广州做引产哪家医院最好安知识

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 广州做引产哪家医院最好健康生活
Tian Yuan Yuan is China#39;s top Internet model, a title she earned by promoting products from skin-tight leggings to rabbit fur bags through online shopping site Taobao Marketplace.田媛媛是中国第一网络名模。她在淘宝上为商家推广从紧身打底裤到兔毛手袋等商品,从而获得了这一称呼。Tian is one of 35,000 models who pose for virtual storefronts on Alibaba Group#39;s Taobao.田媛媛是3.5万名为阿里巴巴集团旗下的淘宝网店工作的模特之一。With little to differentiate between more than 6 million electronic storefronts, models like Tian have become the main attraction. Taobao ranks the girls based on sales of the products they pitch, as well as their popularity among vendors and fans who can vote on the website. Sellers can then make an online booking to hire a girl to pose with their product.淘宝逾600万家网店几乎大同小异,所以像田媛媛这样的模特自然成为主要卖点。淘宝依据她们所推广商品的销量,以及她们在商铺和粉丝中的人气对她们进行排名。随后商家便可以在线预约聘请一位“淘女郎”来推销自家产品。;A good model is important for sales,; said 22-year-old Tian. ;Both your facial expression and body language should match the style of clothing. For example, I will move and pose gently with office dresses, while I act cool in American style clothes.;22岁的田媛媛表示:“好模特对于提高销量很重要。你的面部表情和肢体语言都应该与衣款式搭配。比如,如果穿的是职业装,我的动作和造型都会十分优雅,而如果换做是一身美式装,我就要表现得酷劲十足。”The leggings she modelled sold some 14,000 units in a single month. She also helped shift more than 6,000 rabbit fur bags.经她推广的打底裤月销量达到约1.4万条。她还帮助商家卖出了6,000多个兔毛手袋。The models can make as much as 10,000 yuan a day, a far cry from the five-figure payouts top supermodels bank for a photo shoot, but a healthy sum considering average per capita full-year income for urban Chinese was just 21,810 yuan in 2011.这些网模一天的收入可高达一万,虽然跟日进斗金的超级名模没法儿比,但相比普通民众的人均年收入,这一数字已经非常可观了。2011年,中国城镇居民人均年收入仅为2.18万元。Alibaba is not alone in offering logistical support to small online businesses. EBay Inc, for example, owns online payment service PayPal that helps small vendors accept credit card payments. But Alibaba#39;s models-for-hire service is unusual in that it does back-end jobs such as photography as well as being a platform that supplies the models themselves.阿里巴巴并非是唯一一家向电子商家提供后勤持的平台。比如,易趣拥有在线付务贝宝(PayPal),这项务使得小商户可以接受信用卡付。但像阿里巴巴这种提供待聘模特的务不太常见,因为它不仅提供拍照之类的后台工作,也是一个提供模特的平台。A Taobao store owner can use the free platform to search for models by price or look, or even by specific body part such as hands or legs. Models classified as ;Japanese; or ;Korean; tend to look younger while ;European; and ;American; models have more Caucasian features.淘宝店主可利用这个免费平台,根据模特的价格或外形,甚至是手或腿等身体的特定部分,寻找相应的模特。“日韩系”模特往往比较年轻,而“欧美系”模特则具备更多的白人特征。;I used to rely on models provided by modelling agencies but because each agency has only a limited number of models, it couldn#39;t meet my business needs,; said Huang Shanlei, who sells lingerie on Taobao Mall.出售女式内衣的淘宝店店主黄珊蕾(音)说:“我过去靠的是模特经纪公司介绍模特,但由于每家公司的模特数量有限,无法满足我的业务需求。”Working the ;office lady; look“职业女性”范儿Working with Taobao models was easier because most of them were free agents with fewer restrictions on the types of assignments they could accept or on how the photographs from a shoot could be used, Huang said.黄珊蕾表示,与淘宝模特们的合作相对更容易,因为她们中的大多数都是自由从业者,有关她们接拍任务的类型以及所拍摄照片用途的限制较少。Model Li Qiqi poses for different stores back to back on most days, sometimes in more than 200 outfits a day. With big doll eyes, she describes her look as ;Korean office lady;.模特李琦琦(音译)大多数日子都会连续为不同店铺拍照,有时一天需要试穿200多套衣。长着一双洋娃娃般大眼睛的她称自己的外形像“韩国职业女性”。;If you model on Taobao, you focus on the specialties of the outfit and the features of the outfit. You make sure you don#39;t block it when posing,; said 24-year-old Li, a Shanghai native.作为土生土长的上海人,24岁的李琦琦说:“做淘宝网模,你需要注意装的特色。