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2020年02月25日 08:20:41
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厦门冷光牙齿美白能维持多长时间在厦门玻尿酸填充去皱Daniel Burns talks about beer with the zeal of the recently converted. “There’s such a spectrum of flavour,” he says. “With beer, you can add whatever you think might work, you can play around. Wine is so dependent on terroir.”丹尼埃尔#8226;伯恩斯(Daniel Burns)最近成了啤酒的粉丝,因此侃起啤酒来头头是道。“啤酒有各种口感,”他说。“有了啤酒,可临时添加自己喜欢的菜肴,还能‘肆意妄为’一番。葡萄酒的口感则完全取决于土质。”Burns is not a brewer but a chef: co-owner of Luksus in New York, the first beer-only restaurant to win a Michelin star. It’s unlikely to be the last. From the southern Indian restaurant Quilon in London, where beers begin the drinks list, to Eleven Madison Park in Manhattan, where the choices run to eight pages, beer has been invited to join the fine dining club.伯恩斯并非酿酒师,而是位大厨:他是纽约Luksus餐馆的共同拥有者,这是首家获评米其林星级(Michelin)的啤酒餐厅,尽管“前无古人”,但肯定会有来者。从伦敦南印度风味的奎隆(Quilon)餐厅(其酒水单首当其冲就是各种啤酒)到美国曼哈顿的麦迪逊广场十一号餐厅(Eleven Madison Park,各种品牌的啤酒单多达8页),啤酒已登各大精品餐厅之大雅之堂。Luksus, a joint venture between Burns and brewer Jeppe Jarnit-Bjergso, is found at the back of their bar Torst, a white-marble beer paradise in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, with 21 beers on tap. Though neighbour to takeaway joints and street-corner grocery stores, both Torst and Luksus are designed along clean Scandinavian lines (Luksus means “luxury” in Danish).Luksus是由伯恩斯与酿酒师Jeppe Jarnit-Bjergso创办的合资餐馆,就设在Torst酒吧后面,Torst这座“啤酒乐园”位于布鲁克林绿点区(Greenpoint, Brooklyn)的一幢由白色大理石建筑内,有21种啤酒随时可供饮用。尽管它们与外卖小店及街拐角杂货店“比邻而居”,但Torst酒吧与 Luksus餐馆的设计均沿用简洁的斯堪的纳维亚风格的造型(Luksus在丹麦语中是“豪华”的意思)。The 26-seat restaurant serves a delicate tasting (), which includes dishes such as cured mackerel, pickled radish and dill or parsnip parfait with malt and cranberry. Its beer matches () are extraordinary, too, including Saison Cazeau, a spicy, elderflower-infused Belgian ale and Off Color Brewing’s Scurry, a dark honey ale made using oats. Wine is not on the .定员26座的Luksus餐厅推出定价95美元的精致套餐,包括腌鲭鱼、腌萝卜以及加入麦芽与小红莓的莳萝或防风草冻糕。啤酒赛(费用45美元)也美不胜收,其中就包括了Saison Cazeau(添加拉骨木花后酿制而成的辛辣味比利时啤酒)以及Off Color Brewing酿制的Scurry啤酒(用燕麦酿制的深色蜂蜜啤酒),然而酒水单上并无葡萄酒。“We do a salted plum purée, which we’ve used with both duck and squab,” says the softly-spoken Burns, a Canadian who has worked at The Fat Duck, Noma and St John. “[To match] there’s a sour beer which has been aged in wine barrels with plums, made by [the Italian brewery] LoverBeer, that works perfectly.”“我们使用鸭肉乳鸽,精心制作了咸味李子泥,”说话细声细语的伯恩斯说,伯恩斯是加拿大人,曾先后在The Fat Duck、Noma以及St John工作过。“为了搭配这道佳肴,我们选中了陈年酸变啤酒,它与李子一起放在葡萄酒桶里、由意大利知名啤酒厂LoverBeer精酿而成。”Even in Paris, where wine is king, restaurants have started to incorporate beer into their offering, most notably at hip bar-bistro Bones in the 11th arrondissement, which champions French breweries such as Craig Allan and Deck amp; Donohue. La Fine Mousse, a beer-matching bar-restaurant, opened last summer in the same neighbourhood. Romain Thieffry, one of the four co-owners, says: “It’s still difficult to make people come [here]#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;They are reluctant to try [beer with food] because they don’t know it.”即便在贵为“葡萄酒王国”的巴黎,很多高档餐厅已开始让啤酒登堂入室,最知名的当属位于第11大区的时尚酒吧兼餐厅Bones,它大力推广Craig Allan 与Deck amp; Donohue等法国国产啤酒品牌。去年夏天开业的La Fine Mousse,是一家专门举办啤酒赛的酒吧餐厅。罗曼#8226;蒂埃弗里(Romain Thieffry)是四名合伙人中的一个,他这样说:“现在吸引顾客前来用餐仍有难度……他们不愿用喝着啤酒享用美味佳肴,因为他们不了解内情。”