy weather. An overarching goal was to separate natural climate fluctuations from those of human origin. One after another, studies came back to New England and its frigid summer of 1816.是科学家们开始慢慢凑出宏大的图景,特别是凶猛的火山活动与寒冷气候之间的关系。一个重要研究目的是区分开自然的气候波动与人为影响的气候变化。一项接一项的研究都可以追溯到到新英格兰,以及1816年那里寒冷的夏天。Dr. Wood expanded the portrait in his book, which is due out in paperback next month. It draws on hundreds of scientific papers as well as Dr. Wood’s knowledge of 19th-century literature to lay bare three years of planetary mayhem as well as the origins of fictional demons.伍德士的书将在下月出版平装版,他在书中展开了这幅画卷。它建立在数百份科学文献基础之上,伍德对19世纪文学的知识也颇有裨益,它生动地揭示出为期三年的全球灾害,乃至虚构怪物的起源。“My interest was to understand a global event,” Dr. Wood said in an interview, “and that meant serious detective work in lots of unfamiliar archives.” Five years of inquiry took him to China, Europe and India.“我的兴趣是理解一件全球事件,”伍德士在接受采访时说,“这意味着利用许多陌生的资料,做严肃的研究工作。”他在中国、欧洲与印度做了为期五年的调查。It also transported him to Tambora, where he braved leeches and razor-sharp leaves to peer across its yawning caldera, four miles from rim to rim.他还去了坦拉,不顾水蛭与刀锋般尖锐的草叶,穿过直径长达四英里的火山口。The exploding mountain, the book notes, heaved some 12 cubic miles of earthen matter to a height of more than 25 miles. While coarse particles soon rained out, finer ones traveled the high winds in a sping cloud. “It passed,” Dr. Wood wrote, “across both south and north poles, leaving a telltale sulfate imprint on the ice for paleoclimatologists to discover more than a century and a half later.”书中写道,火山爆发时喷出了12立方英里的火山灰,喷射高度达到25英里。粗大的微粒开始落向地面之时,细小的微粒已经随着云朵在高空气流中旅行了。伍德士写道,“它们最远一直来到南北极,在冰上留下泄露行踪的硫酸盐痕迹,因此一个半世纪之后,考古气象学家们才能发现它们的存在。”The global veil, high above rain clouds, reflected much sunlight back into space. So the planet cooled. The pall, Dr. Wood said, also spawned tempests far below.它们就这样潜藏在高高的雨云之中,为全世界蒙上了一层面纱,把大量阳光反射回太空之中。于是整个地球就变冷了。伍德士说,这层“尸衣”还为下界带来了暴风骤雨。His book reprints an 1816 oil painting of Weymouth Bay, a sheltered cove on England’s south coast, by John Constable — the sky above churning with dark clouds. “Everywhere,” Dr. Wood said, “the volcanic winds blew hard.” He noted that both history and computer models speak of fierce storms back then.书中收录了一幅1816年约翰·康斯太勃尔(John Constable)的油画,画面上是英国南部海岸的避风港韦茅斯湾,天空中笼罩着一片阴云。伍德士写道,“到处都有火山引起的大风。”他指出,历史记载与电脑模型都表明当时有巨大的风暴。The particles high in the atmosphere also produced spectacular sunsets, as detailed in the famous paintings of J.M.W. Turner, the English landscape pioneer. His vivid red skies, Dr. Wood remarked, “seem like an advertisement for the future of art.”高空大气中的火山微粒还制造出壮观的日落景象,被英国风景画的先驱者J·M·W·透纳(J.M.W. Turner)详细捕捉在笔下。伍德士说,他画中生动的红色天空“就像是艺术之未来的广告。”The story also comes alive in local dramas, none more important for literary history than the birth of Frankenstein’s monster and the human vampire. That happened on Lake Geneva in Switzerland, where some of the most famous names of English poetry had gone on a summer holiday.世界各地都出现不少轶事,对于世界文学史而言,最重要的莫过与弗兰肯斯坦的怪物与人型吸血鬼。