要确保你在拍摄时不会喧宾夺主。” /201209/198517Wait, so my life may not have disappeared down a black hole after all?There is a chance for it to emerge and bloom like the career of David Hasselhoff?It#39;s charming when a phrase enters the language and we think we all know what it means. In the case of ;black hole,; we think of an infinity of black nothingness that swallows everything that slips into it.But now, in a new paper called ;Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes,; Stephen Hawking has cast the cat among the black, holey pigeons and caused a scattering of incomprehension.His precise words were: ;The absence of event horizons mean that there are no black holes -- in the sense of regimes from which light can#39;t escape to infinity.;等等,你刚才是说,我不会被黑洞所吞噬?你还说,那黑洞有可能,会在出现之后就不断扩大,蓬勃发展,就像当年大卫·哈塞尔霍夫(David Hasselhoff)的演艺事业以飞速迅猛壮大一般?说来这也是一件有意思的事:每当一个新词诞生,我们都以为自己很清楚它的意思。拿“黑洞”举例,每当有人提到这个词,我们就会立刻想到一个无穷大的黑色虚无,将滑落进去的一切吞噬。但现在,史蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)在他刚刚发表的一篇名为《黑洞的信息存储与气象预报》(Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes)的论文中,宣称黑洞并不存在——此语一出,石破天惊,立即掀起一片质疑与不解。不妨让我们来看看他的原话:“事件视界的缺失意味着‘黑洞’——一种能使光永远无法逃离的物理环境——其实并不存在。”It seems clear. There are no forever and ever holes of blackness. There is always the chance that light might emerge.Hawking continued, however: ;There are however apparent horizons which persist for a period of time. This suggests that black holes should be redefined as metastable bound states of the gravitational field.;So there are black holes. It#39;s just that we should redefine them a touch. So what#39;s this apparent horizon?Well, it#39;s ;a surface along which light rays attempting to rush away from the black hole#39;s core will be suspended.;But if they#39;re suspended, they will never emerge, stuck in solitary confinement like the Man in the Iron Mask. The result is surely still the same. Once something disappears into a black hole, it#39;s done for.听上去,这话已经说的很清楚了。这世上从来没有什么黑洞,因为光总有可能逃逸出来。但霍金继续说道:“不过,可见视界仍然是存在的,并且可以持续存在一段时间。而这就意味着,传统的黑洞概念可以被重新定义为拥有亚稳定边界的引力场。”所以说还是有黑洞的了?只是,我们需要稍稍修改一下之前给它下的定义。那么,到底什么是霍金所说的“可见视界”呢?嗯,它的定义是这样的:可见视界是“一种表面,当试图逃出黑洞内核的光线处在它的附近时,光线便会处于悬停状态”。但是,一旦光线处于悬停状态,他们也将如同影片《铁面人》(The Man in the Iron Mask(1998))中的“铁面犯人”一般,被囚禁在密不透风的牢笼里,永远无法逃脱。这样来看,光线的结局必然也将和传统黑洞理论所得出的结论一样——任何东西,一旦消失在黑洞中,那里便将是它永远的归宿。想到这里,一阵无力感涌上心头,于是,我转而试着去搜寻科学杂志《自然》(Nature)上对黑洞的解释。而那上面则说,至少在理论上(是的,我们不得不承认,所有这些假说都还停留在理论层面),黑洞是有可能在某种特定的情况下消失的。At times of existential stress like these, I turn to Nature magazinefor help. It suggests that, at least in theory (and, let#39;s face it, this is all theory), black holes might at some point disappear.However, the magazine offers a dispiriting set of words from Don Page, a physicist from the University of Edmonton in Canada. It might be possible that particles could emerge from black holes, he said.Oh, cry of joy.However, if particles did ;it would be worse than trying to reconstruct a book that you burned from its ashes.;Ah, now that#39;s a feeling I#39;m familiar with.不过,这杂志上刊载的来自加拿大埃德蒙顿大学的物理学家唐·佩奇(Don Page)的一席话又让人倍感沮丧,他说,一些极小的微粒仍旧存在从黑洞里逃逸的可能。噢,准备好欢呼了吗?别急,他还没说完呢。这之后他又说,即使是这些微粒成功逃逸,“那将比想着把一本已被你烧成灰烬的书恢复成原样的尝试还糟”。哈,这感觉我倒是似曾相识呢! /201402/275653

President Barack Obama called yesterday for the Muslim world to embark on a “generational task” of confronting the “cancer of violent extremism” in a sharply worded speech at the UN.美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)昨日在联合国(UN)发表措辞严厉的讲话,呼吁穆斯林世界承担起一项“一代人的任务”,对抗“暴力极端主义之癌”。Speaking two days after he ordered the first US air strikes against Islamist militants in Syria, Mr Obama challenged other countries in the Middle East – including US allies – to do more to dismantle the extremist group Isis’s “network of death”.两天前,奥巴马下令美国对叙利亚境内的伊斯兰主义武装分子发动首波空袭。奥巴马在昨日讲话中要求中东其他国家——包括美国的盟友——采取更多措施,摧毁极端团体ISIS的“死亡之网”。