Cheese is part of Thieffry’s strategy. “In France, we are programmed to think cheese goes with wine,” he says. “But in fact it’s difficult to make a pairing, especially with red wine. For cheese, the range of qualities that meet very well with beer are huge; it’s easy to make at least a correct pairing and it’s easier [than wine] to have a great one.” Such pairings might include Comté with the strong, sweet Brasserie Saint Rieul Grand Cru, or a smoked goat’s cheese with La Tourbée, a peated dark ale made by Brasserie du Mont Salève.奶酪成为蒂埃弗里餐厅推行啤酒策略的一部分。“在法国,我们习惯于把奶酪与葡萄酒相搭配,”他说。“但实际上,两者很难搭配好,尤其是红葡萄酒。而与啤酒相配的高品质奶酪则非常多,至少很容易配上对,啤酒比葡萄酒更容易与奶酪实现‘珠联璧合’”。完美的结合可能包括了孔泰奶酪(Comté)与浓郁味甘的Brasserie Saint Rieul Grand Cru啤酒、或是烟熏山羊奶酪与La Tourbée啤酒相搭配。这种泥煤味黑啤酒由Brasserie du Mont Salève酒厂酿制。Suspicion of beer in the food world, Burns says, does not only relate to the diners. “I did this chef congress in New York, and one of the guys asked me: ‘Do you worry about people not coming because there’s no wine?’ It made me think — before you go to the Fat Duck or Hibiscus, do you think about what wine you’re going to drink? I get excited about the food, and the beverage is secondary. If it hinders people, that’s very short-sighted.”伯恩斯说,餐饮界对啤酒的质疑并不仅仅与用餐者有关。“我曾在纽约开办了这家合资餐厅,其中一位伙计问我:‘您不担心客人由于餐厅没有葡萄酒而不买账吗?’他的话让我沉思良久——自己去Fat Duck与Hibiscus用餐之前,难道预先想好喝啥葡萄酒了吗?自己最在意的是美食,酒水的重要性则退居次席。如果餐厅因为客人望而止步而‘改弦更张’,目光就太短浅了。”The energy of the brewing revolution may be enough to blow away any remaining doubts. Sriram Aylur, chef at Quilon, certainly thinks so. “When we see new trends, new brewers, we always want to work with them, especially if they’re doing something interesting,” he says. He highlights London breweries such as The Kernel, whose aromatic, low-alcohol Table Beer is on Quilon’s . “We’re very open, we’re not boxed in, we can change.”啤酒业早已今非昔比,或许足以消除任何心中残存的疑惑,奎隆餐厅主厨Sriram Aylur肯定也是这样想的。“我们不断目睹新餐饮时尚涌现,不断有新啤酒品牌问世,就永远希望能与生产商合作,尤其当对方酿制的啤酒不同凡响时。”他这样解释道。他重点提及了The Kernel等伦敦本地啤酒酿造厂,其推出的香气四溢的Table Beer低度啤酒如今已正式荣登奎隆餐厅的酒水单。“我们完全持开放态度,并不会固步自封,愿意因时而变。” /201503/362647BEIJING — China is spending hundreds of billions of dollars annually in an effort to become a leader in biomedical research, building scores of laboratories and training thousands of scientists.北京——为了成为生物医学研究领域的领军者,中国正在每年投入数以亿计的资金,用来建设上百座的实验室,培养成千上万的科学家。But the rush to the front ranks of science may come at a price: Some experts worry that medical researchers in China are stepping over ethical boundaries long accepted in the West.但是,这种急于跻身科学界前列的做法,可能会带来一些问题:一些专家担心,中国的医学研究人员正在跨越西方长期遵循的伦理界限。Scientists around the world were shocked in April when a team led by Huang Junjiu, 34, at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, published the results of an experiment in editing the genes of human embryos.今年4月,34岁的黄军就在广州中山大学领导的一个科研团队发表了修改人类胚胎基因的实验结果,震惊了世界各地的科学家。The technology, called Crispr-Cas9, may one day be used to eradicate inheritable illnesses. But in theory, it also could be used to change such traits as eye color or intelligence, and to ensure that the changes are passed on to future generations.这项技术名为CRISPR-Cas9,有朝一日或许可以会被用于根除遗传疾病。但在理论上,它也可以用来改变眼睛颜色和智商这样的遗传特征,并让这种变异传递到后代身上。Dr. Huang and his colleagues tried to modify a gene that causes a blood disorder called beta-thalassemia. The experiment failed in 85 embryos. Even so, to many in global science, it was a line that should not have been crossed.黄军及其同事试图修改导致血液疾病β-地中海贫血的一个基因。在85个胚胎上,实验都失败了。即便如此,在全球科学界的很多人看来,这条界限不应该被跨越。