这件事发生在瑞士的日内瓦湖畔,当时英国诗坛上最重要的几个人在那里消夏。By 1816, Switzerland, landlocked and famously rugged, was beginning to reel from the bad weather and failed crops. Starving mobs stormed bakeries after b prices soared. The book recounts a priest’s distress: “It is terrifying to see these walking skeletons devour the most repulsive foods with such avidity.”1816年,多山的内陆国家瑞士也被卷入恶劣气候与庄稼减产之中。面包价格上升,挨饿的暴民冲进面包房抢劫。书中引用一位传教士沮丧的话语:“看到那些行尸走肉贪婪地大口吞吃最低劣的食物,实在太可怕了。”That June, the cold and stormy weather sent the English tourists inside a lakeside villa to warm themselves by a fire and exchange ghost stories. Mary Shelley, then 18, was part of a literary coterie that included Percy Shelley, her future husband, as well as Lord Byron. Wine flowed, as did laudanum, a form of opium. Candles flickered.那年六月,寒冷多雨的天气让这几个居住在湖畔公寓的英国旅行者们围在火边取暖,讲鬼故事。18岁的玛丽·雪莱(Mary Shelley)和她未来的丈夫珀西·雪莱(Percy Shelley)以及拜伦勋爵(Lord Byron)同属于一个文学小团体。烛光闪烁,他们在一起喝酒,吃鸦片酊。In this moody atmosphere, Mary Shelley came up with her lurid tale of Frankenstein, which she published two years later. And Lord Byron hit on the outline of the modern vampire tale, published later by a compatriot as “The Vampyre.” The freakish weather also inspired Byron’s apocalyptic poem “Darkness.”就在这样一种氛围之下,玛丽·雪莱构思了关于弗兰肯斯坦的可怕故事,并于两年后出版。拜伦勋爵则想出了一个现代吸血鬼故事的大纲,后来被他的一个同胞(拜伦的秘书兼私人医生John William Polidori——译注)拿去,以《吸血鬼》(The Vampyre)之名出版。诡异的天气还激发拜伦写下了末世氛围的诗篇《黑暗》(Darkness)。Dr. Wood’s book documents many other repercussions of the planetary chill, devoting a chapter to a cholera pandemic of 1817 that began in India and globally killed tens of millions of people. Dr. Wood attributes its rise to a deadly combination of monsoonal changes and pounding rains — a main theory of leading cholera detectives.伍德的书记录了全球严寒带来的许多影响,其中一章是关于1817年于印度兴起,最终波及全世界的霍乱,它导致全球数千万人丧生。伍德士认为,疾病的流行是因为季风变化与倾盆大雨这个致命组合——这也是顶尖霍乱研究者的主要理论。The pandemic sp and eventually reached the Dutch East Indies. On Java alone it killed an estimated 125,000 people — more, Dr. Wood noted, “than died in the volcanic eruption itself.”蔓延的疾病最终来到荷属东印度群岛。仅在爪哇,就有大约12.5万人以上丧生。伍德写道:“这比火山爆发中死去的人还要多。”He also profiles the wintry chill in Yunnan Province in southern China, a land of mountains and jungles roamed by tigers and elephants. Rice crops there quickly failed, and famine gnawed deep for years. In July 1816, Dr. Wood noted, the province had “unprecedented snows.”他还写到中国南部云南省遭遇冬天般的严寒,这里布满山脉和雨林,有老虎和大象出没。稻米种植很快遭到破坏,饥荒延续数年。1816年7月,伍德士写道,这个省份“史无前例地下了雪”。The poet, Li Yuyang, who was 32 as Tambora began its global rampage, wrote of cold downpours and flash flooding in “A Sigh for Autumn Rain.”坦拉所带来的后果肆虐全球之时,诗人李于阳32岁,他把冰冷的倾盆大雨和大洪水写进了自己的诗《秋雨叹》。Dr. Wood closes with a portrait of the eastern ed States in 1816, focusing first on upstate New York. One day that June, four young classmates walked to school, most barefoot. Then a blizzard struck. Dismissed early, the children ran for their lives as the snow rose to their knees. They succeeded in reaching warm cabins and fires.