2019年10月19日 08:23:40|来源:国际在线|编辑:华大夫
The country’s economic hardship became clearer on a sunny morning during a drive to the Robaina plantation. I was traveling with a translator and two of her friends, erstwhile guides. For the two-hour trip, my guides had wisely traded in the hulking 1950s Chevrolet taxi we’d used in the city for a late-model Pontiac rental. As dense, boisterous Havana receded and the urban landscape turned into rolling green countryside, I saw another side of Cuba: rural and scattered with clapboard shanties and mules, donkeys and chickens, especially as we headed deeper into the region of Pinar del Río. There, one is reminded of the island’s poverty, even if it’s offset by a tight-knit culture where the sound of laughter and chatter envelops fruit stands displaying bananas and papaya. At one roadside stop, I treated myself to a 10-cent cigar and a cookie stuffed with guava jam.一个晴朗的早晨,我们驱车前往罗瓦伊纳种植园。一路上,古巴的贫困状况更加显而易见。与我同行的有一个翻译和她的两个朋友,那两个人以前都是导游。在两个小时的旅途中,我的导游们聪明地把我们在市里用的那辆庞大笨重的1950年代雪佛兰出租车换成了一辆最新型号的庞蒂亚克。拥挤热闹的哈瓦那在我们身后渐行渐远,城市景观也变成了连绵起伏的绿色乡村。我看到了古巴的另一面:田园风情,四处散落着隔板棚屋、骡子、驴子和鸡。尤其当我们深入比那尔得里奥(Pinar del Río)地区时,这种景象随处可见。那里让人想起古巴的贫穷,即使有紧密团结的文化作为弥补——摆满了香蕉和木瓜的水果摊上萦绕着人们的说笑声。一次路边歇脚,我抽了一10美分的雪茄,吃了一块番石榴果酱的夹心曲奇。Tucked away on a narrow dirt road, the farm is easy for tourists to miss but for a modest hand-painted sign “Finca El Pinar Robaina” posted off the main one-lane drag. A mile or so along the road, the landscape turns into a bright green panorama of tobacco plants rustling in the breeze and stretching out infinitely in well-manicured rows. During growing season, from October through February, the plants can grow as high as 50 inches.农场隐匿在一条泥泞的小路上,很容易被游客错过。不过,在那条主要的单车道小路上有一块质朴的手绘指示牌,写着“Finca El Pinar Robaina”。沿着路开大约一英里,眼前展开了一片亮绿色烟草植物的全景。这些植物在微风中沙沙作响,伸出了事先规划好的界限外。在生长季节,也就是10月到来年2月,它们可以长到50英寸高(大约1.3米)。Yanelis Delgado, a longtime neighbor and family friend in her early 40s, greeted me and began spinning yarns about Alejandro Robaina, the plantation’s founder, who died at 91 in 2010. For the next couple of hours, we walked around the 170-year-old property and Ms. Delgado shared stories, including how Mr. Robaina, who smoked his first cigar at age 10, took the reins of the operation after his father died in 1950. On a terrace adorned with flags representing the countries of visitors to the farm over the years is a life-size carving of Mr. Robaina sitting in a rocker gazing across the field. The memorabilia on display includes photos of world leaders and celebrity guests at the farm, and a handwritten note of encouragement (translated: “Hirochi, you are my future. Don’t disappoint me”) from Alejandro to his grandson, Hirochi Robaina, who now owns the farm.迎接我的是罗瓦伊纳家族的邻居、好友,40岁出头的亚涅利斯·德尔加多(Yanelis Delgado)。然后她就开始讲述种植园创始人亚历杭德罗·罗瓦伊纳的故事。罗瓦伊纳在2010年去世,享年91岁。接下来的几个小时,我们在这个有170年历史的农场走了走,德尔加多女士继续分享着这个家族的故事,包括罗瓦伊纳先生第一次抽雪茄时是10岁,以及他是如何在1950年父亲去世后接管了农场的事务。我们来到一块平台,这里装饰着许多国旗,代表多年间来参观过农场的游客的国籍。此外还有一座真人大小的罗瓦伊纳先生的雕像,他坐在一把摇椅上,凝视着这片农场。