Scientists in the West generally abjure this sort of research on the grounds that it amounts to genetic engineering of humans. In any event, the technology is still in the earliest stages of development.西方科学家普遍止步于这一类研究的门外,理由是它相当于开展人类基因工程。无论如何,这项技术仍处于发展的最早期阶段。“The consensus among the scientific community is, ‘not for now,’ ” said Huso Yi, the director of research at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Centre for Bioethics.“科学界的共识是,‘现在不要做,’”香港中文大学生命伦理中心研究总监李湖树表示。Yet Chinese scientists seem in no mood to wait.然而,中国的科学家似乎无心等待。“I don’t think China wants to take a moratorium,” Mr. Yi said. “People are saying they can’t stop the train of mainland Chinese genetics because it’s going too fast.”“我认为中国不会想要中止行动,”李湖树说。“大家在说中国大陆遗传学的滚滚车轮无法阻止,因为跑得太快了。”China is quickly building infrastructure for scientific research.中国正在快速推进科研基础设施的建设。In 2013, the last year for which statistics are available, the state invested more than 1.18 trillion renminbi, or 0 billion, which is more than 2 percent of its gross domestic product, in “the development of scientific research and experimentation,” according to China’s National Bureau of Statistics.现已公布的最新统计数据来自2013年。中国国家统计局的资料显示,中国在“科学研发和实验”上投入了逾1.18万亿元人民币,超过国内生产总值的2%。In 2011, the state invested about 0 billion, or 1.84 percent of its G.D.P., the bureau said.国家统计局的资料还显示,2011年,中国在这方面的投入为8680亿元,相当于国内生产总值的1.84%。“The gap between China’s new bioscience technologies and that of the West is closing,” said Zhao Xiaomei, a member of the country’s National Medical Ethical Committee and a professor at Peking Union Medical College.“在新的生物科学技术上,中国跟发达国家的差距,是日益在缩小,”中国医学伦理委员会成员、北京协和医科大学教授翟晓梅说。But the research juggernaut is gathering momentum in a country where training in ethics for scientists was introduced, under pressure from the West, only a dozen years ago.不过在中国,这股宏大的科研力量正在不断向前推进。仅仅从十几年前开始,中国才在西方的压力下对科学家进行伦理教育。“The ‘red line’ in the West and in China are not too similar,” Deng Rui, a medical ethicist at Shanxi Medical University, said in a telephone interview. “Ethics are a question of culture, and that is about tradition, especially where it touches on human life.”“西方国家和中国的“红线”不太一样,”山西医科大学医学伦理学专家邓蕊接受电话采访时表示。“伦理是文化问题,与传统有关,特别是在人类生命方面。”“Confucian thinking says that someone becomes a person after they are born. That is different from the ed States or other countries with a Christian influence, where because of religion they may feel research on embryos is not O.K.”“儒家思想认为生而为人。这与美国或其他受基督教影响的国家不同。由于宗教的关系,这些国家可能感觉做胚胎研究是不可行的。”The state does set limits, Ms. Deng said: “Our ‘red line’ here is that you can only experiment on embryos that are younger than 14 days old.”邓蕊表示,国家确实设定了限制,“我们的‘红线’是只有14天以内的人类胚胎可以用于实验研究。”The proscription is contained in a document issued by the health and science ministries in 2003. It now urgently needs updating, she said.卫生部和科技部2003年联合颁布的一份文件下达了上述禁令。邓蕊表示,这一规定现在亟需更新。Chinese scientists adhere to globally accepted ethical and scientific norms, said Ms. Zhai Xiaomei, a member of the country’s National Medical Ethical Committee and a professor at Peking Union Medical College.翟晓梅教授称,中国科学家遵从国际认可的伦理和科学规范。But many scientists experience pressure not to do so, she acknowledged.但她承认,很多科学家承受着要他们不这么做的压力。“Inside China, there are people who are opposed to international standards, citing cultural differences,” Ms. Zhai said. “This force is actually quite powerful sometimes.”“我们国内有一些人以文化差异背景不同为由来反对国际准则,”翟晓梅说。“国内这个势力有的时候挺强大的。”“For example, they say we should use our homegrown Confucian thoughts to solve problems, as those international standards are from the West while we have our Eastern culture. But we absolutely disagree with this point of view.”