明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月22日 08:25:40
“This,” wrote the Google Ventures general partner David Krane yesterday on Twitter. “10 years ago, today. A day I’ll never forget…”谷歌创投(Google Ventures)普通合伙人戴维·克莱恩8月19日在Twitter上写道:“这是10年前的今年。我永远无法忘记的一天……”The object in question was the photo-of-a-photo seen above, of Google executives preparing to ring the opening bell of Nasdaq in New York on August 19, 2004. As Fortune wrote yesterday, Google was a much smaller company then. It was involved in far fewer businesses, had dramatically less revenue, and employed just five percent of the people it does today.他所说的正是上面我们看到的那张图,那是2004年8月19日,谷歌高管团队准备在纽约敲响纳斯达克(Nasdaq)开市钟时的合影。正如《财富》杂志(Fortune)另一篇报道中所写的那样,那时的谷歌还是一家小公司,公司业务比现在小得多,更没有如此巨额的收入,员工人数也只有如今的百分之五。The people on stage for Google’s initial public offering that day didn’t even represent 1% of the company’s employees at the time, but many of them were important to the company’s early success. Below, a list of who those people are, what role they played on that day in 2004, and where they are today.谷歌上市当天,登台的人数甚至不到当时公司总人数的1%,但其中许多人对于公司早期的成功发挥了重要作用。下面是照片中各位人物的介绍,他们在2004年谷歌上市当天的角色,以及他们的现状。In the front row前排Left to right:从左到右:Unknown Nasdaq executive身份不明的纳斯达克高管David Krane—then, Google’s director of Global Communications and Public Affairs;now, general partner at Google Ventures.戴维o克莱恩——时任谷歌全球通信及公共事务部总监;现任谷歌风投普通合伙人。George Reyes—then, Google’s chief financial officer; now, retired.乔治o雷耶斯——时任谷歌首席财务官;现已退休。Eric Schmidt—then, Google’s chief executive officer; now, Google’s executive chairman.埃里克o施密特——时任谷歌首席执行官;现任谷歌执行董事长。Larry Page—then, Google’s president of products; now, Google’s chief executive officer.拉里o佩奇——时任谷歌产品总裁;现任谷歌首席执行官。Robert Greifeld—then and now, Nasdaq’s chief executive officer. (You may remember him for bearing the criticism for Facebook’s botched IPO in 2012.)罗伯特o格雷菲尔德——时任及现任纳斯达克首席执行官(2012年,他曾因Facebook IPO被搞砸饱受批评。)Unknown Nasdaq executive身份不明的纳斯达克高管In the back row后排Left to right:从左到右:Mona Chu—then, Google’s director of SEC reporting amp; technical accounting; now, unknown. (She left Google in June 2013, according to her LinkedIn profile.)莫娜o朱——时任谷歌SEC申报与技术会计总监;现状未知(根据其在LinkedIn上的资料,她已于2013年6月离开谷歌。)Unknown executive身份不明的高管Mark Fuchs—then, Google’s vice president of finance and chief accountant; now, unknown.马克o福克斯——时任谷歌财务副总裁兼总会计师;现状未知。Pietro Dova—then, Google’s corporate controller and finance director; now, a founding partner at XG Ventures (with ex-Googler Andrea Zurek).彼得罗o多瓦——时任谷歌公司控制官兼财务总监;现任风险投资公司XG Ventures创始合伙人(与原谷歌员工安德里亚o祖瑞克合作)。Marissa Mayer—then, Google’s director of consumer Web products; today, Yahoo’s president and chief executive officer.梅丽莎o梅耶尔——时任谷歌消费者网络产品总监;现任雅虎(Yahoo)总裁兼首席执行官。Douglas Merrill—then, Google’s chief information officer (he stitched together the IT behind the very complicated, multi-bank “Dutch” auction system); now, founder and chief executive of ZestFinance.道格拉斯o梅里尔——时任谷歌首席信息官(他将非常复杂的多“各自付费”拍卖系统进行了成功整合);现任金融公司ZestFinance创始人兼首席执行官。Tim Armstrong—then, Google’s vice president for advertising sales; now, AOL’s chairman and chief executive officer.蒂姆o阿姆斯特朗——时任谷歌广告销售副总裁;现任美国在线(AOL)董事长兼首席执行官。Omid Kordestani—then, Google’s senior vice president for worldwide sales and field operations; now, Google’s interim chief business officer (since the departure of Nikesh Arora last month) and special advisor to the CEO.奥米德o柯德斯塔尼——时任谷歌全球销售与现场运营高级副总裁;现任谷歌临时首席商务官(自上个月尼科什o阿罗拉离职以来)及CEO特别顾问。Michael Grimes—then and now, head of global technology investment banking at Morgan Stanley.迈克尔o格兰姆斯——时任及现任根o士丹利(Morgan Stanley)全球科技投资部门主管。Jeff Donovan—then, a Google lawyer; now, unknown.杰夫o多诺万——时任谷歌律师;现状未知。David Drummond—then, Google’s vice president and general counsel; now, Google’s senior vice president for corporate development and chief legal officer.大卫o德拉蒙德——时任谷歌副总裁兼总法律顾问;现任谷歌公司发展高级副总裁兼首席法务官。 /201408/323622

  Six millimetres. It doesn’t sound much, but to Volvo engineers, it was crucial and they fought hard over those few millimetres.6毫米听起来不算什么,但对沃尔沃(Volvo)的工程师们来说却至关重要——他们为了这短短几毫米打了一场苦仗。That is how much less the front overhang – the distance between the front bumper and the wheel – is on the new Volvo XC90 compared with its rival SUV from Germany’s BMW, according to the Swedish carmaker.根据这家瑞典汽车制造商的说法,沃尔沃全新XC90车型的前悬,即前保险杠与前车轮的距离,就比宝马(BMW)的同类SUV短了足足6毫米。“We really wanted to beat BMW,” says Dennis Nobelius, head of the XC90 project at Volvo. It sounds silly but there is a huge difference. Those are the kind of things you never understand but make a huge difference [on what is] premium.沃尔沃XC90项目负责人丹尼斯#8226;诺贝利叶斯(Dennis Nobelius)表示:“我们真的想打败宝马。这听起来很愚蠢,但6毫米是很大的差异。这种事情你永远没法理解,但它对于产品的优越性却有很大影响。”The XC90 is Volvo’s most important product launch in many years. Not only is the SUV the first vehicle since Geely, the Chinese carmaker, acquired Volvo, it also follows bn of investment in new components and factories.新一代XC90将是沃尔沃多年来推出的最重要产品。这款SUV不仅是沃尔沃被中国汽车制造商吉利(Geely)收购以来推出的第一款车型,而且在该车推出之前,沃尔沃在新零部件及工厂设施方面投资了110亿美元。In a series of interviews with senior Volvo executives, an oft-repeated refrain was that the Swedish carmaker was not just launching a new model, but a new company as well.在沃尔沃高管接受的一系列采访中,一个反复出现的说法是,这家瑞典制造商不止是推出一款新车型,还是在打造一家全新的企业。Alain Visser, head of marketing, says: “This is more than just a new car. It’s almost like a relaunch of the brand.”市场营销主管阿兰#8226;维塞(Alain Visser)表示:“这不止是一款新车。这差不多像是重新推出了新的品牌。”Under Ford, the US carmaker that owned it from 1999 to 2010, Volvo shared platforms, engines and components with cars such as the Taurus and Focus.1999年至2010年在美国福特(Ford)旗下时,沃尔沃曾与金牛座(Taurus)、福克斯(Focus)等轿车共享过制造平台、发动机及各种零部件。Now it has spent bn developing its own platform – known as SPA, or scalable product architecture – for use in all its big cars as well as new four-cylinder engines and many new components.