这里还展示着一些收藏品,包括一些国家领导人和名人来参观农场的照片,以及一张手写的字条,上面是亚历杭德罗给他的孙子——现任农场主西罗奇·罗瓦伊纳(Hirochi Robaina)的一句勉励(大意为“西罗奇,你是我的未来。别让我失望”)。As one of Cuba’s few independent growers — most farms belong to cooperatives — the Robaina plantation became known for his growing techniques, which became synonymous with such premium brands as Cohiba and Hoyo de Monterrey. His tight relations with senior government officials — including both Cuban presidents Fidel Castro and his brother Raúl — led to the government creating one of the island’s 27 brands in his honor. To be sure, the brand is not as renowned as, say, Partagás and Romeo y Julieta, and cigar smokers have in recent years criticized the company for inconsistent quality as it struggled to meet rising demand that came from Castro’s homage to the farm.作为古巴少数的独立种植园之一(大多数农场都属于合作社),罗瓦伊纳因种植技术而闻名,后来与高斯巴及奥约德蒙特雷(Hoyo de Monterrey)这些高档品牌齐名。凭借和古巴高级政府官员的密切关系——其中包括两任古巴总统,菲德尔·卡斯特罗和他的弟弟劳尔——罗瓦伊纳成为了政府认可的古巴27个雪茄品牌之一。当然,这个品牌不像帕塔加斯(Partagás)和罗密欧与朱丽叶那么有名,而且最近几年,由于卡斯特罗家族的偏爱,罗瓦伊纳为了尽力满足不断上升的市场需求,也曾被雪茄爱好者们批评品质不稳定。Cigarmaking is intricate, and success is governed mostly by timing, temperature and the artistry of human hands. It takes nearly two years for a cigar to move from nursery to rolling factory, Ms. Delgado explained. In the nursery, seeds are planted for germination and then a month later replanted as seedlings. In the roughly 45 days after the replanting, growers irrigate and treat the plants for pests. Once the leaves are brought into the drying or curing barn, they are strung with th and hung from high ceilings. “It’s like a cathedral for tobacco,” Ms. Delgado said of the wooden barn, sun-bleached white with red shutters.雪茄的制作过程复杂且精细,成功与否,主要取决于时机、温度,以及人手卷烟的技术。德尔加多女士解释说,一雪茄从苗圃到卷烟厂需要将近两年。在苗圃,先把种子种下,等发芽后一个月,再移植幼苗。移植后大约45天,需要灌溉和去除害虫。等到烟叶被放进干燥的谷仓(或熟化室)之后,它们就会被串成线,挂在挑高的天花板上。德尔加多女士形容木制谷仓“就像是一座烟草大教堂”,有着被太阳晒得发白的木头和红色百叶窗。The drying process lasts 50 days, during which the leaves change from green to yellow to brown. The th is cut and the leaves are bundled, placed in piles and covered with a net for some 40 days at 100 degrees or more to spur fermentation, which determines the concentration of nicotine in leaves, flavor, aroma and texture. In the curing barn I watched a farm veteran lay out leaves and, within minutes, construct a flawless cigar, which he handed to me. The farm sells 90 percent of its product to the Cuban state-run cigar company, S.A. Habanos.干燥的过程需要50天,在此期间,烟叶从绿色变成黄色,再变成棕色。把串叶子的线剪断,再把烟叶成捆地堆在一起,在上面盖一张网,在至少100华氏度(大约37.8摄氏度)下放置约40天,促使其发酵。发酵这一步决定了烟叶中尼古丁的浓度,以及烟叶的口味、香味及质感。在熟化室中,我看着一位手艺熟练的农场工人把烟叶摆好,几分钟之内就做出了一完美无瑕的雪茄。然后他把雪茄递给了我。罗瓦伊纳农场把90%的产品都卖给古巴的国有雪茄公司——古巴烟草公司(S.A. Habanos)。Serious cigar smokers wax poetic with the language of wine aficionados, referring to a cigar’s flavor as “spicy” or “creamy” with hints of “honey,” “cocoa” and “cinnamon.” Cuba’s tobacco farmers take fierce pride in producing the most flavorful cigars in the world. Their nemesis is the expanding market not only for Cuban knockoffs but also for iconic Cuban brands whose leaves and labor are actually from other parts of the world, partly as a result of fleeing growers restarting their businesses elsewhere.