“比如说我们要用儒家的思想,可以解决很多东西,要用我们本土的,国际准则是西方的东西,我们是东方的文化。但我们是坚决不同意这个观点的。”In the case of Dr. Huang’s experiment, the national committee decided that it was ethically acceptable because it “was not for reproductive purposes,” Ms. Zhai said, a stance that surprised some overseas scientists.翟晓梅表示,对于黄军就的实验,中国医学伦理委员会判定这在伦理上是可以接受的,因为它“并不是以生殖为目的”。这种立场出乎了一些外国科学家的意料。“They chose to use embryos that would soon be destroyed. So far, we have been regarding it as a very fundamental research, instead of interventions in or editing of germ cells,” Ms. Zhai said.“他们选择的是马上就要毁掉的胚胎。所以到目前为止我们把它看作是非常非常基础的一个研究,而没有把它看作是对生殖细胞的干预,或者叫‘编辑’,” 翟晓梅说。But she struck a warning note: “If you want to edit genes in germ cells with the intention of using this right away, it’s absolutely not O.K., because the technology has yet to become mature.”但她也发出了警告,“如果你要做生殖细胞的编辑,而且要马上把它用上,那绝对是不行的,因为你现在技术是不成熟的。”Disturbed by the recent study, Rao Yi, a professor of biology and director of the four-year-old Center of Life Sciences at Peking University, run jointly with Tsinghua University, warned that scientific research in China urgently needed more effective ethical oversight.最近的这项研究让北京大学-清华大学生命科学联合中心主任、生物学教授饶毅备受困扰。他警告称,中国的科学研究亟需更加有效的伦理监督。该联合中心成立了四年。“The more technology we have, the more dangerous we are to ourselves and entire humankind,” Mr. Rao said.“我们掌握的技术越多,我们对自己和整个人类来说就越危险,”饶毅说。Chinese scientists are generally poorly paid, he said, but may receive a bonus of up to ,000 per article from the state for publishing in international scientific journals, providing financial incentives for pushing the boundaries.他表示,中国科学家通常收入较低,但如果在国际科学期刊发表文章,可能会收到国家发放的奖金,最多可达每篇20万元。这为推动他们突破限制提供了资金激励。“Do first, talk later” is the attitude of many, Mr. Rao and two colleagues wrote recently on iScientist, an online community for Chinese researchers.饶毅和另外两名华人科学家为面向中国科研人员的微信公众号“赛先生”担任主编。他们近期在上面写道,很多人抱有“先做了再说”的态度。A global medical ethics body run by the World Health Organization or the ed Nations should be set up to regulate scientific experimentation, Mr. Rao said.饶毅认为,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)或联合国应该成立一家全球性的医学伦理监督机构,对科学实验加以规范。More unpleasant scientific surprises are looming, several scientists said. “Right now, human gene editing is the main thing,” Mr. Yi said. Geneticists in China “don’t want to be guided by Western people.”一些科学家表示,即将出现更多令人不快的科学新发现。“目前,人类基因编辑是焦点所在,”李湖树说。中国的遗传学家“不想受西方人的领导”。The mind-set among Chinese researchers, according to Mr. Yi: “ ‘We’re going to do it, then see what’s wrong, then fix it. But the conceptual discussion may be missing.’ ”李湖树称,中国研究人员的想法是,“我们先去做,然后看看有什么问题,再解决问题。但这中间可能缺少对观念的讨论。” /201507/383693集美区隆胸一般多少钱

在厦门除疤效果好的医院厦门下颌角肥大矫正多少钱London’s future is up for grabs. When you try to imagine what direction the city might go in, it’s useful to think about Vienna. A century ago the capital of the Austro-Hungarian empire was a rich cosmopolitan metropolis. It was an incubator of modernity, attracting people from all over, some of them nuts. Here are a few of Vienna’s residents in 1913 (as listed by B radio’s Today programme): Sigmund Freud, Hitler, Stalin, Trotsky, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and a young automobile worker named Josip Broz, who eventually became the Yugoslav dictator Tito.伦敦的未来是一片纷乱。当你试图想象这座城市可能前进的方向时,想一想维也纳会有所帮助。一个世纪前,这座奥匈帝国(Austro-Hungarian empire)的首都曾是一个富裕的国际化大都市。它是现代性的孵化器,吸引着世界各地的人们,其中一些是疯子。