时间:2019年09月16日 00:15:05

China on Tuesday released images of a Mars probe and rover which the country plans to send to the Red Planet within five years.上周二,中国发布了火星探测器和火星车的图片,并计划在五年内将其发射到火星上。China plans to send a spacecraft to orbit Mars, make a landing, and deploy a rover in July or August 2020, said Zhang Rongqiao, chief architect of the Mars mission at a press conference in Beijing. ;The challenges we face are unprecedented.;在北京召开的一场发布会上,火星探测任务的总工程师张荣桥表示,中国计划在2020年七月或八月发射飞船,在火星着陆并部署火星车。而我们面临的挑战前所未有。According to Ye Peijian, one of China#39;s leading aerospace experts and a consultant to the program, the 2020 mission will be launched on a Long March-5 carrier rocket from the Wenchang space launch center in south China#39;s Hainan province.中国领先航空航天专家、项目顾问叶培建表示,2020年实施的这项任务,将在海南文昌航空发射中心发射的长征5号运载火箭上完成。The lander will separate from the orbiter at the end of a journey of around seven months and touch down in a low latitude area in the northern hemisphere of Mars where the rover will explore the surface.着陆器将在为期7个月左右的行程结束时分离环绕器,之后火星车会降到火星北半球低纬度地区,开始探索火星表面。Images displayed at press conference showed a device with six wheels, powered by four solar panels, two more than the rover sent to the moon.根据在发布会上展示的图片显示,该火星车有六个轮子,由四个太阳能板驱动,要比“玉兔”多两个。Weighing around 200 kilograms, it is designed to operate for three Martian months, according to Sun Zezhou, chief designer of the probe.据火星探测器的总设计师孙泽洲介绍,火星车重达200多千克,预计可在火星上工作三个月。The probe, for its part, will carry 13 payloads including a remote sensing camera and a ground penetrating radar which could be used to study the soil, environment, and atmosphere of Mars, as well as the planet#39;s physical fields, the distribution of water and ice, and its inner structure.火星车将携带包括遥感相机和探地雷达在内的13个装备。这些装备不仅能研究火星土壤、环境和空气,还能探测火星的物理场、水资源分布和火星的内部结构。 /201608/463779

Big tech groups are now working to cut out banks as the middlemen, threatening to turn legacy financial institutions into the dumb pipes that feed the back-end infrastructure of firms such as Amazon, Google or Facebook.如今,大型科技集团正努力把作为中间人的挤掉,威胁要把这种历史悠久的金融机构变成向亚马逊、谷歌或脸书等公司提供后台基础设施的“无声通道”。;The days when a single channel for financial services was controlled by banks are coming to an end,; said David Parker, head of banking at Accenture UK and Ireland.埃森哲英国和爱尔兰地区业主管戴维·帕克表示:“控制唯一金融务渠道的日子就要结束了。”;Companies like Google, Amazon, Facebook and many others who have much more intimacy with their customers will be able to demand and create better services;, said Parker.帕克称:“谷歌、亚马逊、脸书及其他许多与客户拥有亲密得多的关系的公司,将有能力要求和打造更好的务。”;In the short term, this will be the equivalent of small fish nibbling away at parts of a bank#39;s services, but in the longer-term, most banks are worried;.“从短期来看,这相当于小鱼在蚕食的部分务,但从更长远的角度来看,大多数都很担忧。”;It will become attractive for tech firms to pick off parts of the bank - Amazon lending to small merchants, Google putting a buy button in its adverts, Facebook facilitating money transfers.;“对科技公司而言,取代的各个部分将变得有吸引力——亚马逊向小商家提供借贷,谷歌在广告上添加购买按钮,脸书使转账更为便利。”Amazon#39;s payment service is aly advancing steadily: today, it allows online vendors on its Marketplace site to take payments across the US and Europe, and also makes small loans to its US merchants through its B2B arm, Amazon Business. The division was recently launched in Germany, although it does not make loans in Europe yet.亚马逊付务已经在稳步推进:现在,亚马逊旗下平台Marketplace上的在线商家可以在美国和欧洲范围内收款,亚马逊还通过旗下的企业对企业(B2B)平台Amazon Business向美国商家发放小额贷款。这个业务分已经开始在德国运营,尽管还未在欧洲开展贷款业务。