严肃的雪茄迷们也有一套像葡萄酒爱好者那样的语言,他们把雪茄的味道说成“辛辣”或“奶油味的”,带着一丝“蜂蜜”、“可可”或“肉桂”味。古巴的烟草种植者们为生产出世界上最可口的雪茄而有种强烈的自豪感。而他们所受的报应,就是市场中不仅混进了冒充古巴雪茄的冒牌货,而且就连古巴名牌雪茄的烟叶和劳动力也是来自古巴以外的地方,部分原因是之前逃离的种植者在其他地方重新开始了他们的生意。For instance, the premium brand Cohiba, created exclusively in the mid-1960s for Castro and other senior government officials, has been embroiled in litigation for years as Habanos S.A. has contested the right of an American firm, the General Cigar Company, which manufactures Cohibas in the Dominican Republic, to sell under the Cohiba brand. As one senior manager at TabaCuba, the state agency that runs Cuba’s tobacco production and research, told me: “A Cuban cigar must be made with Cuban sun, Cuban soil, with Cuban hands. If not, there are no properties that make it what it claims to be.”比如,高档品牌高斯巴是20世纪60年代中期专门为卡斯特罗和其他高级政府官员创立的品牌。由于古巴烟草公司和一家美国公司——在多米尼加共和国制造高斯巴雪茄的通用雪茄公司(the General Cigar Company)——争夺高斯巴品牌下的销售权,高斯巴被卷入这场诉讼已达数年。负责古巴烟草生产和研究的国家机构——古巴烟草集团(TabaCuba)的一位高级经理告诉我:“一古巴雪茄,必须要用古巴的阳光、古巴的土壤,和古巴人的手制造而成。如果有一条不满足,它就不具备古巴雪茄的特性,也就不能自称是古巴雪茄。”It’s estimated that some five to eight million Cuban cigars reach Americans each year by way of countries like Canada, Switzerland, Australia and Mexico. Most experts agree that eased trade sanctions are far from opening a retail gateway between the ed States and Cuba. It will take years, they say, for sellers to clear the byzantine network of international politics, trademark restrictions and F.D.A. regulations. When Cuban cigars finally do arrive abundantly — and legally — on American soil, most experts figure it will be through the Casa del Habano, Cuba’s state-owned chain of cigar boutiques, which aly has some 130 stores worldwide.据统计,每年有大约500万到800万古巴雪茄从加拿大、瑞士、澳大利亚及墨西哥等国进入美国。大多数专家的共识是,贸易制裁远未减轻到能在美国和古巴之间开放一条零售通道的程度。他们认为,销售商如果要打通国际政治、商标限制、美国食品药品监督(F.D.A.)法规等错综复杂的体制网络,还需要多年的时间。大多数专家估计,如果有一天古巴雪茄能够合法、大量地进入美国,也应该是通过古巴的国有雪茄连锁店——哈瓦那雪茄之家(Casa del Habano),该连锁店已在全球开了大约130家分店。Cuban cigar culture, of course, can’t be exported. On my final day in Havana I came across the Hotel Conde de Villanueva, billed as the world’s only hostel dedicated to cigars. In the atrium, peacocks strutted as a “torcedor” rolled cigars for guests. Each of the nine guest rooms is named after a tobacco farm. A gorgeously restored 18th-century mansion adorned with stained-glass windows, the hotel also has an excellent cigar shop, plus an intimate smokers lounge. Gracing one wall are photographs of celebrities smoking cigars (among them, Demi Moore, Denzel Washington, Groucho Marx, Ernest Hemingway, Winston Churchill and Sigmund Freud). The hotel is surrounded by shops selling everything from chocolate to perfume.当然,古巴的雪茄文化是无法被出口的。在哈瓦那的最后一天,我路过了被誉为“世界唯一一家雪茄主题酒店”的康德维拉诺威瓦酒店(Hotel Conde de Villanueva)。在酒店中庭,有几只孔雀走来走去,就像给客人卷雪茄的“卷烟师”(torcedor)那样趾高气昂。九间客房分别以不同的烟草种植园的名字命名。酒店所在的建筑是一栋经过华丽翻修的18世纪大厦,以色玻璃窗为装饰,里面有一家非常棒的雪茄商店,以及一个私密的吸烟室。