这里是部分1913年在维也纳居住过的人士(名单由B电台《今日》(Today)节目列出):西格蒙德#8226;弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)、希特勒(Hitler)、斯大林(Stalin)、托洛茨基(Trotsky)、弗朗茨#8226;斐迪南大公(Archduke Franz Ferdinand)以及一个名叫约瑟普#8226;布罗兹(Josip Broz)的年轻汽车工人,也就是最终成为南斯拉夫独裁者的铁托(Tito)。But by 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire was gone. Today most Freuds live in London, and Vienna is a backwater.但到了1918年,奥匈帝国已灰飞烟灭。如今,大多数“弗洛伊德们”生活在伦敦,维也纳成了一潭死水。A century from now, London could be a backwater too. The city faces its own set of threats. Most pressingly, few people can afford to raise families there any more. London may become a gated playground for the super-rich. However, there’s an alternative scenario in which the place just keeps getting more successful. Aly the contours are emerging of a future London: the city as a giant drop-in office for millions of occasional workers who live far away, often in other countries. A ring of satellite cities ranging from Manchester to Rotterdam would turn into a new set of suburbs for London.一个世纪之后,伦敦也可能成为一潭死水。这个城市面临着自己的一系列威胁。最紧迫的是,已经没有多少人有能力在那里抚育子女了。伦敦可能会成为超级富豪们封闭的游憩圣地。然而,还有一个可能性是,伦敦只会变得越来越成功。这样一种未来的轮廓已经开始显现:伦敦会变成一个巨型的流动办公室,数百万居住地离它十万八千里、往往在另一个国家的临时工作者随来随走。从曼彻斯特到鹿特丹,一连串卫星城将变成新的伦敦郊区。The problem London needs to solve, says Andrew Adonis, Londoner, Labour peer and writer, is, “Housing, housing, housing.” What’s happening in London’s housing market can no longer be described as gentrification. That was the ousting of the city’s working class and bohemians. Now many upper-middle-class people are being forced out too. Michel Mossessian, a French architect in London whose firm employs lots of nationalities, sees something of a “seven-year cycle”: people work for seven years in London but then often leave once they have children. It’s not just that the average three-bedroom home in London now costs #163;1.1m, according to Home.co.uk. It’s also that London’s state schools — despite vast recent improvements — will probably never meet the standards of the world’s most aspirational parents. Simply being the best state schools in England isn’t enough.作家安德鲁#8226;阿多尼斯(Andrew Adonis)说,伦敦需要解决的问题,“除了住房还是住房”。阿多尼斯是伦敦人,工党成员,已受封贵族。伦敦房地产市场发生的事情,已不再能被称为中产阶级化。那是一场对生活在那个城市的劳动者阶层和文化艺术人士的驱逐。现在,许多中产阶级上层人士也被迫离开。法国建筑师米歇尔#8226;莫赛西昂(Michel Mossessian)在伦敦的事务所雇佣了很多不同国籍的员工,他发现“七年是个坎儿”:人们在伦敦工作七年,一旦有了孩子,通常就会离开。这不仅是因为如今伦敦一套三居室的房子一般要110万英镑(Home.co.uk网站数据)。还因为伦敦的公立学校(尽管近期有巨大改善)很可能永远无法达到世界上最望子成龙的父母们的标准。仅仅进入英格兰最好的公立学校是不够的。The solution: London needs to adopt satellite cities that can house a new tribe of “occasional Londoners”. In the Victorian era, the coming of the Tube and trains allowed London workers to move to suburbs. Soon high-speed trains will allow occasional London workers to live hundreds of miles away, around Britain or abroad.解决方案是:伦敦需要设立卫星城,以容纳一群新的“临时伦敦人”。在维多利亚时代,伦敦地铁(the Tube)和火车的到来,让在伦敦工作的人们得以搬到郊区居住。很快,高铁将让临时的伦敦通勤者得以生活在数百英里之外的英国各地或其他国家。The UK currently has just 68 miles of high-speed rail line, from London to the Channel tunnel. But when the High Speed 2 line opens over the next 20 years, Birmingham will be 49 minutes from London, and Manchester just over an hour. “That’s hugely exciting,” says Adonis.英国目前仅有长68英里、连接伦敦和英吉利海峡隧道(The Channel Tunnel)的高铁。但高铁2号线(High Speed 2 line)将在未来20年内贯通,届时从伦敦到伯明翰只要49分钟,到曼彻斯特仅一个多小时。阿多尼斯称:“这非常令人兴奋。”