最后,伍德士对1816年的美国东部进行了描述,首当其冲的是纽约北部。6月的一天,四个年轻人赤着脚去上学。然后来了一阵暴风雪。孩子们提早放学,积雪没过了他们的膝盖,只得奔跑求生。最后终于冲进生着火的温暖小屋。For Thomas Jefferson, the pain lasted longer. The retired third president of the ed States, at his estate in Virginia, faced a disastrous summer in 1816 because of the remarkably short growing season. The next year was just as bad.托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)的痛苦持续得更为长久。这位美国第三任总统退休后住在弗吉尼亚州的宅邸,1816年夏天,作物歉收令他损失惨重。翌年还是同样糟糕。In a letter, Jefferson expressed concern about the possible ruin of his Monticello farm “if the seasons should, against the course of nature hitherto observed, continue constantly hostile to our agriculture.”在一封信里,杰斐逊担心 “如果目前这种违背自然规律的时令延续下去,一直对农业不利,” 他的蒙蒂塞洛农场可能会倒掉。The countless victims and occasional beneficiaries of Tambora’s fury were oblivious to the volcanic roots of their circumstances, Dr. Wood noted, making the challenge of writing about it formidable and “occasionally mind-bending.”伍德士指出,坦拉之怒的无数受害者与个别受益者根本不知道火山爆发对自身环境的影响,这对写作构成了极大挑战,“有时候要绞尽脑汁”。More generally, he said, the revelation of global volcanic ruin — a portrait 200 years in the making — offers a kind of meditation on the difficulty of uncovering the subtle effects of climate change, whether its origins lie in nature’s fury or the invisible byproducts of human civilization.他说,在更多时候,火山爆发在全球造成的破坏——这是一幅纵贯200年的画卷——令他想到,发现气候变化的微妙影响是多么困难,不管这影响是来自大自然的愤怒,抑或人类文明无形的副产品。It is, Dr. Wood remarked, “hard to see and no less difficult to imagine.”伍德士说,这一切“很难看到,同样也很难想像”。 /201509/397248Two old friends got together after many years and soon fell to discussing their husbands#39; faults.;We#39;ve been married fifteen years,; one woman said, ;and every night after dinner my husband always complains about the food.;;How terrible!; exclaimed the other.;Does it bother you?; ;Why should it bother me?; her friend replied.;if he can#39;t only stand his own cooking?;两个老朋友分别多年之后又见面了,很快就开始谈起各自丈夫的缺点。“我们结婚十五年了,”一个妇女说道,“每天晚饭后,我丈夫总要抱怨饭菜。”“真可恶!”另一个惊呼道。“难道你不烦吗?”“我烦什么?”她的朋友答道。“他不过是忍受不了自己的烹调技术。” /201209/199423

I am constantly ing thoughtful opinion pieces urging people to turn off their electronic devices and retake control of their lives. Let your email pile up. Deep-six all social media. Turn off your phone. Stop tweeting. Cut off the outside world, get in touch with your inner self, release your mind from all that tension. Just chill. 我常常会读到一些颇有见地的观点文章,呼吁人们关掉电子设备,重新掌控自己的生活。这些文章说,不要理会堆积成山的电子邮件,也不要去管社交媒体上所有信息。关掉手机。不要再上Twitter。切断与外界的联系,与内在的自我交流,把心灵从重重压力中释放出来。放松一下。 True, these Don#39;t Worry, Be Happy suggestions are almost always issued by out-of-the-loop baby boomers who do not text, are not on Facebook, hate email and would never dream of owning a smartphone. But just because a baby boomer suggests something doesn#39;t automatically mean it is wrong. And since I am a baby boomer, and since I deeply resent the all-pervasive intrusion of electronic media into my life, I have started to take these suggestions to heart. Last week, my wife and I went to the Connecticut shore for a brief vacation, and before I left I turned off my phone and stuffed my laptop in the closet. For the next four days I would refrain from ing my email, checking my phone messages or eyeballing any incoming texts. (I am not on Facebook, because I d to find out what my kids are up to in Virginia Beach.) For the next four days, I would seal myself off from the world. 