如今,沃尔沃投资110亿美元开发了自己的制造平台——“可扩展产品架构”(scalable product architecture)。这个SPA平台将被用于生产沃尔沃全部大型轿车、新的四缸发动机以及许多新的零部件。“We are breaking all the automotive golden rules: we are doing a new architecture with a new vehicle with a new powertrain, new electrification,” says Peter Mertens, head of research and development. “But we have to do it.”沃尔沃研发负责人彼得#8226;默滕斯(Peter Mertens)表示:“我们正在打破关于汽车的所有黄金法则:我们在采用新的架构,生产拥有新传动系统、新电汽化系统的全新车型。但是我们必须这么做。”Mr Nobelius calls it Volvo’s “all-in car – the one where we put everything in”.诺贝利叶斯将新一代XC90称为沃尔沃的“集大成车型(all-in car)——该车集中了沃尔沃的一切”。The size of the front overhang is indicative of Volvo’s desire to fight against the big luxury carmakers: the German triumvirate of Audi, BMW and Mercedes.新款XC90的前悬距离表明,沃尔沃想要对抗各大豪华车制造商,也就是德国的三巨头:奥迪(Audi)、宝马和梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)。Volvo has long been the nearly man of the premium carmakers, caught in price in the no-man’s-land between mass-market and luxury manufacturers and selling only about a quarter of the number of cars as the Germans.长期以来,沃尔沃在一众高端汽车制造商中间都不太出类拔萃,其价格处于大众车型与豪华车型之间的“无人地带”,销量则只有这些德国品牌的大约四分之一。The XC90 is designed to show Volvo’s new confidence under Chinese ownership.新款XC90意在展示沃尔沃在中国人控股下的新自信。The SUV has a new, bigger front grille and its logo has been subtly redesigned. The front headlights are in a distinctive shape known as “Thor’s Hammer”.这款SUV拥有新的、更大的前护栅,标识也有细微改动。前大灯被设计成一种与众不同的形状,这种形状被称为“雷神之锤(Thor#39;s Hammer)”。Inside much work has been spent on a touchscreen iPad-like device that now controls the music, air-conditioning and telephone functions. The old XC90 had 60 buttons; the new one has just eight.在内饰方面,沃尔沃精心打造了一个类似iPad的触摸屏设备,用其控制音乐、空调及电话等功能。旧款XC90内部有60个按钮,而新XC90只有8个按钮。H#229;kan Samuelsson, Volvo’s chief executive, says the touchscreen solution is part of the way the Gothenburg-based carmaker is trying to find its own particular segment of the luxury market.沃尔沃首席执行官霍坎#8226;萨穆埃尔松(H#229;kan Samuelsson)表示,触屏方案是沃尔沃寻找自身在豪车市场独特定位的一种方式。A focus on technology is taken by Audi, BMW concentrates on performance, while Mercedes has gone for luxury.奥迪关注技术,宝马重视性能,梅赛德斯则追求奢豪。He says Volvo wants to stand for environmental performance, safety and design – with the latter perhaps most surprising for a carmaker known decades ago for its boxy finish.他说沃尔沃希望成为环保、安全和时尚的代名词——其中最让人意外的或许是时尚,要知道几十年前沃尔沃还以盒子般的外观而著称。“Everybody knows Volvo is a good car, a safe car.”“每个人都知道沃尔沃车好、安全。但它为何不能变得诱人、引人注目,并且好看?” /201408/322279

  Let me hazard a wild guess: the system of passwords you use on the internet – for accessing online banking, email, shopping sites, Twitter and Facebook accounts – is a mess.让我大胆猜测一下:你在互联网上使用的,用于访问网上、电子邮件、购物网站、Twitter和Facebook账户的密码系统是一团糟。You know perfectly well what you ought to be doing: for each site you visit, you should be choosing a different, complex sequence of letters, numbers and symbols, and then memorising it. (That#39;s rule number one of the conventional wisdom on passwords: never, ever write them down.) But you don#39;t do this, because you weren#39;t blessed with a brain that#39;s capable of such feats.你完全知道自己应该怎么做:你所访问的每个网站,你都应该选择一个由字母、数字和符号组成的不同且复杂的序列,然后记住它。(这是关于密码常规智慧的第一原则:永远不要把它们写下来。)但你不会这样做,因为你无福拥有具备此类技能的大脑。So instead you use the same familiar words for every site – your dog#39;s name, the name of your street – with occasional ingenious permutations, such as adding ;123; at the end. Or maybe you do try to follow the rules, in which case you#39;re probably constantly getting locked out of your bank account or trying to remember the answers to various absurd security questions. (;What was your favourite sport as a child?;) And things are getting worse: these days, you find yourself forced to choose passwords with both upper- and lower-case letters, and what normal human being can remember multiple combinations of those? Not you, that#39;s for sure.因此,你每一个网站都使用同样熟悉的单词——你家的名字、你家街道的名字 ——偶尔巧妙的排列一下,如结尾加个“123”。或者,也许你的确尝试了遵循这样的规则,某些情况下,你可能总是进不了你的帐户或试图记住各种荒谬的安全问题的。 (“你小时候最喜欢的运动是什么?”)事情变得越来越糟糕:这些天,你会发现自己要被迫选择大写和小写字母组成的密码,哪个正常人可以记住这样的多个组合?不是你,这是肯定的。One reason not to feel too guilty about your bad password behaviour is that it seems to be almost universal. Last month, an analysis of leaked pin numbers revealed that about one in 10 of us uses ;1234;; a recent security breach at Yahoo showed that thousands of users#39; passwords were either ;password;, ;welcome;, ;123456; or ;ninja;. People choose terrible passwords even when more is at stake than their savings对于自己的糟糕密码行为不用感到太内疚的一个原因是它好像是几乎普遍的。上个月,泄漏的密码分析显示,我们中大约有十分之一的人使用“1234”,雅虎最近的安全漏洞表明,成千上万的用户密码不是;password;、 ;welcome;、;123456; 就是;ninja;.即使他们的财产会面临更多的风险,人们还是选择糟糕的密码。Password hacking takes many different forms, but one crucial thing to understand is that it#39;s often not a matter of devilish cunning but of bludgeoning with brute force.密码黑客会采取多种不同的形式,但要明白关键的一件事是,它通常不是恶魔般的狡猾,而是蛮力的使用。This is where the length of your password makes an almost unbelievable difference. For a hacker with the computing power to make 1,000 guesses per second, a five-letter, purely random, all-lower-case password, such as ;fpqzy;, would take three and three-quarter hours to crack. Increase the number of letters to 20, though, and the cracking time increases, just a little bit: it#39;s 6.5 thousand trillion centuries.你密码的长度可以产生几乎令人难以置信的差异。对于黑客的计算能力,每秒1000次猜测, 5个字母、完全随机、全小写的密码,如“fpqzy”,只要花费3小时45分钟来破解。把字母数增加到20,只是一点点,但破解的时间增加:这将是6500万亿个世纪。Then there#39;s the question of predictability. Nobody thinks up passwords by combining truly random sequences of letters and numbers; instead they follow rules, like using real words and replacing the letter O with a zero, or using first names followed by a year. Hackers know this, so their software can incorporate these rules when generating guesses, vastly reducing the time it takes to hit on a correct one. If you think you#39;ve got a clever system for coming up with passwords, the chances are that hackers are aly familiar with it.