有一面墙挂满了名人抽雪茄的照片(其中有黛米·尔[Demi Moore]、丹泽尔·华盛顿[Denzel Washington]、格劳乔·马克斯[Groucho Marx]、厄内斯特·海明威[Ernest Hemingway]、温斯顿·丘吉尔[Winston Churchill],以及西格蒙德·佛洛依德[Sigmund Freud])。酒店周围是售卖巧克力和香水等各式商品的商店。The atmosphere didn’t feel exactly authentic, so I walked a couple blocks away, deeper into Old Havana, and found a quiet seat beneath a canopied outdoor bar. It was a perfect spot to relax, to enjoy the distant sound of rumba and the view of vintage cars moving along the streets. I ordered a mojito. And then I lit my last cigar in Cuba.这种气氛给人的感觉并不十分真实,所以我又往前走了几个街区,来到哈瓦那旧城(Old Havana),在一家有顶棚的户外酒吧找了个安静的座位。这里真是个完美的休闲之所,在远处传来的伦巴音乐中,看着一辆辆老爷车来来往往。我要了一杯莫吉托,点燃了我在古巴的最后一雪茄。 /201601/419669Qing Dynasty清朝Rise of the Manchu满族的崛起In the early 1600s Aixinjueluo Nurhaci formed the nomadic Manchu State known as Manchuo (满洲).17世纪早期,爱新觉罗努尔哈赤建立了以游牧为生的满洲国。He united four of the Manchu Flagged Factions that and later collected power of all eight of the flagged factions.他统一了满洲四旗并掌控了八旗的所有权力。In the later periods of his reign, he moved the capital to Shenyang.在他执政的末期,他将都城迁到了沈阳。When Lindan Khan, the last grand-Khan of the Mongols, died on his way to Tibet in 1634, his son Ejei surrendered to the Manchu and gave the great seal of the Yuan Emperor to Huangtaiji.当蒙古族最后的大汗林丹汗在1634年前往西藏的路途中去世后,他的儿子额哲臣于满洲国并将元朝的国玺交给了皇太极。As a result, Huangtaiji established the new dynasty of Qing as the successor of the Yuan Dynasty in 1636.因此,皇太极于1636年建立了清朝,也就是元朝的后一任帝国。After years of civil unrest, the Ming capital Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by one Li Zicheng (李自成).经历了多年的国内动乱,明朝的都城北京被李自成带领的起义军洗劫一空。The Ming Dynasty officially came to an end when the last Ming Emperor committed suicide by hanging himself on a tree on the hill overlooking the Forbidden City.当明朝的最后一任皇帝在遥望着紫禁城的山头上吊自杀时,明朝正式结束了。After taking Beijing in April 1644, Li Zhicheng led an army of 60000 strong to confront Wu Sangui (吴三桂), the general commanding Ming’s 100000 strong garrison stationed at ShanhaiPass(山海关).1644年4月,李自成占领北京后带领着60000强军与吴三桂对垒,吴三桂统领着明朝100000强大的驻军驻扎在山海关。ShanhaiPass is the pivotal northeastern pass of the Great Wall of China located fiffy miles northeast of Beijing and for years its defenses were what kept the Manchus at bay and out of China.山海关是长城东北部关键的关口,它位于北京东北方50英里的地方,多年以来,它将满族人阻挡在中国之外,使他们陷入困境。Wu caught between two enemies decided to cast his lots with the Manchus and made an alliance with Dorgon, regent to the then six-year old Shunzhi, son of Huangtaiji who had passed away the year before.吴三桂被夹在两个敌人中间,最终决定将赌注下在清朝身上并与6岁顺治帝的摄政王多尔衮结成联盟,顺治帝是皇太极的儿子,皇太极于前一年驾崩。Together the two armies met Li Zhicheng’s rebel forces in battle on May 27, 1644.1644年5月27日,吴三桂与清军联军和李自成的起义军开战。Even though the rebel forces were routed, Wu’ s army was so weakened by the day’s fighting that he had no choice but to join the Manchus forces as they captured Beijing on June 6 and began their conquest of the whole of China.尽管李自成的军队已溃不成军,吴三桂的军队也因连日征战过于虚弱,无奈只得在满洲国的军队攻占了北京征了中国之后加入他们的军队。The process took another seventeen years of battling Ming loyalists, pretenders and rebels.满洲军队又花了17年与反清复明者、伪政权以及起义军作战。The last Ming pretender Prince Gui sort refuge in Burma but was turned over to a Qing expeditionary force headed by Wu Sangui who had him brought back to Yunnan province and executed in early 1662.明朝伪政权的最后一任皇帝桂王在缅甸避难,后来又被移交给了吴三桂带领的清朝远征军,吴三桂把他带回云南省,并在1622年早期将其杀害。 /201512/412268