没错,这种“别担心,开心点”之类的建议几乎都是出自耳目闭塞的婴儿潮一代人之口,他们不发文本信息,不上Facebook,讨厌电子邮件,也从没想过要拥有智能手机。不过,不能仅仅因为某个建议是婴儿潮一代人提出的就说它是错的。鉴于我本人也属于婴儿潮一代,再加上我痛恨电子媒体对我生活的全方位渗透,我已经开始认真考虑这些建议了。前段时间,我和妻子到康涅狄格州的海边度了个短假,在我离家之前,我把手机关了,还把笔记本电脑收进了壁橱里。在接下来的四天里,我决定不读电子邮件,不查手机短信,也不看我收到的任何文本信息(我也不上Facebook,因为我害怕发现孩子们在弗吉尼亚比奇(Virginia Beach)都做了些什么)。在接下来的四天里,我会让自己与世隔绝。The initial results were fantastic. I enjoyed every second on the beach, which gave me time to clear my head and four books and wax philosophical about the meaning of life. By the time our sojourn was over, I felt relaxed and refreshed, y to go home and take on the world. Abstaining from electronic interfacing had eased the tension in my neck, packed up all my cares and woes, turned me into a new man. The Luddites were right: Life was not only possible, but was actually better, without email, smartphones, texts. The whole experience made me realize how foolish I was to succumb to the tyranny of technology. iStock短信没有及时查看会有什么样的后果?一开始简直是妙极了。我享受着海滩上的分分秒秒,我终于有时间理清思绪,我读了四本书,并且从哲学角度思索了人生的意义。到假期结束的时候,我感到很放松,感觉神清气爽,为回到家里重新面对世界做好了准备。禁用电子产品减轻了我脖子的压力,把我所有忧虑烦恼都打包带走了,让我整个人面貌焕然一新。反对科技的卢德主义者(Luddites)是对的:如果没有电子邮件、智能手机和文本信息,我们不仅能够生活下去,而且会过得更好。这整个一段经历让我认识到,自己一度屈从于科技的暴政是多么愚蠢啊。 Then things turned sour. When I got back home Sunday night I found out that the police had been trying to reach me all day Saturday because someone had broken into my home and stolen my car. The thieves stole all my art, my wife#39;s jewelry, two priceless Martin guitars and most of my Los Lobos CDs. It took hours for the cops to get the alarm system turned off because nobody knew the code. The neighbors were really steamed. 不过之后情况就开始变得不妙了。周日晚上回到家的时候,我发现警察周六一整天都在试图与我联系,因为有人闯进我家,偷走了我的车。小偷偷走了我所有的艺术品,我妻子的珠宝,还偷走了两把贵重的马丁(Martin)吉他和我收藏的大多数“灰狼一族”乐队(Los Lobos)CD。警察们花了好几个小时才把警报系统关掉,因为没人知道密码。邻居们都很恼。 That wasn#39;t all. One of my oldest friends emailed from London to say that he was stopping by New York on his way home to Australia but would only be in town Sunday afternoon. I hadn#39;t seen him since 1989. But I wasn#39;t checking my email so I never found out that he was in town till I got home Sunday evening. By that time he was gone. Maybe I#39;ll catch up with him on his next visit in 2035. 这还没完。我的一个铁杆老友从伦敦给我发来一封电子邮件,说他返回澳大利亚时会在纽约短暂逗留,但只有周日下午在纽约。我俩1989年以来就从没见过面。但由于我一直没有查看电子邮件,所以我直到周日晚上到家时才知道他来纽约了。而那时他已经走了。下次他再来的话就得到2035年了,或许到那时我们能有机会见上一面。 