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浙江嘉兴隆鼻要多少费用搜医解答

2019年12月08日 17:13:16 | 作者:问医活动 | 来源:新华社
In a British work meeting, the aim is usually to make decisions. Nobody will expound a philosophy of, say, the toiletries market.英国人的工作会议通常以决策为目标。没有人会在会上详细解释化妆品市场基本原理之类的东西。If they do, they are joking. (Approximately 61 per cent of British work conversation is spent trying to be funny.) But French meetings are different, says a new guide to Franco-British business relationships.如果人们真的这样做了,他们是在开玩笑。(英国人61%的工作对话花在了开玩笑上。)但一本新出版的法英商务关系指南认为,法国人的会议截然不同。In France, “a meeting is a debate... In extreme cases a very unstructured meeting in France may be perceived by the British as an #39;intellectual orgy#39;.”在法国,“会议是一场辩论……极端情况下,法国的一场天马行空的会议可能被英国人视为‘思想的狂欢’”。The fascinating bilingual guide “Light at the End of the Tunnel: Practical Reflections on the French and British in Business”, published by the French chamber of commerce in Great Britain, is full of shrewd insights into both sides#39; codes. My only question is whether that#39;s much use. After 11 years in Paris, I reckon the main reason for Franco-British incomprehension isn#39;t clashing codes. It#39;s different languages.这本引人入胜的双语指南《希望之光:对法英商务的务实思考》(Light at the End of the Tunnel: Practical Reflections on the French and British in Business)由法国驻英商会出版,书中充满对两国行为准则的敏锐见解。我的唯一疑问是:这能起大作用吗?在巴黎居住11年后,我认为法英之间理解困难的主要原因不是行为准则的冲突,而是语言的不同。The chamber#39;s guide joins a long tradition.商会的指南是长期以来诸多类似文献的最新一部。In 1944, for instance, the UK#39;s Foreign Office issued the booklet “Instructions for British Servicemen in France”. Sixty years later it was republished as a cult classic. Many of its recommendations remain useful, such as: “It is as well to drop any ideas about French women based on stories of Montmartre and nude cabaret shows.”例如1944年,英国外交部(Foreign Office)出版了小册子《在法英国军人指南》(Instructions for British Servicemen in France)。60年后,此书再版,但只在特定的人群中备受推崇。书中不乏有用的建议,例如:“对于根据蒙马特高地(《玫瑰色人生》和《红磨坊》等电影的取材背景——译者注)和裸体歌舞表演形成的对法国女人的看法,不如将其抛诸脑后。”By contrast, the chamber of commerce#39;s guide concentrates on working life.相比之下,商会的指南则以工作生活为主题。From its bullet-points emerges a picture of a French boss strangely like the late French comic actor Louis de Funes: loud, excitable, given to tantrums, and usually late himself. Here are some of the guide#39;s insights into French business practices:从一条条罗列的语句中,一个奇像已故法国喜剧演员路易德菲内斯(Louis de Funes)的法国老板形象跃然纸上:聒噪、易激动、爱发脾气、自己经常迟到。以下节选了指南中对法国商务习惯的一些观察:“Raising one#39;s voice or losing one#39;s temper may be seen as a sign of leadership”“提高语调或发脾气会被视为领导地位的体现”The French “sometimes disagree for the sake of discussion and to test conviction”法国人“发表不同意见,有时只是为了讨论的需要,或是考验对方的信念”They make “greater use of... body expression in confrontational situations”法国人“在剑拔弩张的时刻会更多地运用肢体语言”Performance appraisals “start as a #39;one way#39; process subsequently evolving into an emotional dialogue”绩效评估“一开始是‘单向’的过程,尔后演变成情绪激动的对话”“Criticism can descend into personal observations”.“批评可能沦为人身攻击式的言论”There are other differences besides. A British employer might hire you for your experience, or because you were captain of cricket at school. In France, what matters is education. Cleverness rules. Consequently, the guide says, in meetings the French can be “perceived as arrogant due to use of intellect and logical arguments”. Even worse, for Britons: French business people “will potentially view humour as lack of seriousness”.此外还有其他差异。英国雇主雇佣你,可能是看中你的经验,或是因为你曾是学校的板球队队长。在法国,教育修养才是最重要的。聪明的头脑高于一切。因此指南中写道,在会议中法国人可能“会因为运用才智和逻辑清晰的论述而被认为傲慢”。更糟的是,英国人请注意:法国商务人士“可能会将幽默视为态度不严肃”。Meanwhile, the French - like everyone else on earth - are baffled when Britons say inscrutable things like, “I agree with you, up to a point.” (Guide for foreigners: this means, “That#39;s insane!”) As a Dutchman I know in a British company complains, it#39;s tiring being in a workplace where nobody ever says what they mean.与此同时,法国人像地球上所有其他人一样,弄不懂英国人一些难以理解的话,如“我在一定程度上同意你的看法。”(外国人请注意,这句话的意思其实是:“你疯了!”)我认识一位在英国公司工作的荷兰人,正如他抱怨的那样,在一个人人说话拐弯抹角的地方工作着实令人厌倦。The chamber#39;s guide was written by “a group of plain-speaking non-academic Franco-British business men and women” who understand both countries. They explain French and British codes well. And yet knowing another country#39;s codes is of limited use. If you are British, your French interlocutor won#39;t expect you to act French. She knows you are different. Maybe she even likes that. She may, for instance, have an exaggerated admiration for “le fair-play britannique”. She probably understands that British executives share emotions only when drunk. People tend to allow each other their national codes, up to a point.