In 2016, the e-commerce firm rolled out ;Pay with Amazon; across France, Italy and Spain — a PayPal-like service that allows users to pay for non-Amazon purchases including government services, insurance and travel, using their Amazon login on thousands of third-party websites.在2016年,这家电商公司在法国、意大利和西班牙推出了“Pay with Amazon”务--这种类似PayPal的务允许用户使用他们的亚马逊账户登录数以千计的第三方网站,为非亚马逊消费付款,包括政府务、保险和旅游等。In 2016, payment volume on this service nearly doubled and was used by 33 million customers, Amazon said.亚马逊表示,2016年该务的付金额总数几乎增长一倍,使用该务的用户达到3300万。 /201703/495063

Your next car might drive itself. 你的下一辆汽车或许会是自动驾驶汽车。The technology is essentially here, Barack Obama told Wired magazine this month. 巴拉克.奥巴马(Barack Obama)本月向《连线》(Wired)杂志表示:这项技术已经基本成熟。Robin Chase, the transportation entrepreneur who co-founded Zipcar, reckons driverless cars are three-and-a-quarter years away. 交通运输企业家、Zipcar的联合创始人罗宾.蔡斯(Robin Chase)认为,无人驾驶汽车再有三年零三个月就会来临。Yet we have barely begun to think about how they will revolutionise our lives, revamp our cities — and destroy tens of millions of jobs.然而,我们几乎还没有开始考虑它们将如何革命性地改变我们的生活、我们的城市,以及摧毁数千万就业岗位。After years of trials on city streets, driverless vehicles are now nearing the live phase. 在城市街道上试运行多年之后,无人驾驶汽车现在已快要进入实际应用阶段。Last month, a driverless bus began carrying passengers through Lyon, France. 上月,法国里昂开始使用无人驾驶公交车运送乘客。Most in the automobile industry think self-driving vehicles will be on the road by 2020 or before, says Richard Holman, head of foresight and trends at General Motors.通用汽车(General Motors)的预见和趋势主管理查德.霍尔曼(Richard Holman)表示,大部分汽车业内人士认为无人驾驶汽车将在2020年乃至更早的某个时间上路。Driverless cars will initially coexist with human-driven cars. 无人驾驶汽车最初会与人类驾驶的汽车共存。But the first places where they will become dominant are dense urban areas — precisely the spots most damaged by the automobile age. 但无人驾驶汽车首先会在人口密集的城市地区占据主导地位——正是那些遭受汽车时代打击最为严重的地区。This is a chance to have a do-over for cities, Chase told this month’s Autonomy conference in Paris. 在本月于巴黎召开的Autonomy大会上,蔡斯表示,这是城市从头来过的机会。Many advanced cities are aly reducing the role of cars. 许多发达城市已经削减了汽车的角色。Driverless cars will hasten that process.无人驾驶汽车将会加速这一过程。Cities don’t want everyone to own their own driverless car. 城市不希望所有人都拥有自己的无人驾驶汽车。That would prolong congestion, and isn’t necessary anyway. 那将会加剧拥堵,而且也没有必要。A driverless car is the perfect cheap taxi — it can drop you at work, and then go off to collect somebody else. 无人驾驶汽车是完美的廉价出租车,它可以把你送到公司,然后再去接其他人。If you still insist on driving your own car, cities will probably charge you for the privilege: motoring will become a luxury, like owning and flying your own plane. 如果你仍坚持开你自己的车,城市很可能会为这项特权向你收费:开车将成为一种奢侈,就像拥有和驾驶自己的飞机一样。Driverless cars could allow cities to cut vehicle numbers by about 90 per cent while transporting the same number of people. 无人驾驶汽车可以让城市得以将汽车数量削减90%左右,同时运输的人数不变。They will bring us enormous benefits:无人驾驶汽车将带给我们极大的益处:. Driverless cars will reduce accidents by around 90 per cent, predicts Pascal Demurger, director-general of French insurer MAIF. . 法国保险公司MAIF总经理帕斯卡尔.德米尔热(Pascal Demurger)预计,无人驾驶汽车将让事故量下降90%左右。That’s big — the annual death toll on the world’s roads is about 1.2 million a year, or double the toll from armed conflict and homicides combined.这非常了不起——全球每年有约120万人死于交通事故,两倍于死于武装冲突和凶杀的人数之和。. Pollution and carbon emissions will drop, because urban driverless cars will be electric.. 污染和碳排放将会下降,因为城市无人驾驶汽车将是电动的。. The old, the disabled and teenagers will suddenly gain mobility.. 