Mr Obama framed the struggle against the Isis in the stark moral terms that he has often been reluctant to use. “There can be no reasoning – no negotiation – with this brand of evil,” he said at the UN general assembly. “The only language understood by killers like this is the language of force.”在框定打击ISIS的斗争时,奥巴马使用了他往往不愿使用的态度鲜明的道德措辞。他在联合国大会上表示:“对于这种邪恶势力不可能有说理的余地,不可能有谈判的余地。这样的杀人犯能够理解的唯一语言是‘武力’。”The warlike rhetoric represented a stark change for a president who was elected to end the conflict in Iraq and who only last year claimed at the UN that America was “shifting away from a perpetual war footing”.这种宣战式的措辞表明奥巴马的态度发生了极大转变。当初他竞选总统的承诺之一就是要结束伊拉克冲突。就在去年,奥巴马还曾在联合国声称,美国要“退出永久战备的状态”。Mr Obama was speaking after the US launched a second night of attacks targeting Isis positions in Syria.奥巴马讲话之前,美国对叙利亚境内的ISIS目标发起第二晚的空中打击。While the Obama administration has celebrated that five regional allies took part in air strikes , Mr Obama appeared to criticise some of those same countries that have backed extremist elements in Syria.尽管奥巴马政府欢呼5个中东盟国参与空袭,但奥巴马似乎还是批评了其中某些国家对叙利亚境内极端分子的持。He insisted that all countries needed to “cut off the funding that fuels this hate”. In words that seemed aimed at some of America’s Gulf allies, he added: “It’s time to end the hypocrisy of those who accumulate wealth through the global economy, and then siphon funds to those who teach children to tear it down.”他坚称,所有国家必须“切断助燃这种仇恨的资金流”。他似乎针对美国在海湾地区的某些盟友补充道:“有些人通过全球经济积累了财富,到头来却拿钱资助那些教孩子们破坏全球体制的人。是时候结束这种伪善了。” /201409/332249

21世纪是一个环保的世纪,全球人类都把目光转向了环境保护的行列之中,联合国气候变化峰会也就环境保护方面做了全面的调研:温室气体排放,碳足迹,以及节能减排的讨论成为了会议的重点话题。有关专业机构还设计出一个碳足迹计算器,让每个人都了解自己的行为对环境造成的影响。那么,这个;碳足迹;到底是什么意思呢?通过下面的介绍,你就可以有个了解了。A carbon footprint is the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). In other words: When you drive a car, the engine burns fuel which creates a certain amount of CO2, depending on its fuel consumption and the driving distance. When you buy food and goods, the production of the food and goods also emitted some quantities of CO2. Even if you heat your house with electricity, the generation of the electrical power may also have emitted a certain amount of CO2.碳足迹指直接或间接持人类活动所产生的温室气体总量,通常用产生的二氧化碳吨数来表示。换句话说,你开车的时候,发动机在燃烧汽油的同时会释放出一定量的二氧化碳,这个量由耗油量和行驶里程决定。你购买食物和商品的时候,生产食物和商品的过程也会释放出一定量的二氧化碳。就算你家的房子是用电采暖,电能产生的过程也是释放二氧化碳的。Your carbon footprint is the sum of all emissions of CO2, which were induced by your activities in a given time frame. Usually a carbon footprint is calculated for the time period of a year.你的碳足迹就是在一定时间段内你的所有活动引起的二氧化碳排放总量。通常情况下,碳足迹是以一年为一个时间段进行计算的。 /201203/174535The Internet is buzzing about a new online commercial that shows actor Jean-Claude Van Damme appearing to perform a split between two moving Volvo FM trucks. Volvo says the stunt really happened. 最近一则广告视频在网上引发广泛关注,影片中,动作男星尚格#12539;云顿(Jean-Claude Van Damme)站在两辆并行的沃尔沃(Volvo) FM卡车中间表演劈叉动作。沃尔沃称影片拍摄确实使用了这一特技。 #39;The stunt is real and is performed in just one take,#39; said Anders Vilhelmsson, public relations manager for the Volvo Trucks brand. #39;It#39;s a daring stunt but we had full control. There was never any real danger involved.#39; 沃尔沃卡车品牌公关经理安德斯#12539;威廉松(Anders Vihelmsson)说:我们真的采用了这一特技,而且拍摄一次成功。我们对这项大胆的特技有着充分的把握。影片的拍摄不存在任何危险。 Van Damme, 53, was hooked to safety lines that aren#39;t visible in the film, and each foot is on a small platform that was built on the trucks#39; side mirrors. 拍摄过程中,53岁的尚格#12539;云顿身上绑着安全绳(在影片中看不到),两只脚所踩的卡车侧镜上搭建有小台子。 Van Damme#39;s feet aren#39;t secured to the mirrors, director Andreas Nilsson said, #39;but we had him rigged so that if he would fall off he wouldn#39;t die obviously. We didn#39;t want to be responsible for killing the Muscles from Brussels.#39; 视频导演安德烈亚斯#12539;尼尔森(Andreas Nilsson)称,我们并没有把尚格#12539;云顿的脚固定在镜子上,但我们明摆着给他配备了安全装置,保他即便摔下来也不会有事。我们可不想背上杀害布鲁塞尔肌肉男(Muscles from Brussels)的恶名。 The stunt, meant to advertise Volvo Trucks#39; new dynamic steering system, has drawn more than eight million views on YouTube since the was posted on Nov. 13. 