这样就有可预测性的问题。没有人想出密码是由字母和数字真正随机组合的序列;相反,他们遵守规则,像使用真正的单词和用“zero”替换字母“O”,或在名字后面加上年份。黑客们知道这一点,所以他们的软件在进行猜测时可以兼容这些规则,大大减少了猜中正确所花费的时间。如果你认为你已经有了一个想出密码的聪明方法,很有可能黑客们早已熟悉它了。The least hackable password, then, would be a long string of completely random letters, numbers, spaces and symbols – but you#39;d never remember it. However, because length matters so much, the surprising truth is that a longish string of random English words, all in lower case – say, ;awoken wheels angling ostrich; – is actually much more secure than a shorter password that follows your bank#39;s annoying rules, such as ;M@nch3st3r;. And easier to remember: you#39;ve aly formed a memorable image of some noisy wheels waking up an ostrich fishing by a riverbank, haven#39;t you?那么最不容易被破解的密码,将是由完全随机的字母、数字、空格和符号组成的一串很长的字符- 但你永远记不住它。然而,因为长度那么重要,令人惊喜的真相是,一串随机英语单词组成的长长的字符,全是小写字母——写着“苏醒车轮钓鱼避世者”——其实比你遵循恼人的规则设置的短密码更加安全,如“M @ nch3st3r”。而且更容易记住:你已经形成了一个难忘的印象,一些吵闹的车轮吵醒避世的人在河边钓鱼,是不是?One day, we may not have to worry about any of this: there are innovations in development that might replace passwords entirely. Touchscreens could be configured to detect subtle aspects of your interactions with your computer – the distances between your fingers, the speeds at which you tap and scroll.有一天,我们可能不用再担心这些:发展的创新可能会完全取代密码。触屏可以配置得发现你和你电脑之间微妙的互动——通过你手指之间的距离、你打字和滚动的速度。 /201210/202665。

  “你们中有多少人想要去外星球?”导演詹姆士·卡梅隆周二在6,500影迷面前发表演讲。为喜剧迷、电影迷、超人迷、科幻迷、游戏迷们举办这一年一度大型盛会,已成为好莱坞日程表中的重大事件。该动漫节举办四十周年,第一次尝试全天播映3D电影,收尾节目25分钟预告片的《神之化身》(Avatar)会让科幻迷们提前一饱眼福,卡梅隆和20世纪福克斯公司表示具体上映当期会排在12月份。影片讲述的是一个人身体换成了外星人,冒险来到另一个星球Pandora。场景中描绘极其逼真,飞翔着的昆虫、摆动的蕨类植物似乎都在观众的额头上掠过,让Comic-Con动漫展上的影迷们都呼喊赞叹起来。SAN DIEGO(圣地亚哥) — “How many of you have ever wanted to go to another planet?” shouted the filmmaker(电影制作人) James Cameron, addressing 6,500 fans here on Thursday.With those words, the future came to Comic-Con — and it was wearing funny glasses.For the first time, the giant annual convention for fans of comics, movies, superheroes(超级英雄), science fiction and games that has become a major event on Hollywood’s calendar — now in its 40th year — devoted almost an entire day to presenting films in 3-D, culminating with a 25-minute glimpse of “Avatar,”(收尾节目25分钟预告片的《神之化身》) the eagerly anticipated science-fiction thriller due in December from Mr. Cameron and 20th Century Fox.“I’m not going to waste your time, because I know you’re here to see stuff(看片子),” said Mr. Cameron, who spoke only a few words before showing pieces of his film.The scenes portrayed the adventures of a human experiencing a new world, the planet Pandora, through the body of an alien. And they were delivered with a startling verisimilitude(令人震惊的逼真) that seemed to plant flying insects (飞翔着的昆虫)and waving ferns(摆动着的蕨类植物) on the heads of people in the next row — and had Comic-Con fans roaring with approval.The “Avatar” presentation cleared a crucial test for Fox, which has invested more than 0 million in the movie, the most conspicuous (显眼的)example of a recent spate of expensive 3-D efforts from the major studios that will roll out over the next few years. Mr. Cameron’s devotion to next-generation 3-D methods has raised enormous expectations around a film made with technology that some people predict could have an impact on movies comparable to the introduction of sound. It was a measure of the movie’s importance that Tom Rothman, co-chief of Fox Filmed Entertainment(福克斯电影公司), personally introduced Mr. Cameron.“Moments like these are rare in the life of a movie company,” Mr. Rothman said. Mr. Cameron’s last feature film was the box-office juggernaut “Titanic,” well over a decade ago.Actually, it had been Disney executives who led the push to use 3-D promotions at Comic-Con, where projection technology(3D技术) had previously been unequal to such large-scale presentations(远远比不上现在).No small problem was the distribution of Dolby 3-D glasses by the thousands, with repeated pleas that they eventually be returned, though many were left broken on the floor.Even as the first trailers were screened, hours before Mr. Cameron’s presentation, doubts lingered about whether the big 3-D day would work.“Some of the 3-D effects aren’t going to look absolutely perfect,” said Patton Oswalt, the comedian and voice actor who moderated a presentation of Disney’s forthcoming “A Christmas Carol(《圣诞颂歌》),” “Alice in Wonderland(《爱丽丝梦游仙境》)” and “Tron: Legacy(《电子世界争霸战2》).” Mr. Oswalt asked attendees not to blog about effects being “quite subpar(不够标准的).”But the fans “oohed” and “aaahed” over the displays of technical virtuosity(精湛), starting with motion-capture film from Robert Zemeckis’s “A Christmas Carol,” featuring Jim Carrey. Sony Pictures followed with its “Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs,” and New Line weighed in with a 3-D sequel to the horror film “Final Destination(《死神来了4》).” But if technology ruled the day, it took flesh-and-blood movie stars to bring down the house. A surprise appearance by Johnny Depp(强尼·戴普) — who showed up beside the director Tim Burton in support of his Mad Hatter’s role in “Alice”(因出演“爱丽丝”中的“疯帽匠”现身此活动) — caused a near riot, with fans rushing the stage for pictures.A couple of hours later, the cast of Summit Entertainment’s “The Twilight Saga: New Moon(《暮色2》)” provided the day’s emotional pop. Teenage girls started lining up on the street to see snippets (小段)from the second movie in the series. Many wore cardboard(小纸板) Burger King crowns emblazoned with(印有) “Team Edward,” referring to Edward, the nonbloodsucking vampire(不嗜血的嗜血鬼) at the franchise’s center.Media attention on the Summit Entertainment franchise(顶峰专区) is so enormous that the studio opted