老年人、行动不便者和青少年将一下子能够方便地出行了。. People will save fortunes by ditching their cars. . 抛弃汽车将让人们省下一笔钱。The average cost of owning a car in Europe is about EURO6,000 a year, says Chase. 蔡斯表示,在欧洲,拥有一辆汽车的平均成本是每年6000欧元左右。If you think personal cars will survive as status symbols, remember that horses were once status symbols.如果你认为私家车将作为地位的象征继续存在,那么别忘记,马也曾经是地位的象征。. Driverless cars will hardly ever need to park, and certainly not in city centres. . 无人驾驶汽车几乎从来不需要停放,而且肯定不需要在市中心停放。Cities can therefore convert parking spaces — where many cars now sit for the vast majority of their lives — into bike lanes or parks.因此,城市可以将停车场——现在许多汽车在大部分使用期限里都是呆在停车场里——改造为自行车道或公园。. Congestion will diminish, as driverless cars can drive in dense packs, won’t get lost and won’t have to circle around looking for parking.. 交通拥堵将减少,因为无人驾驶汽车可以更密集地行驶,不会迷路,也不用转着圈寻找停车位。. Police will no longer pull over black drivers — or indeed any drivers.. 警方不会再让黑人司机靠边停车,实际上他们不会再让任何司机靠边停车。. Once driverless cars sp beyond urban centres, the tedium of commutes will go. . 一旦无人驾驶汽车推广至城市中心以外,通勤将不再乏味。You can use your car for eating, working, sleeping, kissing, Carlo Ratti, head of MIT’s Senseable City Lab, told the Autonomy conference.麻省理工学院智慧城市实验室(MIT Senseable City Lab)负责人卡洛.拉蒂(Carlo Ratti)表示:你可以在车上吃饭、工作、睡觉和接吻。On the other hand, driverless cars will bring catastrophe. 另一方面,无人驾驶汽车将会带来灾难。The best thing about the automobile age was that it employed tens of millions of people to make, market, insure and drive vehicles. 汽车时代最大的好处是,它为数千万人提供了汽车制造、营销、保险和驾驶方面的就业机会。Over the next 20 years, the mostly low-skilled men who now drive trucks, taxis and buses will see their jobs decimated. 在未来20年,现在开卡车、出租车和公交车的那些人(大部分为低技能劳动者)将失去饭碗。Instead of taxi drivers setting Uber cars on fire, we could see taxi and Uber drivers get together to set driverless cars on fire. 我们可能会看到出租车和优步(Uber)司机们联合起来放火焚烧无人驾驶汽车,而不是出租车司机烧优步汽车。If you thought Donald Trump was bad, wait for the next wave of male losers from modernity.如果你认为唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)很糟糕,那么等着看下一波现代化浪潮带来的男性输家吧。Or think of insurers, many of whom now get about half their revenues from automobile insurance. 或者想想保险公司吧,许多保险公司现在一半收入来自汽车保险业务。Warren Buffett, whose company Berkshire Hathaway owns the auto insurers Geico, says that anything that sharply reduces traffic accidents would be wonderful. 沃伦.巴菲特(Warren Buffett)表示,任何大幅降低交通事故的事情都将是极好的。But we would not be holding a party at our insurance company. 但我们不会在我们的保险公司开派对来庆祝。Demurger muses, We could almost become an insurer without insurance. 德米尔热沉吟道,我们可能几乎会成为没有保险的保险公司。Governments and cities, too, will lose revenues from parking, speeding fines and petrol taxes.政府和城市也将失去停车、超速罚款和汽油税的收入。Carmakers are especially scared. 汽车制造商尤其感到惊恐。The few cars of the future might be made by tech companies such as Apple, Baidu and Google. 未来的少数几种汽车可能由苹果(Apple)、百度(Baidu)和谷歌(Google)等科技公司制造。Imagine the impact on Germany, where the automotive sector is the largest industry.想想对德国的影响吧——汽车业是德国规模最大的行业。There may be a clash ahead between mostly European car companies and American tech companies. 汽车公司(大多为欧洲公司)和美国科技公司将来可能发生冲突。The carmakers want people to keep buying and driving their own cars, albeit with new technological aids. 汽车制造商希望人们继续购买和驾驶自己的汽车(虽然是在新技术的辅助下)。By contrast, the tech companies will lobby governments to favour driverless cars.相反,科技公司将会游说政府偏向无人驾驶汽车。Dramatic change is coming, but governments have barely begun thinking about it. 巨大的变化即将来临,但各国政府几乎还没有开始考虑这些事情。