自11月13日上传至YouTube以来,该广告片已吸引超过800万人次观看,这一特技意在展现沃尔沃卡车的全新动态转向系统。 It was filmed by Nilsson on a closed-off airstrip in Spain called Ciudad Real, located just south of Madrid. Prior to filming, the production team rehearsed the stunt for three days. The final version had to be completed within just 15 minutes - from 8:05 a.m. to 8:20 a.m. - when the sunlight was just right. 影片摄制于西班牙马德里南部雷阿尔城机场的一个封闭的飞机跑道上,尼尔森导演负责该片的拍摄。制作团队在拍摄前共了用三天时间来排练这一特技。由于早上8:05到8:20的阳光创造了拍摄的最佳时机,影片的正式拍摄必须在15分钟内完成。 #39;The film you see is the first take. But obviously we had tons of rehearsals,#39; Nilsson said. #39;The tension was really high. I saw a tough stunt coordinator swell up after we nailed it. That might actually be the nicest memory from the shoot.#39; 尼尔森说,人们最终看到的是我们当时一遍就拍好的影片。不过很明显,我们在这之前进行了上百次的演练。当时大家压力都很大。片子拍下来的时候,我看到一个特强悍的特技协调员都激动得落泪。那应该是拍摄过程中最美好的记忆了吧。 Nilsson said the drivers of the trucks played key roles. #39;What they did is fantastic. I don#39;t know if you have tried to drive backwards with a truck but it#39;s not the easiest thing,#39; he said. #39;And then [to] keep it in total control when sping apart is very, very hard.#39; 尼尔森说影片中的卡车司机扮演了非常重要的角色。他说,他们真的很了不起。我不知道你有没有试过倒着开车,这可不容易。而且还得一边稳稳当当地倒车一边向外分开,这真的特别特别难。 The trucks go backward in the because #39;we all know that going in reverse is a bit more difficult than going forward,#39; Vilhelmsson said. #39;We felt that would be the ultimate test, to have the trucks go in reverse with someone standing on the side mirrors performing a side split. And we knew that if anyone would be able to do that, it would have to be Jean-Claude Van Damme.#39; 对于影片中卡车倒行的原因,威廉松解释道,人人皆知倒着行车要比正向行驶更困难一些,而如果让一个人站在两辆倒行的卡车中间脚踩侧镜表演劈叉,应当就是对卡车性能的终极考验了。而且我们确信只有尚格#12539;云顿能够挑战这一特技。 Nilsson called the an honest homage to Van Damme, #39;a pop cultural icon that I have had in my life since I was a kid. The spots he has been in before have looked down on him, in my opinion. I was looking up, in celebration.#39; 尼尔森将这段影片视作对尚格#12539;云顿的衷心致敬。他说,从我小时候起,尚格#12539;云顿就是我心目中的一位流行文化偶像。然而在我看来,曾经那些面向尚格#12539;云顿的镜头都是俯视拍摄,我则希望用仰视机位来拍摄他、赞美他。 The new dynamic steering system combines conventional hydraulic powered steering with an electric motor that is fitted to the truck#39;s steering gear. The electric motor receives 2000 signals per second from the truck#39;s on-board sensors, allowing for more precise steering, according to Vilhelmsson. He said the steering system offers a more relaxed and ergonomically designed experience for truck drivers. 威廉松称,沃尔沃卡车新的动态转向系统是在传统的液压助力转向器的基础上,新增一个安装在卡车转向轴上的电控电机。凭藉每秒从车载传感器接收到的2,000个电子信号,电控电机能帮助卡车实现更加精准的转向。他说,新的转向系统能够为卡车司机提供更舒适更自如的驾驶体验。 The #39;Epic Split#39; is part of a series produced by Volvo Trucks that features daring stunts meant to illustrate innovations in its vehicles. A previous dubbed #39;The Ballerina Stunt#39; filmed two trucks speeding toward a tunnel, with a woman crossing a slack line between them before they hit the tunnel. That also went viral, getting more than 7 million views. 这部名为“载入史册的一劈”(Epic Split)的广告片,是沃尔沃制作的系列汽车宣传片中的一部。该系列短片以特技表演为内容来展示其对汽车的设计创新。在先前的一部名叫“芭蕾特技”(The Ballerina Stunt)的视频中,两部卡车并行驶向隧道,两车之间搭起一条绳索,一位女运动员表演空中走绳索的特技,最后两辆卡车一起冲进隧道,特技演员在卡车驶入隧道前惊险走完全程。这部视频也快速走红,观看量超过700万次。 When Volvo began planning the launch of five new trucks 12 months ago, the creative team adopted a strategy of producing YouTube films that would create attention, and inform and entertain audiences, Vilhelmsson said. That would pave the way for future advertising and sales campaigns in local markets. 威廉松说,12个月前沃尔沃开始计划推出五款新型卡车,自那以来创意团队就一直通过制作视频上传至YouTube的方式,在吸引眼球、大众的同时对产品进行宣传。这为未来进一步投放广告以及各地的促销活动铺垫了道路。 