Aly cities such as Paris, Lille and Brussels are joining the Londonsphere. I live in Paris. Sometimes I drop the kids off at school at 8.30am and later that morning meet someone for coffee near King’s Cross. I will probably never live in London again but I don’t mind. London and Paris are now perhaps the two most connected cross-border metropoles in history, an unprecedentedly creative network with trains carrying ideas back and forth. But I also know people who live in Germany or Spain and work in London a couple of days a week.巴黎、里尔以及布鲁塞尔这样的城市已经加入了伦敦生活圈(Londonsphere)。我住在巴黎。有时,早上8点半我开车把孩子送到学校,当天上午晚些时候我就在国王十字车站(King#39;s Cross)附近和别人喝咖啡了。我很可能永远不会再住在伦敦,但我并不介意。如今,伦敦和巴黎可能是有史以来两个联系最紧密的跨境大都会,在这个具有空前创新性的网络上,火车将各种观念来回传送。不过我也知道有住在德国或西班牙的人,每周到伦敦工作两天。London companies will need to strike a new deal with occasional workers: live somewhere else but drop in on us regularly. The companies won’t need to pay these people the “London premium” on salaries, or rent lots of expensive office space. The trains that carry occasional Londoners will themselves act as de facto offices: the Eurostar, French TGVs and Thalys, in utter contrast to suburban commuting trains, guarantee you a seat and a fold-out table. Sometimes the WiFi even works. Trains also free you from the Dilbertian timewasting of office life: the colleagues loafing around your desk grumbling about the commute, the boss or José Mourinho.伦敦的企业需要与临时劳动者达成一个新协议:住在别的地方,但定期来我们这儿。这些企业无需在工资方面向他们付“伦敦溢价”,也无需租很多昂贵的办公室。临时伦敦人乘坐的火车本身就将充当事实上的办公室:与郊区通勤列车完全不同的是,欧洲之星(Eurostar)、法国TGV高速列车和大力士高速列车(Thalys)可以保你有一个座位和一张折叠桌板。有时WiFi甚至能用。火车还可以把你从呆伯特式(Dilbertian)浪费时间的办公室生活中解放出来:同事们无所事事地围在你的桌子旁,抱怨通勤,抱怨老板,或抱怨若泽#8226;穆里尼奥(José Mourinho)。 Occasional Londoners can buy a family home in Lille or Rotterdam, spend #163;15,000 a year travelling to London for work and fun for 40 years and still be better off than if they’d spent that #163;1.1m on a house in London. And they won’t have to school their kids there. Homeshare websites such as Airbnb are solving London’s shortage of affordable hotel rooms while allowing the city’s large population of slacker-heirs to monetise their only asset.临时伦敦人可以在里尔或鹿特丹为家人购置一套房子,每年花1.5万英镑用于前往伦敦工作和,这样40年下来他们仍将比当初花110万英镑在伦敦购买一所房子要过得富裕。而且,他们不必让孩子在伦敦上学。包括Airbnb在内的租房网站正在解决伦敦平价旅馆客房短缺的问题,同时又可以让伦敦大量不思进取的土著用自己唯一的资产取得收入。In this scenario, London becomes not Vienna but Tokyo. Specifically: Greater Tokyo, brilliantly served by bullet trains, and today the biggest metropolitan area in history with about 36 million inhabitants. That’s a nice target for the Londonsphere. London would then be the capital of a new informal empire spanning several countries.在这种情形下,伦敦不会变成维也纳,而是会变成东京。准确地说是变成大东京地区(Greater Tokyo):子弹头列车提供了极其便捷的交通,如今它是有史以来最大的都市圈,拥有约3600万居民。这对伦敦生活圈来说是一个很好的目标。伦敦将成为一个新的横跨多国的非正式帝国的首都。London as giant drop-in office could be a reality within 20 years. That may seem improbable. But just over 20 years ago, nobody imagined that this grey city with 1960s Tube trains, separated from the continent only by a long traffic jam to Heathrow and then hours of dead time, could ever exert such attraction that a three-bedroom house would cost #163;1.1m.伦敦成为一个巨大的流动办公室,这也许会在20年内变成现实。看上去或许不可能。但就在20年前,也没人想到这座拥有上世纪60年代的地铁系统、与欧洲大陆之间隔着一条通往希思罗机场的长长的拥堵车流、以及数小时失联时间的灰暗城市,能够展现出这样的吸引力,以至于一套三居室的房子要卖110万英镑。 /201504/371156Cuba is using the internet to experiment with toning down its political censorship in a sign that a glimmer of glasnost has arrived on the Communist-run Caribbean island.古巴正在利用互联网进行放宽政治审查的试验。这一迹象表明,一丝“公开化”(glasnost)的曙光已照到这个共产党执政的加勒比岛国上。Havana’s decision to open up on the once-taboo subjects of the electoral system and civil society — by allowing Cubans to question policy in two online forums — is reminiscent of the early days of free speech in what was the Soviet Union in the 1980s.