to hold a news conference at the nearby Hilton Hotel on Thursday in place of the normal press panels after the big Hall H presentation. (“It is for the personal safety of our stars,” said a Summit staff member.)The “New Moon(《暮色2》)” trio — Robert Pattinson(罗伯特·帕丁森), Kristen Stewart(克里斯汀·斯图尔特) and Taylor Lautner(泰勒·洛特) — took the stage in the Hilton ballroom looking as if the intense scrutiny was starting to wear on them. A disheveled-looking (凌乱装扮的)Ms. Stewart nervously took questions in front of about 30 television and cameras. She described the greatly anticipated film as “seriously emotional” and coming from an “empty, completely dark place.”In a lighter moment, a television news reporter asked the young stars what questions they were tired of being asked, and Mr. Lautner said, “Fans ask me to growl for them and I really don’t enjoy doing that.” Ms. Stewart said people could ask her anything they liked. But a Summit executive cut off a question about off-screen chemistry between cast members.The trade-show(内部预映) floor and the streets surrounding the convention center presented the usual array of Comic-Con curiosities. Two men in “Star Wars(星球大战)” Stormtrooper uniforms mingled with women dressed as Alice in Wonderland. Vampires and grim reapers were in abundance. The cable network Aamp;E staged a mock funeral to promote “Chris Angel Mindfreak” — complete with coffins carried by men wearing black lipstick — in the middle of a main walkway. Women on roller skates zigzagged through the crowds, apparently to promote Drew Barrymore’s roller-derby movie, “Whip It.” Only a couple of months ago, those who run the convention said they doubted that 3-D could be properly displayed in the huge hall where Hollywood studios have become accustomed to introducing prospective blockbusters (重磅炸弹)like “Watchmen(《守望者》).” and “X-Men Origins: Wolverine(《X战警前传·金刚狼》)“We’re about to find out,” David Glanzer, the convention’s director of marketing, said just before the day’s session began.Two years ago, Paramount Pictures screened a piece of “Beowulf” in 3-D here. But that occurred only in a small, preconvention preview.This time, 3-D was the main event. Asked if he intended ever again to make a conventional, two-dimensional live action film, Mr. Zemeckis could only muster a maybe.“Never say never,” he said.But, he added: “Right now, I’m dedicated to sending these forms into the world. I love the control these art forms give the director.” Keke View:James Cameron主要奖项  1998年第70届奥斯卡最佳导演奖  1998年第70届奥斯卡最佳电影剪辑奖  1998年第55届金球奖 最佳导演奖  1998年堪萨斯城影评人协会最佳导演奖  1998年影评人协会最佳导演奖 /200907/79222

  A California teen has attracted the attention of tech giants Google for her potentially revolutionary invention which charges a phone in 20 seconds flat.美国加州的一个少女由于她革命性的潜在发明而吸引了科技巨头谷歌的关注,这项发明有可能会让手机在20秒内充满电。The super-fast charging device has been dubbed a supercapacitor by 18-year-old Esha Khare, of Saratoga - as she took home ,000 from the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, which took place in Phoenix this week.发明这种快速手机充电器的是来自美国萨拉托加的18岁少女伊莎-卡瑞,她将其称为超级电容器。本周,她因为此项发明在菲尼克斯获得了由英特尔国际科学工程大奖赛授予的5万美金奖励。The device will make waiting hours for a phone to charge a thing of the past and the gizmo packs more energy into a smaller space than traditional phone batteries and holds the charge for longer.该设备有可能让数小时的手机充电成为过去,并且这项发明比传统手机电池能够在更小空间存储更多的电量,并使被充电的设备能使用更长时间。So far, Khare has only used her supercapacitor to power a light-emitting diode or LED - but she sees a bright future that one day will see her invention powering cellphones, cars and any gadget that requires a rechargeable battery.到目前为止,卡瑞只有她的超级电容器给发光二极管充电尝试过——但她的这项发明前景非常光明:有一天这一发明将可以用于手机、汽车或任何使用充电式电池的设备。Heading to Harvard, Khare told CBS San Francisco that this is only the start and that she will #39;be setting the world on fire#39; from here.即将前往哈佛大学就读的的卡瑞告诉哥伦比亚广播公司,这只是开始,而且她将从此“令全世界疯狂”。#39;My cellphone battery always dies,#39; she told N News when asked what inspired her to work on the energy-storage technology.“我的手机电源总是用光,” 当被问及什么激发了她从事于储能科技研究时,她这样告诉全美广播公司。Specializing in nanochemistry allowed Khare to reduve the size of her invention. #39; Really working at the nanoscale to make significant advances in many different fields.#39;纳米化学系出身的卡瑞在这一发明上充分运用了纳米技术。“使用纳米技术可以在许多领域做出巨大成就。”The supercapacitor is flexible and tiny, and is able to handle 10,000 recharge cycles, more than normal batteries by a factor of 10.这种超级电容器非常灵活,体型迷你,且能够处理1万个充电回数,比普通电池多了10倍。How an 18-year-old girl has managed to figure out something that multi-national corporations have not has led to her being flooded with offers for her amazing leap forward.一个18岁的女孩如何能想出这么多跨国公司都没想到的东西,她的神奇发明已经已经吸引了很多公司找上门。Google have been in contact with Khare to explore how she plans to change the makeup of cell phone battery life.目前谷歌公司已与卡瑞取得联系,试图探索她对于新发明改变手机电池寿命的计划。 /201305/240923

  It takes more than money to rid the world of a scourge such as polio - though having buckets of cash certainly helps. Also needed are ambitious thinking, organisational know#173;how and the ability to bring new ideas to bear on old #173;problems. These are also the kind of things that go into creating a successful technology company. This time around, though, Bill Gates the CEO has had to take a back seat to a less familiar persona: Bill Gates the diplomat.要让世界根除小儿麻痹症这样的灾祸,光有金钱是不够的,虽然雄厚的资金必然是有益的。我们还需要深远的思考、组织技巧、以及用新理念来对付老问题的能力。这些也恰恰是用来创建一家成功高科技企业的要素。但这一次,首席执行官比尔#8226;盖茨不得不让位于一个世人不太熟悉的人物:外交家的比尔#8226;盖茨。