With the Van Damme , Volvo wanted to illustrate the new dynamic steering model in a spectacular way, and reach beyond traditional markets. #39;We need to target not only truck drivers, but future truck drivers. Young people who are facing a choice of a future career,#39; he said. 藉助尚格#12539;云顿广告片这样一种独特的宣传手法,沃尔沃在意图展现其全新动态转向系统优越性能的同时,也在努力触及传统市场之外更广阔的客户群。他说,我们所定位的客户不仅仅是现在的卡车司机,还有那些今后要选择职业道路、或将成为卡车司机的年轻群体。 #39;We know the media landscape is changing,#39; he said. #39;We have different media consumption habits today than a couple years ago. So that is why we invest in this cost-efficient way of reaching out to millions of people online.#39; 他说,我们意识到了传媒产业正在发生的变化。相比几年以前,现在的人们形成了更加多样化的媒体消费习惯。正因如此,我们投资于这种更高效的方式,让网络中上百万的人们看到我们的产品。 Volvo Trucks will continue to release more stunt s, but has no more planned with Jean-Claude Van Damme at this time. 沃尔沃卡车将继续发布更多的特技视频,但目前暂不计划与尚格#12539;云顿进行更多的合作。 /201311/265573

A doughnut created in a lab and made of silk on the outside and collagen gel where the jelly ought to be can mimic a basic function of brain tissue, scientists have found.科学家发现,实验室里制造的一个类似甜甜圈的东西,可以模仿脑组织的一项基本功能。这个圆圈的环状部分由丝材料制成,圈里面填的是胶原蛋白凝胶。Bioengineers produced a kind of rudimentary gray matter and white matter in a dish, along with rat neurons that signaled one another across the doughnut’s center. When the scientists dropped weights on the material to simulate traumatic injury, the neurons in the three-dimensional brain model emitted chemical and electrical signals similar to those in the brains of injured animals.生物工程师在培养皿中制成了相当于原始灰质和白质的材料,其中用了大鼠神经元,这些神经元能通过圆圈中间的物质相互交换信号。当科学家让重物掉到这个圆圈上,以模拟创伤性损伤时,这个三维大脑模型中的神经元释放出了化学信号和电信号,与受伤动物的大脑释放的信号类似。It is the first time scientists have been able to so closely imitate brain function in the laboratory, experts said. If researchers can replicate it with human neurons and enhance it to reflect other neurological functions, it could be used for studying how disease, trauma and medical treatments affect the brain — without the expense and ethical challenges of clinical trials on people.专家们表示,这是科学家首次能在实验室里如此逼真地模仿大脑功能。如果研究人员能用人的神经元重建这个模型,并提升到足以反映其他一些神经系统功能的水平,那么这个模型或可用于研究疾病、创伤和治疗如何影响大脑,从而避免人体临床试验的高费用和伦理问题。;In terms of mechanical similarity to the brain, it’s a pretty good mimic,; said James J. Hickman, a professor of nanoscience technology at the University of Central Florida, who was not involved in the research. ;They’ve been able to repeat the highest level of function of neurons. It’s the best model I’ve seen.;“从与大脑的机械相似性来看,这是一个相当不错的模仿,”詹姆斯·J·希克曼(James J. Hickman)说。他是中佛罗里达大学(University of Central Florida)的纳米科学与技术教授,没有参与这项研究。“他们能够复制出最高水平的神经元功能。这是我看到过的最好的模型。”The research, led by David Kaplan, the chairman of the bioengineering department at Tufts University, and published Monday in the journal PNAS, is the latest example of biomedical engineering being used to make realistic models of organs such as the heart, lungs and liver.该研究由塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)生物工程系主任戴维·卡普兰(David Kaplan)主持,于周一发表在《美国科学院院刊》(PNAS)上。这是用生物医学工程手段制造器官——比如心脏、肺和肝脏——仿真模型的一个最新例子。Most studies of human brain development rely on animals or on brain slices taken after death; both are useful but have limits.研究人类大脑发育的工作大多依赖于动物实验,或人死亡后获取的大脑切片;两者都有用,但都具局限性。Brain models have been mostly two-dimensional or made with a three-dimensional gel, said Rosemarie Hunziker, program director of tissue engineering and biomaterial at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, which funded Dr. Kaplan’s research.美国国家生物医学成像和生物工程研究所(National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering)的组织工程与生物材料项目主任罗斯玛丽·亨齐克(Rosemarie Hunziker)称,以前的大脑模型大多是二维的,或是用三维凝胶制作。该研究所资助了卡普兰的工作。None of those systems replicate the brain’s gray or white matter, or how neurons communicate, Dr. Hunziker said. ;Even if you get cells to live in there, they don’t do much,; she said.亨齐克还表示,过去的系统都没有复制大脑的灰质或白质,也没有复制出神经元如何传导信号。