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来源:百度典范    发布时间:2020年02月21日 06:45:50    编辑:admin         

Indias Hindu nationalists:印度的印度教民族主义者:Men in shorts穿短裤的人们The election over, Narendra Modi may drop the Hindu right选举结束,纳伦德拉莫迪或许将限制印度教权力。Not physical jerks这可不是单纯的体操。POLITICAL pundits have spent much of the past week debating exit polls, released just after the final day of voting on May 12th. The polls pointed, more or less, to a single outcome: the Bharatiya Janata Party will wallop the incumbent party, Congress, and, led by Narendra Modi, will form the next government. Investors pushed the stockmarket to a record high. But details matter, such as whether Mr Modi can rely on a narrow coalition or will need a broad one. Here, the pollsters cannot be relied upon. The official results are due on May 16th, after The Economist goes to press.5月12日是印度大选投票的最后一天,投票结束后不久,政府即公布了一份票站民意调查。在过去的一周中,政治专家们纷纷就这一调查结果展开辩论。调查或多或少地指向了同一个结果:纳伦德拉.莫迪领导的印度人民党将在选举中击溃现任执政党—国大党,组建下届政府。投资者们借机推动股市达到了创纪录的新高。但是一些细节将对最后的结果产生重大影响,例如莫迪先生是否可以依赖这一狭隘的联盟或是去寻求一个更广泛的合作。民意调查并不可靠,官方的结果将会在5月16日即本刊付梓后公布。A second debate concerned the clout of the Hindu right. Since he was a boy, Mr Modi has been an activist member in the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, formed in 1925 as a pro-Hindu social movement. It began with charitable aims but always carried quasi-military overtones as men in brown shorts performed dawn callisthenics. These days the RSS is rebranding itself as a more youthful, right-leaning, nationalist organisation, with rugby and volleyball on offer as alternatives to physical jerks.第二个辩论则有关于印度教权力的影响。从童年起,莫迪先生就一直是印度国民志愿务团的活跃成员。印度国民志愿务团成立于1925年,持印度教社会化运动。它是为了慈善的目的而成立,但是成员们每天早晨穿着棕色短裤演练体操却使它染上了一丝准军事化的色。这些天来,国民志愿务团致力于重新标榜自己为一个更加年轻的,右倾的民族主义组织,并且提供橄榄球和排球作为一个替代体操活动的选择。Throughout the election campaign, the RSS supplied volunteers for the BJP. The organisations sway within the party remains strong. Mr Modi became party leader in 2013 when the RSS chose to back him. Observers see an effort to expand the RSSs “majoritarian” appeal, with less talk of Hindu identity and more about national strength. Smooth-tongued spokesmen downplay a once-core assertion of the RSS: that to be Indian was to be Hindu.在整个的竞选活动中,RSS一直为印度人民党提供志愿者。该组织在人民党内保持着巨大的影响力。2013年,在RSS的持下,莫迪先生成为了印度人民党的领袖。观察家们将其视作印度国民志愿务团扩大其“多数人统治”诉求的努力,只是现在他们更少地谈及印度教的身份,转而更多地从国家力量的出发。圆滑的发言人如今则对务团曾经核心的主张—“印度人就得是印度教徒”轻描淡写。Yet Mr Modis rise brings questions about the role of the RSS and the wider Sangh Parivar, or family of Hindu nationalist outfits. Some have high expectations. About 2,000 volunteers turned out to help Mr Modi in Varanasi alone. On May 12th members of the RSSs student wing cheered Mr Modi as “one of us ”, claiming he would bring relief on issues dear to them. These include calls for a temple to be built at the site of a demolished mosque in Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh; for Muslim-majority Kashmir to lose its special status under the Indian constitution; and for the abolition of a separate marriage code for Muslims. Not for these people discussions about economic policies.然而,莫迪先生的就职带来了有关RSS与更广泛的“联合家庭”—印度教民族主义者组织联合间的角色问题。有些人抱着很高的期待。仅在瓦拉纳西市就有约2000名志愿者帮助莫迪先生的竞选。5月12日,加入国民志愿务团的学生们便欢呼莫迪先生是“我们的一员”,宣称他将会对有利于他们的事情(对那些穆斯林和无宗教主义者则充满忧虑)带来解决办法。