When the Gates Foundation made polio eradication a priority five years ago, the global anti-polio effort was running into the sand. More than 10 years of progress had given way, at around the turn of the millennium, to a stalemate as vaccination efforts in the countries still harbouring the disease failed to reach the coverage levels needed to push it into extinction. The organisations behind the existing drive - such as Rotary International, the business group that had long led the effort - “had sort of naively assumed it was on track, but it wasn#39;t”, Gates says. “The idea that business as usual was going to get us there - it had to be broken out of that, because it wasn#39;t going to #173;succeed. It #173;probably would have been better to just give up than do business as usual. But that would have been horrific.”当盖茨基金会在5年前决定优先努力根除小儿麻痹症时,全球范围抗击这种疾病的努力正举步维艰。在世纪之交前后,当时已经进展10多年的项目在现实面前非常无力,那些仍存在小儿麻痹症病例的国家里,疫苗接种的覆盖尚未达到能根除疾病的水平。这些致力于该运动的组织,比如长期领导这一努力的商业团体“国际扶轮社”(Rotary International)“似乎有点天真地认为一切都在正轨上,但事实却并非如此。”盖茨说,“有人认为一切照常就会达到目标,但这不会成功,我们必须跳出这种想法。干脆放弃也许比一切照常更好,但那将是非常可怕的。”Gates seems to relish nothing more than challenging business as usual, often by applying a dose of more ambitious thinking. It was the same impetus that led him to rethink familiar approaches to philanthropy, throwing his money into the urgent pursuit of solutions to big problems rather than attempting a drip-feed of donations that would amount to little more than a Band-Aid. While the foundations started by the likes of Howard Hughes and pharmaceuticals boss Sir Henry Wellcome are still among the handful of the world#39;s richest decades after their founders#39; deaths, the Gates Foundation has been programmed to dole out all its cash and wind itself up 20 years after their deaths.盖茨似乎最喜欢挑战“一切照常”,他经常为此展开更为深远的思考。同样的动力促使他反思人们熟悉的慈善做法,并最终决定把自己的大量财富花在为重大问题寻找解决方案这一紧迫任务上,而不是进行小打小闹的捐赠、到头来不能彻底解决问题。尽管霍华德#8226;休斯(Howard Hughes)和制药业大佬亨利#8226;惠康爵士(Sir Henry Wellcome)创立的基金会,在其创始人去世几十年后仍位居世界上少数财力极为雄厚的基金会之列。盖茨基金会则计划在盖茨夫妇去世后的20年内捐出所有资金,然后进入清盘程序。The instinct to shake up the complacent and challenge the intellectually lazy doesn#39;t always win Gates friends. Putting his personal money and reputation on the line to eradicate a disease has also risked accusations of vanity - a case of the “ego philanthropy” that can distort goals when the super-rich get involved. Wiping out a disease has only happened once before, when the World Heath Organisation declared in 1980 that #173;smallpox had been eliminated. Helping to finance and organise a second #173;eradication would cap the Gates Foundation#39;s emergence as the most significant private charity in the world of global health. It would also set the stage for the next items on the list of diseases it hopes eventually to wipe out, starting with malaria.撼动自满、挑战思维惰性的本能,并不总能让盖茨赢得朋友。为根除一种疾病而押上自己财富和声誉的做法,还有可能被人指责为“虚荣”——“自我慈善事业”指的就是这种情况。当牵扯到超级富豪时,这种慈善可能会扭曲目标。根除一种疾病的案例以往只发生过一次——世界卫生组织(WHO)在1980年宣布天花已被根除。若能帮助资助和组织根除第二种疾病,盖茨基金会将一跃成为全球健康领域最重要的私人慈善机构。此举还将为该基金会奠定基础,利于将目标转向其希望最终根除的其他疾病,为首的就是疟疾。Gates brushes off questions about the merits of the eradication effort and whether other initiatives might be a better investment in terms of the immediate number of lives saved. “Eradications are special,” he says. “Zero is a magic number. You either do what it takes to get to zero and you#39;re glad you did it; or you get close, give up and it goes back to where it was before, in which case you wasted all that credibility, activity, money that could have been applied to other things.”有人质疑根除疾病努力的价值,认为若按被挽救之生命的直接数量来衡量,其他善举会不会是更好的投资。面对这些质疑,盖茨表示不屑。“‘根除’是一件很特别的事情。”他说,“零是一个神奇的数字。你要么尽一切努力来达到零,然后对自己实现了目标感到欣喜;要么在接近目标后放弃努力,然后发病率反弹至原有水平——在这种情况下,你白白浪费了大量信誉、精力和资金,而这些你原本可以投入到其他事业上。”Since he threw his organisation behind the effort, polio has been eradicated in India. But it remains rooted in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan, spilling over sporadically into their #173;neighbours. That these three countries remain among the world#39;s most #173;difficult to operate in - in Pakistan, the Taliban has taken to bombing vaccination teams, accusing them of being in cahoots with the CIA - provides a clue about why, nearly 30years after the eradication campaign began, polio persists. Eradication has little to do with making advances in science and technology - though work on new vaccines targeted more directly at the strains of the disease that remain has helped in the fight.有赖盖茨基金会的持,小儿麻痹症在印度已得到根除。但这种疾病在阿富汗、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦仍然流行,偶尔还蔓延到邻国。这三个国家仍是世界上最难开展慈善工作的,在巴基斯坦,塔利班曾对疫苗接种小组实施炸弹袭击,并指责他们与美国中央情报局(CIA)同流合污。这一事实实则说明了为什么在“根除”努力启动近30年后,小儿麻痹症仍然存在。能否根除疾病与科技是否取得进步关系不大,尽管在这一努力中,新疫苗(这些疫苗更直接地瞄准现存疾病类型)的研制工作起到了帮助作用。Take one of the biggest challenges to managing immunisation campaigns against polio and other diseases in the developing world: getting vaccines to where they#39;re required while keeping their temperature in a narrow 2C-8C range to prevent them spoiling. Running the so-called “cold chain” needed for this to happen - from big refrigerators in regional distribution centres to the cases vaccinators carry into the field - requires painstaking logistical organisation. Often, kerosene or other fuels used in refrigeration are in short supply or antiquated equipment fails due to lack of maintenance. According to Gates, problems like these are too low-tech to attract the world#39;s best brains. “Unfortunately, it#39;s a very mundane, practical thing,” he says. “It#39;s not sexy from a scientific point of view.”在发展中国家开展针对小儿麻痹症和其他疾病的免疫活动,最大的挑战之一是把疫苗运送到需要的地方,并在这一过程中确保它们的温度保持在2至8摄氏度的狭窄温度范围内,以防它们变质。要做到这一点,就需要所谓的“冷链”:从区域配送中心的大冰箱,到接种人员手中的接种箱。运营“冷链”需要进行周密的后勤组织。经常发生的情况是,制冷所用的煤油或其他燃料供应短缺,或者设备陈旧,年久失修出现故障。盖茨称,这样的问题技术含量太低,难以吸引世界上最优秀的大脑。“遗憾的是,这是一件很平凡、实际的事,”他说,“从科学的视角看,它不够‘性感’。”