My broker left a phone message Thursday morning saying that Apple was going to win its lawsuit over Samsung on Friday, so I could make a killing by going long on Apple and shorting Samsung. Particularly if I tapped into the home-equity loan and leveraged up. But I had to do it right away or miss out on the chance of a lifetime. Unfortunately, I had my phone shut off. My dreams of retiring to Aix-en-Provence are gone. Now I#39;ll have to retire to Aix-en-Poughkeepsie. 我的股票经纪人周四早晨给我电话留言,说苹果公司(Apple)周五将赢得与三星电子(Samsung)的诉讼,如果我做多苹果,做空三星电子,就可以大赚一笔。要是我动用物业套现贷款,增加杠杆比率的话,恐怕能赚得更多。但我必须立即下手,否则就会失去这千载难逢的机会。不幸的是,我把手机给关了。我退休后到法国普罗旺斯地区艾克斯(Aix-en-Provence)居住的梦想破灭了,现在我退休后只好去纽约州“波基普西市艾克斯”(Aix-en-Poughkeepsie)了。 Friday afternoon, a local radio station emailed that I had won 16 VIP tickets to see Springsteen in September. Plus backstage passes. But I had to respond within 24 hours. No dice. Running through my remaining texts, phone messages and emails, I found out that I had been asked to appear on #39;The Tonight Show#39; but had to fly out Friday morning, and had been invited to attend a fantasy rock #39;n#39; roll camp hosted by Prince, Jimmy Page and Eric Clapton, but needed to confirm my attendance within 12 hours. 周五下午,本地一家广播电台给我发来邮件,通知我赢得了16张9月份斯普林斯汀(Springsteen)演唱会的VIP入场券,外加后台通行,但我必须在24小时之内回复。可我没法回复。在翻看余下的文本信息、手机短信和电子邮件时,我发现自己曾受邀参加“今夜秀”(The Tonight Show),但必须在周五早晨乘飞机出发,我还受邀参加由王子(Prince)、佩奇(Jimmy Page)和克莱普顿(Eric Clapton)主持的梦幻摇滚营,但我必须在12小时之内确认参加。 Last but not least, Prince Harry texted over the weekend to invite me and my wife to a party in Manhattan. Somehow, the royal family found out that my wife was a British C.P.A., and Prince Harry was having a costume party where everybody had to dress up as a British expat C.P.A. Pippa was going to be there, too, as she had once considered a career in accountancy. But I wasn#39;t checking texts or emails or phone messages while I was on vacation, because I was trying to relax, unwind, get in touch with my inner self. Now I am in touch with my inner self. And my inner self is an idiot.最后,哈里王子(Prince Harry)周末期间发来信息,邀请我和妻子参加在曼哈顿举行的一场社交聚会。英国皇室不知怎么发现我妻子是英国注册会计师,而哈里王子准备开一场化妆晚会,每个人都得穿成驻外英国注册会计师的样子。皮帕(Pippa)也会到场,因为她曾考虑在会计行业工作。但我度假时没有查看文本信息、电子邮件或手机短信,因为我想放松放松,减减压,与自己的内心进行交流。现在我接触到了内在的自我,但我发现内在的自我是个大笨蛋。 /201209/202112

People with delayed sleep phase disorder struggle to go to sleep at night and to wake early in the morning睡眠期失调遭推迟的人努力早睡早起Experts believe sufferers have internal body clocks that are slower than 24 hours专家认为生物钟失调者是因为生物钟慢了24小时This means they are out of sync with daily rhythms生物钟与日常节奏不同步Most of us love a good lie-in on the weekends. But for some people, getting out of bed each morning is a daily struggle that can disrupt their lives.我们大部分人都喜欢在周末睡个懒觉,但是对于一些人来说,每天早上最受折磨的就是挣扎着从床上爬起来。Now, researchers believe they have found out why some people struggle to sleep at night and reach for the snooze button in the morning - their body clocks are set too slow.为什么有些人尽量早睡就为了能早起,现在,研究人员认为他们找到了原因,就是因为他们的生物钟被设置得太慢了。A team from Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia, are investigating delayed sleep phase disorder, which is characterised by a persistent inability to fall asleep and wake at a conventional time.