古巴通过允许本国民众在两个在线论坛上质询政策、放开昔日禁忌话题——选举制度和公民社会——的决定,让人联想起苏联上世纪80年代开放言论自由的早期。For a number of years there has been public discussion over the pros and cons of market-oriented reforms in Cuba, and ample criticism of the bureaucracy. But public criticism has stopped short of questioning the political status quo, aside from a fledgling dissident press, such as the online newspaper 14ymedio.com, run by writer Yoani Sánchez.多年来,古巴国内一直有关于市场化改革利弊的公开讨论,以及大量对官僚主义的批评。但公开批评没有触及对政治现状的质疑,除了羽翼未丰的异见媒体以外,比如作家尤阿尼#8226;桑切斯(Yoani Sanchez)开办的在线报纸14ymedio.com。The new forums, run on state-media websites, brought together officials and academics to interact online for a few hours with an audience encouraged to send in questions and views.这两个国家媒体网站上的新论坛,让官员和学者一起与网民进行几个小时的在线互动,并鼓励网民发布问题和观点。The opening has some similarities to glasnost, when Soviet authorities relaxed limits on the discussion of political and social issues and allowed the freer dissemination of news. The difference is that Cuba’s move comes in the age of the internet.这些开放性举措与前苏联的“公开化”政策有些相似,当时苏联当局放松了对讨论政治和社会问题的限制,并提高了新闻传播的自由度。不同的是,古巴此举发生在互联网时代。The forums follow an announcement this month that the country is preparing a new electoral law, due to come into force before the next general election in 2018 when President Raúl Castro will step down, in effect ending the Castro era in Cuba that began with his brother Fidel in 1959.这两个论坛出现之前,古巴于本月宣布正在制定新选举法,该法将在2018年下届大选举行之前生效。届时,劳尔#8226;卡斯特罗(Raúl Castro)将卸任总统,在事实上终结其兄菲德尔#8226;卡斯特罗(Fidel Castro)1959年开创的卡斯特罗时代。“These openings may be small and experimental, but they signal something important: criticism becomes legitimate discourse,” Bert Hoffmann, a Cuba expert at the German Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg, said.位于汉堡的德国全球和区域研究所(German Institute of Global and Area Studies)古巴问题专家伯特#8226;霍夫曼(Bert Hoffmann)说:“这些开放也许力度很小,而且是试验性的,但它们发出了一些重要信号:批评变成了合法言论。”In a remarkably transparent forum on Cuba’s electoral system, sponsored by the Union of Young Communists’ daily, a participant called GCR said: “I would like to know if direct elections for the principal leadership positions of the country are under consideration#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;as the current system is [in my view] highly unpopular.”在由古巴共产主义青年联盟(Union of Young Communists)的日报发起的一个讨论选举制度的非常透明的论坛上,一位名为GCR的参与者说:“我想知道,对国家最重要的领导职位采取直选的可能性是否正在讨论之中……因为现行制度(在我看来)非常不得人心。”During a forum on civil society, published online this month by the Cuban Workers Federation’s weekly Trabajadores, Joan asked: “How can the Cuban Workers Federation be a non-governmental organisation when its secretary-general is a member of the Council of State?”在一个由古巴工人联合会(Cuban Workers Federation)的周报Trabajadores本月发布上线的讨论公民社会的论坛中,Joan问道:“既然古巴工人联合会的秘书长是国务院成员,它怎么能是一个非政府组织?”Another participant, going by the name Tumblr, charged: “The federation is an appendage of the state it represents#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;carrying out the policies of the Communist party.”另一位网名为Tumblr的参与者指责说:“该联合会是其代表的政权的附属品……执行共产党的各项政策。”Most of those taking part in both forums defended Cuba’s political system, but what was unique was the expression of differing political opinions.这两个论坛的大多数参与者都为古巴的政治制度进行了辩护,特别的地方在于,不同的政治观点得到了表达。