A businessman#39;s understanding of incentives helps. The number of fridges needed is not large enough to provide a #173;profitable market for manufacturers so the foundation has had to make financial commitments in advance. The business model of the vaccine makers gives them little reason to lower their manufacturing costs to make their products more affordable, he adds. Their high costs are more than covered by prices they can charge in the developed world and any mistakes they might make as a result of tampering with their carefully regulated #173;production processes would jeopardise that existing business. “That#39;s not science - that#39;s, how the hell do you make 50 cent vaccines?”此时商人盖茨对激励机制的理解是非常有用的。由于所需的冰箱数量不够、不能为制造商提供一个有利可图的市场,盖茨基金会不得不预先作出财务承诺。他补充说,疫苗制造商的商业模式使得它们没理由降低生产成本、让自己的产品在价格上更合适。在发达国家能够开出的价格,足以覆盖它们的高成本。如果它们因改变自己精心调校好的生产工艺而酿成任何差错,那就可能危及现有业务。“这与科学无关——这个问题是,你如何才能制造50美分的疫苗?”Management methods that would be immediately familiar to anyone involved in the fast-moving technology world are also being brought to bear. These include employing the rapid cycle of trial and error that new tech companies engage in before #173;pouring money into a formula that works - a process known as #173;“scaling”, which takes place as they race to capitalise on a new market before rivals emerge.瞬息万变的科技行业的参与者所熟悉的管理方法也被引入。包括采用快速的试误周期——新的科技公司往往会先进行试误,然后再砸下重金将其中一种管用的设计方案投产,这个过程称为“规模化”,目的是让它们抢在竞争对手出现之前独占一个新市场。Apoorva Mallya, a senior program officer who works on #173;country implementation, puts the success in stamping out the disease in India partly down to pouring money into local initiatives that had the potential to be effective across the #173;country, but which were being conducted on too small a scale to make a difference. These included assigning community #173;mobilisers to individual districts and neighbourhoods before vaccination drives began in order to organise meetings of women and overcome distrust or resistance. “We went in and funded them for a massive expansion across India,” he says.在国家层面负责实施的高级项目官员艾普瓦#8226;马尔雅(Apoorva Mallya)认为,他们之所以能够在印度成功根除这种疾病,一定程度上是因为他们将大笔资金投向了地方性的项目;这类项目本已具备在全国有效实施的潜力,但因规模过小影响力不足,包括在疫苗接种活动开始之前向各区和街道指派社区动员者,由其组织妇女开会,克不信任或抵制情绪。他说:“我们介入其中并提供资金,让他们在印度各地大规模推广。”Another method familiar from the tech world involves more effective data collection and analysis. Vaccination drives fail if too many children fall through the net. To get a better understanding of effectiveness, the foundation has paid for teams of researchers to use statistical sampling to see if adequate coverage levels have been reached.从高科技行业借鉴的另一种方法涵盖了更有效的数据收集和分析。如果有太多儿童“漏网”,疫苗接种努力就会失败。为了更好地掌握行动的效果,盖茨基金会资助了一些调研小组,用统计抽样来判断是否已达到足够高的接种率水平。Measurement is also being brought to bear to build a more detailed understanding of how costs are incurred in vaccination drives. Without that data, it#39;s hard to know where to focus attention to make global health programmes more effective, says Orin Levine, who runs the foundation#39;s vaccination efforts. “We don#39;t necessarily differentiate where the costs are in the system yet, so it makes it harder to say an innovation in [a particular area] will be something we really want,” he explains.为了更细致了解疫苗接种项目的各项成本,盖茨基金会还引入了一些测算手段。负责该基金会疫苗接种工作的奥林#8226;莱文(Orin Levine)表示,如果没有这些数据,就很难知道应当在哪里集中注意力,才能使全球健康计划变得更加有效。他解释说:“目前我们并未把整个系统中的各项成本都细列出来,也就是说很难说某一领域的某项创新是我们真正想要的东西。”This kind of rigour would be familiar inside an engineering-centric company such as Microsoft, where rationality reigns. But in the more chaotic world of global aid, with its loose alliance of government agencies, NGOs and charities - many of them operating with only partial information - it does not pay to assume such disciplines. Learning to work in that world is one of the greatest adjustments.在微软这种以工程为中心、理性至上的企业中,人们对这种严谨不会陌生。但在由政府机构、非政府组织和慈善机构组成松散联盟的全球援助领域,局面则更为混乱,很多机构是在仅掌握部分信息的情况下开展工作。在这样的环境中,要贯彻这样的纪律难免吃力不讨好。学会在该领域工作是盖茨作出的最大调整之一。“The fact that people don#39;t understand numbers and systems thinking and science and logic, that#39;s OK,” Gates says - though his famous impatience might belie such a claim. “I only need a half of the people who contribute to really think in a way where I can say, hey, come on, there#39;s a theory of change here, do you get it, do you get if that piece doesn#39;t happen, it completely messes up that piece?”“人们不理解数字和系统思维、不理解科学和逻辑,这没什么,”盖茨说——尽管他那出了名的不耐烦令我不敢全然相信他的这一说法。“我只需要一半参与者真正以合理方式思考,我可以说,嗨,这是变革理论,你要明白,如果不(按照变革的要求)去这么做,就会彻底搞砸。”Like many self-made business people, Gates is wary about the ability of governments to deal with some of society#39;s most pressing problems. Personal experience might have something to do with it. More than a decade ago, his fight with the US Department of Justice over whether Microsoft had acted illegally to defend its PC software monopoly ended in defeat, though a settlement with the George W Bush White House saved the company from the forced break-up that a judge had ordered.与许多白手起家的商人一样,盖茨也担心政府应对某些最紧迫社会问题的能力。他的这种担心可能在一定程度上源自他的亲身经历。10多年前,他与美国司法部(US Department of Justice)围绕微软是否曾采取非法行动维护其PC软件垄断地位展开过较量,并最终成为战败的一方——尽管与小布什(George W Bush)政府达成的和解挽救了微软,幸免不必按照此前法官命令的那样强制分拆。Gates describes himself as a natural optimist. But he admits that the fight with the US government seriously challenged his belief that the best outcome would always prevail. With a #173;typically generalising sweep across history, he declares that governments have “worked pretty well on balance in playing their role to improve the human condition” and that in the US since 1776, “the government#39;s played an absolutely central role and something wonderful has happened”. But that doesn#39;t settle his unease.盖茨称自己是一个天生的乐观主义者。但他承认,与美国政府之间的那场斗争严重挑战了他的信念,他原来一直相信最终胜出的总是最好的结局。他以一种典型的、归纳总结历史的语气宣称,政府“总的来说在改善人类生存条件方面很好地发挥了自己的作用”,在美国,自1776年以来,“政府发挥了绝对核心的作用,推动实现了一些壮举”。但是,这并没有缓解他的不安。“The closer you get to it and see how the sausage is made, the more you go, oh my God! These guys don#39;t even actually know the budget. It makes you think: can complex, technocratically deep things - like running a healthcare system properly in the US in terms of impact and cost - can that get done? It hangs in the balance.”