“就算你能让细胞在模型中存活,它们基本上也做不成什么。”Dr. Kaplan’s team found that a spongy silk material coated with a positively charged polymer could culture rat neurons, a stand-in for gray matter. By itself, silk did not encourage neurons to produce axons, branches that transmit electrical pulses to other neurons.卡普兰的研究小组发现,一种涂有带正电聚合物的海绵状丝制材料可以培养大鼠神经元,用以替代灰质。丝制材料本身并不能让神经元产生轴突,也就是把电脉冲传递给其他神经元的突出部分。The researchers formed the silk material into a doughnut and added collagen gel to the center. Axons grew from the ring through the gel — the white matter substitute — and sent signals to neurons across the circle.这些研究人员将丝制材料做成一个圆圈,在其中心添加了胶原蛋白凝胶。轴突从圆圈的一边长出来,通过替代白质的凝胶,把信号发送给圆圈另一边的神经元。They got ;these neurons talking to each other,; Dr. Hunziker said. ;No one’s really shown that before.;亨齐克说,他们让“这些神经元互相交流。以前没人真正做到了这一点。”By adding nutrients and growth factors, scientists kept the brainlike tissue alive in an incubator for two months, at which point they experimented on it.通过添加营养物质和生长因子,科学家把这个类似脑的组织放在孵化器中,让其存活了两个月,然后开始在它上面做试验。Adding a neurotoxin essentially killed the neurons, as it would in a real brain. To simulate traumatic brain injury, they dropped weights from different heights.添加一种神经毒素基本上会把神经元杀死,就像在真正的大脑中那样。为了模拟脑外伤,他们从不同高度让重物掉到模型上。Dr. Kaplan said the brain-in-a-dish ;didn’t go splat,; but reacted like ;a kitchen sponge, and it would compress down and then partially spring back up.;卡普兰称,这个培养皿中的大脑“没有四处飞溅”,其反应更像是“厨房里的海绵,先是向下压缩,然后部分反弹起来。”He said measurements of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that surges in injury, showed that ;the more severe the damage, the higher the spike; in glutamate.他说,大脑受伤会导致神经递质谷氨酸激增,而对模型中谷氨酸的测量显示,“受伤越重,激增的峰值越高。”Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, a biomedical engineering professor at Columbia who has worked with Dr. Kaplan on other studies, described the model as a kind of ;Lego approach,; a ;modular structure; that can be expanded and made more complex.哥伦比亚大学生物医学工程系教授戈尔达娜·乌尼亚克-诺瓦科维奇(Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic)曾与卡普兰在其他研究上有过合作。她称这个模型的建造有点像“乐高用的方法”,是一种“模块结构”,可以扩展成更复杂的形态。;It is the first proof of principle that something like this can be achieved outside of the body,; she said.她说,“这是首次在原理上明,类似这样的东西可以在体外实现。”Dr. Hickman said future experiments would need to study other cells and regions in the brain. ;They’ve set up an architecture so some clever person in the future could then do it,; he said. Dr. Kaplan said his team was working on sustaining the brainlike tissue for six months — and with human neurons created from stem cells. He plans to add a model of the brain’s vascular system, so researchers can study what happens when drugs cross the blood-brain barrier.希克曼表示,还需要有未来的实验来研究大脑的其他细胞和区域。他说,“他们已经建立了一个构架,将来会有聪明人用它来做工作。”卡普兰称,他的研究小组正在努力让这个类似脑的组织存活六个月,还要用上从干细胞生成的人类神经元。他打算加建一个大脑血管系统的模型,让研究人员得以观察当药物通过血脑屏障时会发生什么。Ultimately, he hopes the bioengineered model can be used ;to study everything from drugs to disease to surgical effects to electrode implants,; he said. ;I mean, the list is endless.;他的最终目标,是让生物工程模型能被用于“所有的研究,从药物,到疾病,到手术效果,再到植入电极,”他说。“我的意思是,可做的研究多得没完没了。” /201409/325542

When the thin man in the silver-coloured windbreaker walks on to the stage, a roar goes through the crowd. Then he starts singing: “Friends, we have walked together all our lives, but those days are over,” and the audience goes crazy.那个身穿银色风衣的瘦削男子走上舞台时,人群发出一阵轰鸣。接着,这个男子开始演唱:“朋友一生一起走,那些日子不再有,”观众的兴奋情绪达到极点。But this is not a pop concert. The 40,000 people in the Yellow Dragon Stadium in Hangzhou on Friday night were Alibaba Group employees and their family, and the man on stage was Jack Ma, saying farewell to the business he founded that has now grown into one of the world’s largest ecommerce companies.但是,这并不是一场流行音乐会。