“The debate in these forums signals a willingness on the part of authorities to allow a range of expression and acknowledge a range of opinions that were heretofore not recognised as legitimate,” William LeoGrande, a Cuba analyst at American University in Washington and co-author of Back Channels to Cuba, said.华盛顿美国大学(American University)古巴问题分析师、《Back Channels to Cuba》作者之一威廉#8226;李欧格兰(William LeoGrande)说:“这些论坛中的辩论表明,当局有意愿允许各种意见的表达,并认可一些迄今仍不被承认是合法的观点。”“However, it would be very premature to say it portends any significant change in the political system.”“但是,要说这预示着古巴政治制度将出现重大变化,那还为时尚早。”The small crack in the dam on political discussion comes as the EU’s foreign affairs chief visits Cuba and as Washington and Havana work to normalise diplomatic relations and begin to discuss a range of issues, including human rights and expanded travel and telecoms, such as direct phone calls.随着欧盟外交事务负责人访问古巴,华盛顿和哈瓦那共同推进美巴外交关系正常化,并开始讨论包括人权、扩大旅行和电信(如直接通电话)合作等一系列问题,古巴阻碍政治讨论的大坝开始出现了细小的裂缝。However, discussions on opening embassies in Washington and Havana have dragged on for two months, in part because of Cuba’s continued status as a US-designated sponsor of terrorism and its inability to obtain banking services in the US. A clash with Washington over Venezuela, Cuba’s closest ally, which led Raúl Castro to deliver a fulminating tirade on March 17 against new US sanctions placed on several Venezuelan officials, has not helped.然而,关于在华盛顿和哈瓦那互设大使馆的讨论已经拖延了两个月,部分原因是美国仍认定古巴持恐怖主义以及古巴无法在美国获得业务。与华盛顿之间围绕委内瑞拉(古巴最亲密的盟友)问题爆发冲突更加雪上加霜。3月17日,劳尔#8226;卡斯特罗发表了长篇演说,强烈谴责美国对多位委内瑞拉官员实施新制裁。The Obama administration’s hope that the embassies would open before April’s Americas Summit, which both countries’ presidents will attend for the first time in decades, now appears out of reach. Efforts to lift the trade embargo in Congress also face opposition from the Republican leadership.奥巴马政府想要在4月份美洲峰会(Americas Summit)召开前——两国总统将是数十年来首次共同出席该峰会——实现互设大使馆的希望现在看来很渺茫。在国会中寻求解除贸易禁运的努力也面临共和党领导人的反对。Cuba’s new electoral law, the details of which have not been revealed, will be discussed in grassroots meetings along with other measures on the agenda of a Communist party congress set for April 2016, an opportunity to offer a critique the political system.古巴新选举法的细节尚未披露,但将与党代会议程中的其他举措一起在基层会议上得到讨论。古巴共产党定于2016年4月召开党代会,这次大会将为批评政治制度提供一次机会。“We call for the opening of a multi-party system in Cuba: well regulated so that no foreign power or financial company can finance or corrupt electoral campaigns,” the Observatorio Critico de Cuba, a social network of Cuban intellectuals on and off the island, said in a post to the civil society forum.岛内外古巴籍知识分子经常上的社交网络Observatorio Critico de Cuba在一篇发布于公民社会论坛上的帖子中说:“我们呼吁在古巴开放多党体制:实行良好的监督管理,以使外国列强或金融公司无法资助或者腐蚀选举活动。”The policy shift is also taking place as pressure builds on the Cuban government to authorise unlimited internet access. While only 5 per cent of Cubans are estimated to have access to the internet, 30 per cent have access to the government-controlled intranet, with its thousands of local pages and blogs and where the forums are occurring.随着古巴政府面临越来越大的压力,要求其放开互联网接入限制,政策变化也在发生。据估计,仅有5%的古巴人可以接入互联网,而30%的人口可以接入政府控制的内联网,内联网中有成千上万的本地网页和客,也是这些论坛开设的地方。“Raúl Castro’s policies include not only economic reform but also a more tolerant relation between state and society#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;and digital non-state media have become tolerated to a considerable extent,” Mr Hoffmann said.“劳尔#8226;卡斯特罗的政策不仅包括经济改革,也包括在国家政权与社会之间建立更加相互包容的关系……而且,数字化非国有媒体已经在相当程度上被容忍,”霍夫曼说。 /201503/367274厦门整形除疤较好的医院厦门妇幼保健好吗

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