“你越接近第一线、看到腊肠是如何制作出来的,就越有可能说,天哪!这些家伙其实对预算一头雾水。你不由得会想:如果让他们去做些复杂的、在专业管理方面有点深度的事情,比如在美国运行一个有影响又具有成本管理的医疗系统,他们能够办到吗?这有点悬。”It isn#39;t just governments that may be unequal to the task. On this analysis, the democratic process in most countries is also straining to cope with the problems thrown up by the modern world, placing responsibilities on voters that they can hardly be expected to fulfil. “The idea that all these people are going to vote and have an opinion about subjects that are increasingly complex - where what seems, you might think... the easy answer [is] not the real answer. It#39;s a very interesting problem. Do democracies faced with these current problems do these things well?”问题不只是政府可能无法胜任相关任务。按照这种分析,多数国家的民主进程也在艰难应对现代世界带来的种种问题,让选民承担他们显然很难履行的责任。“有人主张,让所有人都去投票、就某些领域中日益复杂的课题形成一个意见——而在这些领域中,你也许会认为,那些貌似……容易的并不是真正的。这是一个很有意思的问题。面对当前这些问题的民主国家,在此类事情上做得到底好不好”Compared with fixing the US healthcare system, the issues of global health and development taken on by Gates#39; foundation are, by his own estimate, relatively straightforward. But the work has required him to develop new skills: a willingness to engage with politicians and to develop reserves of diplomacy and #173;persuasiveness. With more than 1,000 staff members and the ambition to shape the broad strategies directed at solving the problems it takes on, the foundation does much more than simply hand over money. It relies on partnerships with a wide range of government agencies and other bodies to have any effect - and that has forced Gates, the uncompromising and impatient tech leader, to apply the human touch.按照他自己的估计,与修复美国医疗体系相比,盖茨基金会应对的全球健康和发展问题要更加直截了当。但这项工作要求他习得新的技能:培养与政界人士接触的意愿,修炼外交手腕和说力的内功。盖茨基金会所做的远不只是发放资金,该基金会拥有1000多名工作人员,并立志要针对问题塑造整体上的解决战略。要想产生实际影响,它必须与各类政府机构和其他组织建立合作关系,这迫使盖茨这个不妥协和不耐烦的科技行业领袖学会跟人打交道。Workers at the foundation say that he has been closely involved even at a regional and district level in winning the needed political backing. Gates, for instance, says he personally “bonded with” Nitish Kumar, the highly rated chief minister of the Indian state of Bihar, over the latter#39;s strong backing for vaccination efforts.基金会的工作人员称,盖茨一直密切参与争取必要政治持的工作,甚至在区域和地区层面上也是如此。例如,盖茨说,他与印度比哈尔邦(Bihar)备受好评的首席部长尼蒂什#8226;库马尔(Nitish Kumar)结下了很好的私交,以确保后者能够鼎力持疫苗接种。Sometimes in the field of global development, however, it is enough simply to be Bill Gates: the fame and wealth work their own magic. “If... I need to go to the Indian parliament and say, #39;Let#39;s get serious about vaccines,” then yes - since I#39;m giving my own money [on a] large scale and spending my life on it and I#39;m a technocrat - yes, that can be quite valuable.”然而,在全球发展这个领域,有时仅仅做回比尔#8226;盖茨就足够了:他的名气和财富会自动产生魔力。“如果……我需要去印度议会说,‘让我们认真对待疫苗接种工作’,那么没错——由于我拿出自己的大量财富、全身心地投入这项事业,而且我是个技术官僚——这一切可能相当有价值。”If this brand of international development diplomacy has required new skills, however, some things haven#39;t changed. Talk to almost anyone who has worked with Gates and they have a story about his intensity. On trips to the developing world his tirelessness wears out those around him. Inside the foundation, he shows the kind of endurance that once inspired and exhausted Microsoft product managers. “He wants to do the work with us at the most granular level. He will sit in four-hour meetings with us going over slide page after slide page,” says Raja Rao, who heads the foundation#39;s work on perfecting the cold chain. “I#39;ve seen him sit in a room for 11hours non-stop just talking about #173;technology, eating snacks and drinking Diet Coke.”不过,如果说进行此类关注国际发展的外交活动需要习得技能,那么有些东西是一直没有改变的。曾与盖茨共事的人几乎都会谈到他对工作的高度投入。在前往发展中国家的旅途中,他马不停蹄让周围的人筋疲力尽。在盖茨基金会内,他展现出了曾经鼓舞(并且累坏)微软产品经理的那种耐力。“他要和我们一起做那些最琐碎的事。他会参加我们的4小时会议,逐页审阅幻灯片。”在该基金会负责冷链完善工作的拉贾#8226;拉奥(Raja Rao)表示,“我见过他坐在一个房间里,连续11个小时不停地谈论技术、吃零食、喝健怡可乐(Diet Coke)。”Many of the works on the bookshelves in Gates#39; office overlooking Lake Washington are scientific tomes on the diseases that he is combatting - of which, with characteristic diligence, he now has a deep personal understanding, according to others at the foundation. A voracious er - he has always taken #173;periodic breaks from his regular routine to about and ponder the biggest problems he has taken on- his conversation is littered with references to authors. Given the smallest excuse, he plunges into a description of the different types of polio and vaccines - and then into the genetic tests that show how the disease once #173;persisted and sp in areas like Uttar Pradesh even when full outbreaks were rare.在盖茨俯瞰华盛顿湖的办公室里,书架上摆放着很多关于盖茨所抗击疾病的科学著作。据盖茨基金会的人介绍,凭借着标志性的勤奋,如今盖茨对这些疾病有了深刻的个人理解。盖茨是一个览群书的人,他有一个保持了很久的习惯,那就是每隔一段时间暂时告别日常事务,专心阅读和思考自己选择应对的重大问题。他在谈话中也频频引用不同作者的观点。哪怕得到最小的由头,他也会滔滔不绝地介绍不同类型的小儿麻痹症和疫苗,然后又说,基因测试显示,这种疾病如何一度在印度北方邦(Uttar Pradesh)等地持续出现和传播,尽管极少有疫情全面爆发的情况。This is the Gates who once ruled Microsoft with a command of detail and intellectual intensity that led to the kind of culture that was capable of dominating the tech world - even as it tipped over into behaviour that brought a regulatory backlash. “I was a kind of hyper-intense person in my twenties and very #173;impatient,” he says. “I don#39;t think I#39;ve given up either of [those] things entirely. Hopefully it#39;s more measured, in a way.”当年的盖茨正是凭借这样高强度的思维和对细节的掌握来领导微软的,它催生了能够主导高科技行业的那种文化——也催生了最终招致监管反弹的越线行为。“我在20多岁时是那种绷得非常紧的人,非常没有耐心。”他说,“我并不认为自己在这两方面已完全改变。只是希望自己变得更有分寸了。”If the manner has mellowed, though, the uncompromising attitude is still very much in evidence. It is at once one of the strongest assets and one of the biggest hindrances in his plan to save some of the world#39;s poorest from the fate to which a sometimes oblivious world has left them. Knowing how to pursue an unflinching personal logic without alienating people remains a work in progress for him.