上周五晚聚集在杭州黄龙体育馆的这4万人,是阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group)的雇员及其家人,而台上那人是正在告别该集团的马云(Jack Ma),他创立的这家企业已发展壮大,成为全球最大电子商务公司之一。At 48, Mr Ma has handed the job of chief executive to Jonathan Lu, his trusted lieutenant and 13-year Alibaba veteran, and gone into semi-retirement as executive chairman.现年48岁的马云将首席执行官的职位交给自己的亲信、为阿里巴巴效力13年的公司元老陆兆禧(Jonathan Lu),自己继续担任执行董事长,由此进入半退休状态。The change at the top comes as the group is preparing what could become one of the largest-ever internet initial public offerings. A listing in the US, expected at the end of this year or in early 2014, would allow Alibaba to buy back up to half of Yahoo’s 24 per cent stake in itself and raise bn or more from public investors.高层换人之际,阿里巴巴集团正准备进行首次公开发行(IPO),这可能成为史上规模最大的互联网企业IPO之一。预计该集团将在今年底或2014年初在美国上市,使其能够购回雅虎(Yahoo)所持其24%股份的至多一半,并从公开市场投资者那里募资至少600亿美元。Mr Lu inherits a formidable business. Alibaba operates the world’s largest online marketplace for trade between companies. It has also built an unrivalled online retail platform in China. Taobao.com, the group’s eBay-like consumer-to-consumer website, accounts for 90 per cent of China’s online retail transaction value in this segment.陆兆禧继承了一家令人敬畏的企业。阿里巴巴集团运营着世界上最大的企业对企业(B2B)在线交易市场。它还打造了中国首屈一指的在线零售平台。淘宝网(Taobao.com)是阿里巴巴集团旗下类似于eBay的消费者对消费者(C2C)网站,在该板块占有中国在线零售交易价值的90%。TMall, its business-to-consumer platform, accounts for half of online business-to-consumer sales in China by transaction value, according to McKinsey.麦肯锡(McKinsey)数据显示,阿里巴巴集团旗下的企业对消费者(B2C)平台天猫(TMall),按交易价值计算占中国在线B2C销售的一半。“The market share concentration and power they have is unique – you don’t have that in any other market in the world,” says Zia Daniell Wigder, an ecommerce analyst at Forrester Research in New York.“他们拥有的市场份额集中度和实力是独一无二的——你在世界上其他任何市场找不到这样的例子,”纽约Forrester Research电子商务分析师齐娅#8226;丹尼尔#8226;维杰(Zia Daniell Wigder)表示。That market power was reflected in Alibaba’s most recent results. Revenues rose by 80 per cent year on year to .84bn in the final quarter of 2012, and net profit surged by 156 per cent to 0m, according to a Yahoo filing last week.这种市场实力反映在阿里巴巴集团的最新业绩上。雅虎最近提交的监管申报文件显示,2012年末季阿里巴巴集团营收同比增长80%,至18.4亿美元,净利润同比飙升156%,至6.50亿美元。But the big question is where Alibaba can go from here.但是,真正的问题在于阿里巴巴下一步能走向何方。Other players are challenging its dominant position in its home market. They include 360buy, which accounted for almost a fifth of China’s online retail transaction value in 2012 according to iResearch, and Suning, an electronics retailer with a massive bricks-and-mortar presence that is now aggressively expanding online and branching out into other products.在本土市场,竞争对手正在叫板该集团的霸主地位。这些竞争对手包括京东商城(360buy)——艾瑞咨询(iResearch)的数据显示,2012年京东占有中国在线零售交易价值的近五分之一;另外还有苏宁(Suning)——拥有庞大实体店网络的电子产品零售商,目前正积极向网上业务拓展,并涉足其他产品的销售。Although Alibaba dismisses the idea that it is under threat, it is looking far ahead to defend its turf. The company has launched its own mobile operating system to build a closer relationship with consumers, as they start shopping increasingly on mobile devices.虽然阿里巴巴集团否认自己面临威胁,但该集团为了守住自己的地盘正把目光投向未来。它已推出自己的移动操作系统,以求与消费者打造更紧密的关系。目前中国消费者日趋使用移动设备购物。Taking a page out of Amazon’s playbook, Alibaba is also rapidly expanding its cloud computing business.阿里巴巴集团借鉴亚马逊(Amazon)的战略,也在快速扩张其云计算业务。By the end of this year, the company expects half of the bandwidth used for its cloud operations to be serving outside customers, according to Wang Jian, head of the unit. “Eventually, our target is to have 5 per cent of all computing power in China by the number of servers shipped,” he says.据阿里云计算总裁王坚介绍,该公司预计,到今年底,其云计算业务所用带宽的一半将是为外部客户务。他表示:“最终,我们的目标是按照发运的务器数量计,拥有中国全部计算能力的5%。”