Obama is a rare politician even to have mentioned self-driving cars. 奥巴马曾提及自动驾驶汽车,这在政客当中已经是比较罕见的了。Only 6 per cent of the biggest US cities have factored them into their long-term planning. 在美国最大的城市当中,只有6%的城市将自动驾驶汽车考虑到了长期规划中。Driverless cars could arrive by 2020, but most mayors and transport ministers are preoccupied with next week.到2020年,无人驾驶汽车就可能上路,但大多数市长和交通部长满脑子想的还是下周的事情。A decade ago hardly anyone saw the smartphone coming. 十年前,几乎没有人预见到智能手机的来临。It has brought an epidemic of mass addiction. 如今,智能手机瘾大规模流行。Let’s hope we do a better job of handling the driverless car.希望我们在应对无人驾驶汽车方面做得更好一些吧。 /201611/475323

This year’s US election has given rise to plenty of peculiar developments. 今年的美国大选引发了很多奇怪的事态。Here is another one: Carbon Black, a cyber security firm, has released a poll suggesting that 58 per cent of voters think it likely that electronic voting machines could be cyber-hacked. 这里又有一样:网络安全公司Carbon Black公布民调显示,58%的选民认为电子投票器被入侵的可能性较大。Indeed, popular concern is so high that 15m voters may refuse to participate, Carbon Black says, noting that voters believe a US insider threat (28 per cent), Russia (17 per cent) and the candidates themselves (15 per cent) pose the biggest risks.Carbon Black称,事实上,公众担忧之甚,以至于1500万选民可能会拒绝参加投票。该公司指出,选民认为美国内部人士(28%)、俄罗斯(17%)和候选人本身(15%)是前几大构成风险的危险因素。It might seem tempting to dismiss this as marketing, or as a sign of the febrile political mood, but discounting that 58 per cent number that would be a terrible mistake. 我们可能很容易想把上述结果简单地归结为一种营销造势,或一个显示狂热政治情绪的标志,但是忽视这个58%的数字将是个严重的错误。One reason is that many US government officials quietly share voters’ concerns. 一个原因是,美国很多政府官员私底下也存在与选民们相同的担忧。Little wonder. 这也难怪。Small cyber breaches of the electoral register have aly occurred in Arizona and Illinois. 亚利桑那州和伊利诺伊州的选民名册数据库已经遭到过小规模入侵。Several states are thought to be vulnerable to attacks on the election system, particularly those, like Pennsylvania, that use direct-recording electronic machines to tally the vote. 多个州的选举投票系统被认为容易受到攻击,特别是那些使用直接记录电子机器来计票的州,比如宾夕法尼亚州。Pennsylvania, largely thought to be a key battleground state in the upcoming election, may be the largest concern when it comes to electronic voting machines, Carbon Black suggests.Carbon Black指出:宾州在即将举行的大选中被认为是关键战场,而这个州的电子投票器可能是最令人担忧的。Even if election fears turn out to be misplaced, they highlight a bigger point: a new front is opening up in cyber warfare. 即便关于大选的担忧到头来原来是多虑,它们也突显了更重要的一点:一条新战线正在网络战争中打开。This has big implications for both political pundits and business leaders.这对政治专家和商界领袖影响重大。Two decades ago, it was presumed that hackers aimed to do one of four things: steal money; grab secrets; highlight a political cause; or inflict physical sabotage. 二十年前,人们认定黑客的目标无非是做以下四件事之一:偷钱、窃取情报、促使世人关注某项政治事业、或造成实际的破坏。Western intelligence forces have moved to offset those threats. 西方情报部门已采取行动来消除这些威胁。For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Department of Homeland Security are currently running a cyber security awareness month to teach consumers and businesses how to avoid fraud and theft. 例如,美国联邦调查局(FBI)和国土安全局(DHS)目前正在开展网络安全意识月活动,教消费者和企业如何避免遭受欺诈和盗窃。Meanwhile, the US military and DHS have been scrambled to protect so-called systemically important infrastructure from sabotage. 与此同时,美国军队和国土安全局争相保护所谓具有系统重要性的基础设施免遭破坏。There is intense activity around the US electricity grid, after hackers damaged a Ukrainian grid last year.在去年黑客破坏乌克兰电网后,针对美国电网也存在密集的黑客活动。The US election has put a fifth category of risks on the radar: cyber attacks that aim to inflict psychological damage by shattering public trust. 