不过,如果说盖茨的举止已变得更有分寸,那么他的不妥协态度可以说仍十分明显。盖茨的计划旨在拯救世界上一些最贫穷的人群,使他们摆脱这个有时对苦难视而不见的世界带给他们的命运。就该计划而言,盖茨的不妥协态度既是最强大的资产之一,也是最大的障碍之一。明白如何在不得罪人的情况下追求坚定的个人逻辑,对他而言仍是一种需要进一步修炼的内功。“When we had a meeting a couple of years ago, when people weren#39;t thinking through the polio thing very well, I was pretty critical,” he says. His message to the assembled workers: “#39;Hey, this is not good thinking, this is not good, this is not going to get us there.“”盖茨说:“在两三年前的一个会上,当有关人员未能周密考虑根除小儿麻痹症的项目时,我的态度相当不客气。”他向与会工作人员传达的信息是:“这种思路可不行,它不够好,不能让我们达到目标。”The new Gates, though, was not prepared to leave it at that. After the meeting was over, he did what husbands the world over are liable to do at such times: “I said to Melinda, was I too tough on that, who should I send mail to, was that motivational, #173;de-motivational? It#39;s all a matter of degree.”不过,“新”的盖茨并没有打算不去想这件事了。会后,他做了世界各地的有家男人在这种时候都可能会做的事:“我对梅琳达说,我在这事上太严厉了吗?我应该给谁发封邮件?我的话是有激励作用还是让人泄气?这些全都是一个‘度’的问题。” /201312/270459

  The US Army is dedicating millions of research dollars into discovering building helmets to allow soldiers to telepathically communicate with one another on the battlefield.美军正投入数百万美元研究经费,研制“读心头盔”,使士兵在战场上可以通过心灵感应进行交流。The technology, which seems like something out of a science fiction novel, would use electrodes to pick up code words that soldiers were thinking.这种技术看似源自科幻小说,将使用电极来收集士兵思考时的脑电波代码。Those codewords would then be transmitted back to a computer where the soldier#39;s position and message-telling, for instance, that it is safe to progress towards a target- which would be transmitted to their peers in the field.随后这些代码被传输回计算机,计算机会将士兵的位置和信息传送给战场上的其他士兵,比如,朝某个目标行进是安全的等指令。The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was established in 1958 and was dedicated to expanding the Department of Defense technology usage, some of which included state-of-the-art, and top secret, research into the mind.美国国防科研尖端项目署于1958年成立,致力于推广国防部的技术应用,其中包括最新水平的、最机密的“读心术”。Based largely out of University of California-Irvine, in conjunction with labs in Philadelphia and Maryland, scientists are trying to improve so-called #39;synthetic telepathy#39; so that it could be used in a battlefield.这项研究工作主要由美国加州大学欧文分校负责,费城和马里兰州的一些实验室也参与其中。科学家试图改进所谓的“综合读心术”,这样就能应用在战场了。At this point, they have set their sights on 2017 as the year when their plan may turn into silent action.目前,他们的目标是在2017年实现这一计划。So far, 45 percent of the commands that are transmitted from one volunteer to another- like ;call in helicopter; or ;enemy ahead;- are correct. That statistic is expected to improve.目前,从一个受试者传递给另一个受试者的指令中,有45%是正确的,比如“召集直升机”或者“前方有敌人”等等。这一正确率还有待提高。According to a soldier ed in Stars and Stripes, the military newspaper, many of those people who will be the ones utilizing the technology are on board.美军报纸《星条旗报》援引一位士兵的话说,应用这一技术的人很多会是飞行员。Others, including civil rights activists, take the opposite view, bringing up concerns about a possible infringement on civil liberties if the technology were to be misused.而其他人,包括一些民权活动人士,却持相反的观点。他们担心如果这一技术被滥用,可能侵犯到公民自由。 /201204/177180



  Time is money. And if you are spending your time staring at a mobile phone, then that is where the money is. Advertisers know that – eMarketer expects ad spending on mobiles to grow 92 per cent this year. But the mobile gaming world is struggling to win its fair share of those ad dollars.时间就是金钱。如果你花时间盯着手机看,那就是潜在的盈利机会。广告商知道这个道理——市场研究公司eMarketer预测今年手机广告出将增长92%。但移动游戏行业似乎难以争取到其中的合理份额。Android users spend a third of their device time playing games, says Flurry, an analytics company owned by Yahoo. By comparison, Facebook gets 17 per cent of phone time. But advertising in mobile games – about bn a year – is less than Facebook’s mobile ad revenue. The business model is different – for now: mobile games make their money from in-app purchases, to the tune of bn this year, with sales growing 20 per cent annually.雅虎(Yahoo)旗下的分析公司Flurry表示,Android用户使用手机的三分之一时间花在玩游戏上。相比之下,Facebook占手机使用时间的17%。然而手机游戏广告(一年约60亿美元)却少于Facebook的手机广告收入。两者商业模式不同,至少目前如此:手机游戏广告商通过应用内消费来赚钱,今年销售额为180亿美元左右,年度销售增幅达20%。But the growth in mobile ad spending is a lost opportunity for the gaming industry. One reason is that no one has quite figured out how to do mobile game ads well. Banner ads are tacky. And ads that are successful demand a lot of development work – such as the virtual Lexus in Real Racing 3 (by Electronic Arts). Some companies, such as Tencent, eschew ads altogether. But as it is, mobile games are less lucrative than their console counterparts. Average revenue per user in mobile games is only one-tenth of the Arpu for console games, according to Interpret.然而手机广告出的增长对游戏行业是一个错失的机会。原因之一是,还没有人完全明白该怎么做好手机游戏广告。横幅广告很俗气。而成功的广告需要很多开发工作——例如在电子艺界(Electronic Arts)开发的游戏“真实赛车3”中,那款虚拟雷克萨斯(Lexus)汽车。有些公司,例如腾讯(Tencent),完全放弃了广告。但就现状而言,手机游戏没有游戏机那么有利可图。根据市场研究公司Interpret的数据,每个手机游戏用户产生的平均收入,仅为游戏机用户的十分之一。True, some gaming groups do mobile better than others. At Electronic Arts, mobile accounts for a fifth of revenues after 30 per cent growth last year. At Activision Blizzard, by contrast, mobile provides just 6 per cent of sales (excluding distribution), and mobile revenues have fallen by half from the same period last year.没错,有些游戏公司做得比较出色。在电子艺界,手机游戏收入去年增长30%之后,如今占总收入的五分之一。相比之下,动视暴雪(Activision Blizzard)的手机只占销售的6%(不含分销),而且手机收入同比下降了一半。But there is a long way to go for the industry as a whole. The prize will be valuable for whoever cracks the code first: Android users spend 37 minutes a day playing mobile games on average, says Flurry. That figure rises to more than 45 minutes daily in the US and Germany. There’s more money here than in just buying extra lives.但对整个行业来说,还有很长的路可走。谁先解决这个难题,谁就能赢得大奖。Flurry称,Android用户每天平均花37分钟玩手机游戏。在美国和德国,该数字超过每天45分钟。拉广告创收的机会大于鼓励用户购买更多“生命”。 /201409/332239


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