“Move quickly to the closest usable exit, taking nothing with you.” Yet here again are images of passengers trundling suitcases and carrying hand luggage across the runway, after evacuating a British Airways aircraft that caught fire before take-off at Las Vegas.“快速走到离你最近的可用出口,不要携带任何物品。”然而,英国航空公司(British Airways)的一架飞机因在起飞前着火而进行疏散后,这样的情景又一次出现:飞机跑道上的乘客们拖着行李箱,拿着手提行李。The last time such safety breaches were publicised was after the fatal crash of an Asiana Airlines jet in San Francisco in 2013. Some commenters on social media even attributed passengers’ thoughtlessness to a Chinese tendency to put material things ahead of human lives (Chinese nationals accounted for half those on the flight).上一次媒体曝光这样的违反安全规定现象,是在2013年一架韩亚航空(Asiana Airlines)飞机在旧金山发生致命撞击事故后。一些社交媒体上的者甚至将乘客的轻率之举归咎于中国人把财物看得比人命重的倾向(航班上的乘客有一半为中国籍)。If nothing else, the BA accident has disproved that slur: under pressure, the British are just as capable of the same act of stupidity.撇开别的不谈,英国航空的事故至少驳斥了上述诋毁:在压力之下,英国人也会干出同样的蠢事。Jacob Steinberg, a Guardian journalist who was on the BA flight, gently admonishes critics: “If you weren’t there, how do you know how you would have reacted? People do odd things when they panic.”乘坐了此次航班的《卫报》(Guardian)记者雅各布斯坦伯格(Guardian journalist)温和地责备批评者:“如果你不在现场,你怎么知道你会作何反应?人们在惊慌的时候会做奇怪的事情。”True. One Asiana passenger recalled he had gathered his belongings out of habit. When we are allowed to carry so much, and of such material value, on to aircraft, it may be natural to grab those things before exiting. In the end, the Asiana accident report did not refer to the problem.的确。一名当时在韩亚航空航班上的乘客回忆,他收拾自己的东西只是出于习惯。如果我们被允许携带那么多的贵重物品上飞机,在离开前拿走这些东西或许也是自然而然的。最后,韩亚航空的失事报道并未提及这个问题。But plenty of other incidents are complicated, sometimes fatally, by bag-toting passengers. A study of 46 evacuations from June 2000 found half of passengers tried to take items with them, including large framed pictures and musical instruments.但乘客在事故发生时依然带走物品的行为让其他许多事故复杂化,有时这是致命的。有人研究了2000年6月以后的46次疏散,发现有一半的乘客试图带上个人物品,包括大相框和乐器。As pilot and author Patrick Smith has written: “Leave your stuff. It will all be returned to you later. [If] it winds up incinerated, well, you should be happy to have lost it. Lest it have been you in there.”飞行员兼作家帕特里克史密斯(Patrick Smith)写过这样的文字:“把你的东西留下。之后自会归还给你。(如果)它最终烧成了灰烬,你应该为失去它感到高兴。否则就是你在那里了。”Happily, there were no fatalities in the BA fire. But if I had been the last passenger out, I might well have asked those in front of me why their carry-ons came first.所幸英国航空的这次飞机起火事故中没有人死亡。但如果我是最后出来的乘客,我很可能要问问我前面的人,为什么他们的行李在我之前离开。 /201509/398772

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