美国大选将第五种风险带到了人们的视线中:旨在通过动摇公众信任而造成心理上的破坏的网络攻击。People have got it all wrong, Dmitri Alperovitch, founder of cyber security group CrowdStrike, recently told me. 人们全搞错了,网络安全公司CrowdStrike的创始人德米特里#8226;阿尔佩罗维奇(Dmitri Alperovitch)最近向我表示。(CrowdStrike revealed that hackers, apparently linked to Russia, had infiltrated the Democratic National Committee.)(CrowdStrike透露,看上去与俄罗斯有关联的黑客之前已渗入过民主党全国委员会(DNC)的网络)。For the past 30 years everyone has worried about kinetic attacks, say an attack on a grid — we were waiting for a cyber Pearl Harbor. 过去30年,每个人都担心动力受到攻击、也就是电网受到攻击——我们一直在等待一场网络珍珠港事件。But the Russians have always believed that the real value of cyber is psychological warfare and influence.但是俄罗斯人始终认为,网络的真正价值在于心理方面的战争和影响力。As a senior US intelligence figure recently told a private meeting of business and policy luminaries: What do we do if the key goal of cyber hackers now is not to steal things but undermine trust in things that guide our lives? Intelligence officials are particularly uneasy about the risk of an attack on the financial system, since this is a sector which only functions if there is trust — as the crisis of 2008 showed.正如美国一名高级情报官员最近在一次商界和政界名流齐聚的私人会议上所说的那样:如果现在网络黑客的核心目标不再是偷东西、而是破坏我们对指引我们生活的东西的信任,我们怎么办?情报官员格外担忧黑客会攻击金融系统,因为金融是一个只有在存在信任的情况下才能正常运行的领域——正如2008年金融危机所显示的那样。American officials are trying to fight back. 美国官员正尝试反击。Last weekend, for example, the DHS offered to provide cyber security assistance to state governments to help them protect the election. 例如,国土安全局近日表示愿向各个州政府提供网络安全协助,帮助各州保护大选免受网络攻击。Two dozen states have accepted. 24个州接受了。But the election is so close, and states so cash-strapped, that it is unclear how effective these defences will be. 但是大选日期近在咫尺,许多州又如此囊中羞涩,这些防御措施的效果如何尚不清楚。Bafflingly, the DHS has not designated the electoral register as critical infrastructure. 令人困惑的是,国土安全局并没有把选民名册定为关键基础设施。It should do this now, so Federal funds can be released for the fight.该部门现在应该这么做,这样才能让联邦资金得以被用于打赢这场仗。The really big issue, though, is the psychological threat. 不过,真正要紧的问题是心理威胁。Donald Trump has called for aggressive counter-attacks in cyber space to provide a display of strength. 唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)呼吁在网络空间发动强硬反击,让对手知道厉害。Separately, Mr Alperovitch thinks the US government needs to publicly declare that Russia is launching psychological attacks, in order to prepare the public. 此外,阿尔佩罗维奇认为,美国政府需要公开宣布俄罗斯正在发动心理攻击,从而让公众做好心理准备。In the cold war days, the state department had a department which countered Soviet propaganda, but then it was disbanded, he argues. They need to once again build a strategy for countering Russia’s aggressive influence operations.在冷战期间,美国国务院曾设有一个部门负责反击苏联的宣传,但后来解散了,他认为,他们需要再次构建起一套战略来对抗俄罗斯咄咄逼人的造势活动。The risk of any aggressive action is that it might launch bigger counter-attacks or sp public fear. 采取任何激进行动的风险是,可能引发更猛烈的反击或在公众中散播恐惧情绪。American voters and politicians seem stuck in a nervous waiting game. 美国选民和政治人士似乎卡在了紧张的等待中进退两难。We had better hope that eventually a new form of cold war-style detente emerges in 21st-century cyber space, as it once did in the physical world. 我们最好希望,在21世纪的网络空间中,也能出现一种新的休战——就像曾经在现实世界中出现过的、为冷战画上了句号的那种。If not, business leaders need to look at the US election — and prepare for a world where digital trust is a new military plaything.如果没出现,那么商界领袖需要关注美国大选,并准备好迎接这样一个世界,在这个世界里,数字空间里的信任成为新的被玩弄的对象。 /201610/470239

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