这些就包括呼吁在北方邦阿约提亚市的一处废旧的清真寺旧址上修建一座寺庙;呼吁取消穆斯林人口占多数的克什米尔地区在印度宪法下的特殊地位;呼吁废除专为穆斯林制定的单独的婚姻法。以及不要为这些人讨论经济政策。A senior RSS organiser in Varanasi talks of Mr Modi restoring pride in “what the nation lost in the last 1,000 years, in the sons of the nation, the Hindus who originally belonged to this country”. Only once before, at the defeat of Indira Gandhi in 1977, has the RSS thrown itself so heavily into party politics. Just as it is helping Mr Modis cause, so he is helping the RSS, according to one of its spokesmen in Delhi. With more effective recruiting, especially online, 10,000 new members are said to be signing up each month, including at universities and among employees at the countrys booming IT firms.RSS的一位高级官员在瓦拉纳西市谈及莫迪先生重建了印度人的骄傲,这份骄傲是“在过去的1000年中这个国家所丢失了的事物中,在这个国家的子孙间,在那些从最开始就属于这片土地的印度教徒身上”。之前只有在1977年英迪拉.甘地失败的那一次竞选中,RSS才如此激烈地参与到过党派政治中。据德里的一位发言人称,RSS在帮助莫迪先生的事业,他也在帮助RSS。得益于更有效率的招募行动,尤其是在网络上的,据说每个月都有10,000名新成员加入,而其中就包含着在校大学生和这个国家冉冉升起的IT行业的雇员们。If Mr Modi becomes prime minister, members of the broad Sangh Parivar family say they expect a more forceful approach to Pakistan and China. School textbooks could be reworked to show history “in the right way”, as one puts it, for example by telling how Maratha kings triumphed over Muslim armies.如果莫迪先生当选为总理,广大的“联合家庭”成员们期待着对巴基斯坦和中国采取更为强硬的措施。学校的教科书也会被重新编写,例如通过描述马拉地国王如何打败穆斯林军队这种所谓的“正确的方式”展现历史,。Yet Mr Modis iness for collaboration may prove passing. It is true that on May 10th he spent two hours with the RSSs leader, Mohan Bhagwat, reportedly to assess the national campaign and potential ruling coalitions. But with voting over, the BJP will not need its armies of street volunteers. And Hindu nationalists may recall how in Mr Modis early years of running the state of Gujarat, he mostly kept the RSS at arms length, worried that a rival power might arise. Widening his appeal to all Indians may mean turning his back on the more divisive outfits to which he has been close.然而莫迪先生的合作意愿可能只是短暂的。5月10日,他与RSS的领导人莫汉.巴格瓦特会谈了两个小时,据报道是在评估全国运动以及潜在的执政联盟。但是当投票结束后,印度人民党将不再需要街头的志愿者军队。那时印度教民族主义者或许会记起莫迪先生早年在古吉拉特邦执政时是如何做的——大多数时候他都会与RSS保持距离 ,以避免反对力量的出现。迎合更广大的印度人民意味着莫迪先生会背离这一引起纠纷的组织,尽管他一直同印度国民务团关系亲密。 201405/302140。

What do leaves and solar panels have in common?树叶和太阳能板有哪些共同之处呢?Both absorb sunlight and turn it into energy.它们都能吸收阳光并将之转换成能量。But while solar panels typically have smooth surfaces,leaves have tiny wrinkles and folds that allow for maximum light absorption.但是太阳能板的表面一般较为平整,而叶子表面有细小的纹理和褶皱,这些纹理和褶皱使树叶能够最大限度地吸收阳光。Recently, scientists took a cue from nature and engineered plastic solar panels with leaf likesurfaces.最近,科学家们受到大自然的启发,设计出一种与树叶表面结构类似的塑料太阳能板。Most flat surfaced solar panels absorb some light and turn about eighteen percent of itinto electricity.大多数表面平整的太阳能板在吸收阳光后仅能将其中的18%转化为电能。Panels with ridged surfaces can absorb more light by channeling light waves,thereby significantly increasing their efficiency at converting light into electricity.而有脊状表面的太阳能板可以通过引导光波来吸收更多的阳光,因此大大提高了光能转化为电能的效率。Besides making panels more efficient, ridged and wrinkled surfaces could allow solar panels to bemade out of bendable plastic instead of silicon.这种脊状、褶皱的表面不仅提高了太阳能板的效率,同时也使得可弯曲的塑料能够代替原本用于制作太阳能板的硅。