Alibaba is also on the acquisition path. On Friday, it agreed to acquire a 28 per cent stake in Autonavi, the company behind China’s most successful mobile map app. Through the investment, Alibaba hopes to expand its mobile commerce capabilities, for example to be able to show the physical location of vendors on Juhuasuan, its Groupon-like daily deals site, or Taobao, the consumer-to-consumer platform.阿里巴巴集团还踏上了收购的道路。上周五,该集团同意收购高德(Autonavi) 28%股份,后者是中国最成功的移动地图应用的开发商。阿里巴巴集团希望借助这项投资扩大自己的移动商务能力,例如显示集团旗下类Groupon团购网站“聚划算”或C2C平台淘宝网上商家的实际地理位置。Only 10 days earlier, Alibaba agreed to buy an 18 per cent stake in Sina Weibo, China’s largest Twitter equivalent. The tie-up will allow Alibaba to make the ads that are a major source of its revenue much more targeted.最近,阿里巴巴集团还同意收购中国最大微网站新浪微(Sina Weibo) 18%股份。这一结盟将使该集团得以大幅提高广告的针对性;广告是该集团的一大营收来源。Alibaba executives say a few more deals like this are to come, as the company continues to build an ecosystem around ecommerce. “We are acquiring the capabilities to provide and crunch the data needed for that,” says Mr Wang. “The traditional economy was centred on industry, powered by electricity. In the new economy, we will provide the equivalent to electricity.”阿里巴巴集团高管表示,随着集团继续围绕电子商务打造一个生态系统,未来还会有几笔类似的交易。“为此,我们正在获取必要的数据提供与处理能力。”王坚表示,“传统经济以工业为核心,由电力驱动。在新经济中,我们将提供等同于电力的东西。”But what unsettles outsiders more is the question whether Alibaba will take its ecommerce machine global. In 2004, just a year after its establishment, Taobao had aly surpassed eBay in China – a development that eventually ruined the US company’s retail business in that market.但是,令外界更加不安的问题是,阿里巴巴集团会否让自己的电子商务机器走向全球?2004年,开通仅一年的淘宝网就已超越了eBay的在华业务——这一发展最终毁掉了eBay这家美国公司在中国市场的零售业务。“The question is whether [Alibaba] will be able to replicate their success outside China,” says Ms Wigder.“问题在于,(阿里巴巴集团)能不能在中国以外复制自己的成功,”维杰表示。The industry is alight with speculation that Alibaba could launch an attack on global rivals such as eBay and Amazon, by helping Chinese sellers ship fast, and cheaply, to developed markets. Industry executives and analysts say Alibaba is considering investment in “offshore” warehouses outside of Europe and the US to make this happen.业内有很多猜测称,阿里巴巴集团可能会向全球竞争对手eBay和亚马逊发起攻击,帮助中国卖家快速而廉价地向发达市场发货。业内高管和分析师称,阿里巴巴集团正考虑向欧美以外的“离岸”仓库投资,使其成为现实。John Spelich, Alibaba spokesman, says he has not heard of such plans.阿里巴巴集团发言人约翰#8226;斯佩里奇(John Spelich)表示,他尚未听说有此类计划。But Wang Tingting, an analyst at iResearch, says the company “will definitely make that move eventually”. Shi Tao, a vice-president at Alibaba’s rival 360buy, which recently started an international business, says that keeping products in bulk in “offshore” warehouses and shipping them into developed markets piecemeal can lower costs, since lower import duties apply to shipments under ∈20 apiece.但艾瑞咨询分析师王婷婷表示,该集团“最终肯定会做出此举”。竞争对手京东最近启动了一项国际业务。京东副总裁石涛表示,把产品成批地储存于“离岸”仓库,然后零零碎碎地发往发达市场,能够降低成本,因为不到20欧元的包裹所适用的进口关税更低。No matter if Alibaba eventually moves in this direction, the company has started globalisation plans. Last year, it set up a dedicated team to explore taking Taobao global. “At the moment, we focus on Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and Malaysia,” says Daphne Lee, head of Taobao International. She says the company is taking things step by step and is now trying to forge logistics and payment partnerships.无论阿里巴巴集团最终是否走上这条道路,该集团都已启动全球化计划。去年它成立了一个专职团队,由其探索让淘宝网全球化的可能性。“目前我们聚焦于香港、台湾、新加坡和马来西亚,”淘宝国际(Taobao International)业务主管李芃君(Daphne Lee)说。她表示,公司正在步步为营地推进,目前在试图打造物流和付方面的合作伙伴关系。The demand is clearly there – 280,000 users from Singapore alone registered on Taobao last year, although demand can often present surprises. Consumers from tropical Singapore “are buying down jackets – they need them for overseas trips and can barely find them at home”, says Ms Lee.需求显然是存在的——去年仅新加坡一个地方就有28万用户在淘宝网注册——尽管需求常常会出人意料。据李芃君介绍,地处热带的新加坡的消费者热衷“购买羽绒——他们需要在出国旅行时穿这种衣,而在国内市场根本找不到”。 /201305/239596

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