澳大利亚阿德莱德弗林德斯大学的一个研究小组调查研究了睡眠期失调遭推迟,其特征就是迟迟无法入睡无法按时醒来。Struggle to wake up for work? Your internal body clock may be out of sync挣扎着起床上班?生物钟与生活节奏不同步It affects up to 15 per cent of teenagers but can be a life-long condition.这一现象影响了15%的青少年但这种情况不会终身伴随的。Study leader, Professor Leon Lack, said initial results showed that the internal body clocks, of those with the disorder ran slower than average.此项研究的牵头人利昂·兰克说,初步的研究结果表明身体内部时钟失调相对平均时钟慢了一些。#39;Late sleepers can’t get to sleep until 2am or 3am at the earliest, or in some cases as late as 4am, which makes it very hard for them to get up for their commitments the next day,#39; he said.晚睡的人到了凌晨两三点才睡,有些晚睡的人甚至到了凌晨四点才睡,对于他们而言很难保第二天按时起床。#39;We’ve been investigating what causes people to be late sleepers and one of the most plausible explanations we’re perusing is that their body clocks run longer than 24 hours.我们已经调查研究了什么原因导致总有晚睡的人,其中一个貌似合理的解释就是他们的生物钟长于24小时。#39;Most people have a 24-hour body clock, it’s a natural rhythm that influences sleepiness and core body temperature but for people with delayed sleep phase disorder it takes longer to complete the cycle so they tend to go to bed later and wake up later.#39;大部分人的时钟是24小时,但对于晚睡的人而言,自然节奏影响了睡意和体温,睡眠期失调遭推迟要花很长时间才能完成这个周期,因此他们倾向晚睡晚起。Circadian rhythms are followed by most living things and follow a daily cycle that are governed by our internal body clocks. They influence sleep and wake cycles, body temperature and the release of hormones.生理节奏受我们身体内部生物钟的生活和日常规律配。他们影响睡眠和清醒周期、体温、荷尔蒙的释放。They can be affected by environmental factors, such as light levels, and so disrupted by flying across time zones and working night shifts.他们受环境因素影响,例如光亮度、飞行时差、晚班工作。Professor Lack said wider tests with a larger population would now need to be conducted to confirm the findings.兰克教授说对较大一个人群进行了广泛试验,现在需要确认这些研究结果。#39;If we establish what we’re expecting to find it will reinforce therapies that we know can help, such as bright light therapy to induce alertness in the mornings and melatonin to encourage earlier evening sleepiness,#39; he said.如果我们所期望的结果能成立的话,那么找到加强疗法是会有帮助作用的,例如明光疗法来引导早上清醒,褪黑素有助于晚上早睡,他说。#39;Exposing people to a bright light as early in the day as possible informs the body clock that it should be awake so therefore they fall asleep and wake up earlier on subsequent nights.#39;人们白天尽早暴露在明光环境下,提醒生物钟该清醒了,因此他们的身体逐渐就调整到了早睡早起的状态He said it was imperative to find a cause of the condition as it affected so many people.他说找出这种现象的原因势在必行,因为影响了如此多的人。#39;It causes young people to be late for school and when they do get to school they’re inattentive until their body clock finally wakes up.这种现象导致学生上学迟到,即使到了学校他们也是不清醒的,只有生物钟清醒了才能彻底清醒。#39;Adults can also have trouble holding down jobs because they’re always running late for work so it does have a detrimental effect on lives,#39; he said.成年人在早上上班时也存在这种现象,总是上班迟到,因此对生活影响不利,他说。 /201303/229062

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