Silicon is naturally better at absorbing light thanplastic, but its also more expensive and more brittle.硅从本质上来说吸收光的性能要比塑料好,但是其成本昂贵同时也易碎。Flexible plastic is cheaper and more durablebut typically not as good at absorbing light.柔韧的塑料相比之下更为便宜也更为耐用,但一般来讲吸收光的性能还是不太好。But with leaf like surfaces, solar panels made frombendable plastic may be able to absorb light just as effectively, if not more so, than regularpanels.但是有了这种叶状表面,用可弯曲的塑料制成的太阳能板能够像普通太阳能板一样吸收阳光,甚至要比普通太阳能板的效果还要好。Another benefit of the wrinkled surface technique is that its especially useful for increasingabsorption at the red end of the light spectrum, which has the longest wavelengths.褶皱表面的另一个好处就是它在显著提高太阳能板吸收光谱中波长最长的红光端的效率。Conventional solar panels typically absorb very little of red and infrared light.传统的太阳能板只能吸收少量红光和红外线。But the foldingtechnique increased absorption of this light by nearly 600 percent.但是这种褶皱的表面可以使吸收红光的效率提高近6倍。Plastic, leaf like solar panels are not yet y for widesp use.塑料、叶状的太阳能板目前还没有被广泛使用。But they could one day helprevolutionize the solar industry by allowing for thin, flexible panels used on windows, clothing, andmost flat surfaces.但是它们终有一天会掀起一场太阳能产业的变革,因为这种薄而柔韧的太阳能板可以应用到窗户、衣和多数的平整表面上。201403/279632。

The Lycaenids are a group of butterflies known commonly as blues, coppers and hairstreaks. Most species of Lycaenid butterflies have evolved close, mutually- beneficialrelationships with different species of ants.灰蝴蝶是一群被认为有着蓝色,紫铜色,并且翅膀上有细纹的蝴蝶,其大部分品种的进化与许多蚂蚁有着亲密无间并且互惠互利的关系。A Special Relationship特殊关系The caterpillars of these butterflies develop special glands that secrete a nectar-like substance to attract ants. The ants swarm all over the caterpillars, drinking thesecretion. The ants “milk” secretions from the caterpillars by tickling special glands on the caterpillars with their antennas.蝴蝶幼虫拥有一种特殊的腺体,它能够分泌如花蜜的甘甜物质来吸引蚂蚁。蚂蚁将幼虫包围,吮吸这甜美的“蜜”,同时也用自己的触须挠蝴蝶幼虫的腺体。In some Australian species, the attending ants even build thatched or earthen corrals to contain the caterpillars. By day the caterpillars are protected from predators by thecorral and the ants. At night the ants herd the caterpillars up a nearby tree to feed on leaves.澳大利亚有些种类的蚂蚁甚至修建起“茅草屋”或者是“土畜栏”将幼虫圈起来。白天的时候,蚂蚁和畜栏保护幼虫不受食肉动物的侵犯,夜晚时,蚂蚁将幼虫搬离到离树近的地方,幼虫便能用树叶充饥。The ants are like a private army of bodyguards. Colonies of ants are quite fierce — swarming, biting or even consuming potentialpredators.蚂蚁就像是私人贴身保镖,并且是十分凶猛的保镖,他们成群结队撕咬甚至是消灭掉潜在的捕食者。In fact, the caterpillars’ sweet secretions are not only nutritious, but also contain chemicals that subdue the ants. Otherwise the ants might kill the caterpillars themselves!Some caterpillars also make drumming sounds to keep their attendant ants alert.事实上,幼虫的分泌物不仅仅是营养丰富,同时也含有一种能够制蚂蚁的化学物质,不然的话,蚂蚁也会让幼虫致命。有些幼虫甚至发出鼓声用以警示蚂蚁。Unprotected caterpillars would make a tasty treat for insect-eaters like birds, frogs or larger insects. But ants taste bitter or even toxic when eaten. To most predators, acaterpillar covered in ants is about as appetizing as a candy bar covered in thumbtacks.未受保护的蝴蝶幼虫对于如鸟类,蛙或者是大一点的昆虫这些食用昆虫的物种来说是一顿美餐。但如果是吃蚂蚁的话,不仅味道苦涩,甚至还是有毒的。在食肉动物看来,被蚂蚁包裹着的蝴蝶幼虫就像是包满图钉的糖果。So, the ants benefit from the energy-rich secretions produced by the caterpillars, and the caterpillars benefit from the ants’ protection.就这样,蚂蚁从幼虫的分泌物中摄取营养,而幼虫也正是有了蚂蚁的保护而健康成长。 /201304/235014。