商会指南的作者是“一群直率、不学究气的法英男女商务人士”,他们深谙两国国情。他们对法英行为准则的解释准确得当。但了解别国准则的用处并不大。如果你是英国人,那么与你对话的法国人不会指望你表现出法国人的举止。她知道你是不同的,甚至喜欢你的不同。例如,她可能会夸张地表示出对“英式公平竞赛”的赞赏。她可能知道,英国高管只有喝醉时才会表露情绪。人们往往尊重彼此国家的行为准则——但只是在一定程度上。The greater Franco-British problem is language. Most French business people under 50 can now speak “Globish“: the simplified, dull, idiom-free version of English with a small vocabulary. It#39;s silly to expect more from them. If Brits had discovered circa 1995 that English no longer sufficed internationally, they wouldn#39;t have adapted well either.法英交流的更大问题是语言。如今,50岁以下的法国商务人士大多会说“全球语”(Globish):枯燥、无习语、词汇贫乏的简化版英语。指望他们更上一层楼是不现实的。假如英国人在1995年前后发现英语再也无法满足国际交流的需要,他们也将难以迅速适应。Globish just about gets the French through international business meetings. But it isn#39;t enough for building relationships. French people build working relationships over lunch, and Brits over evening beers, but the principle is the same: this is when trust is created, and information casually exchanged. And these informal exchanges only happen between people who speak the same language almost perfectly.“全球语”只能让法国人应付国际性的商务会议,但还不足以用于建立关系。法国人通过午餐建立工作关系,英国人通过晚上喝啤酒建立工作关系,但原则是一样的:在两种场合下,都可以建立信任,以一种轻松的方式交换信息。而这种非正式交流,只能在流利说得同一门语言的人之间进行。I#39;ve seen it at conferences. During the day, everyone spends the sessions checking email. Then the French go for dinner together to speak French. The British eat with the Americans (often swapping complaints about the French). At 11pm the Americans go to bed, and the Brits go to the bar to build more trust.我在会议中亲历过这一现象。白天,大家在会上查阅电子邮件。然后,法国人与法国人共进晚餐,这样他们便能说法语。英国人和美国人一起用餐(往往是在抱怨法国人)。晚上11点,美国人上床睡觉,英国人去酒吧建立进一步的信任。These exchanges pay off. The Zurich-based economists Peter H. Egger and Andrea Lassmann recently analysed 81 academic articles on language and international trade. They found that on average a common language “increases trade flows directly by 44 per cent”. That#39;s where things break down between French and British.这些交流颇有好处。苏黎世的经济学家彼得H埃格尔(Peter H. Egger)和安德烈娅拉斯曼(Andrea Lassman)近期分析了81篇有关语言和国际贸易的学术论文。他们发现,同说一门语言平均能“直接将贸易流动提高44%”。而法国人和英国人恰恰交流不畅。It#39;s customary at this point to urge British schools to start teaching French again. But that probably wouldn#39;t help. When dealing with French people, only near-native French confers an advantage. Speaking mediocre French is worse than useless. If mediocre French is all you have, it#39;s much better to speak English, and force the French person to operate on your turf. Then when he has a tantrum, just smile fondly and say: “I agree with you, up to a point.”说到这里,照例应当敦促英国学校重新开始教授法语。但这恐怕没有帮助。在与法国人打交道时,只有接近母语水平的法语才能够带来优势。一般水平的法语毫无用处可言。如果你的法语水平平庸,倒不妨说英语,逼迫法国人迁就你。假如他发了脾气,那就温柔地笑笑,说:“我在一定程度上同意你的看法。” /201304/234970Earthquakes are a common occurrence, rumbling below Earth's surface thousands of times every day. But major earthquakes are less common. Here are some things to do to prepare for an earthquake and what to do once the ground starts shaking.Marina District home damageSafety Tips#8226; Have an earthquake iness plan.#8226; Consult a professional to learn how to make your home sturdier, such as bolting bookcases to wall studs, installing strong latches on cupboards, and strapping the water heater to wall studs.#8226; Locate a place in each room of the house that you can go to in case of an earthquake. It should be a spot where nothing is likely to fall on you.#8226; Keep a supply of canned food, an up-to-date first aid kit, 3 gallons (11.4 liters) of water per person, dust masks and goggles, and a working battery-operated radio and flashlights.#8226; Know how to turn off your gas and water mains.If Shaking Begins#8226; Drop down; take cover under a desk or table and hold on.#8226; Stay indoors until the shaking stops and you're sure it's safe to exit.#8226; Stay away from bookcases or furniture that can fall on you.#8226; Stay away from windows. In a high-rise building, expect the fire alarms and sprinklers to go off during a quake.#8226; If you are in bed, hold on and stay there, protecting your head with a pillow.#8226; If you are outdoors, find a clear spot away from buildings, trees, and power lines. Drop to the ground.#8226; If you are in a car, slow down and drive to a clear place. Stay in the car until the shaking stops. 地震是一种经常发生的自然现象,地表之下每天要发生几千次的震动,但大地震还是比较少见的。下面给大家介绍一些地震预防准备以及一旦地震发生时的应对方法。滨海区房屋受损安全贴士* 做好预防地震的准备计划。* 请教专业人士,学习如何把家变得更牢固,比如将书架钉在立柱墙上,在碗碟橱里安装牢固的门闩,把热水器捆在立柱墙上。* 在屋里的每间房间中都确定有一个在地震发生时可以躲的地方,在那个地方不会有东西砸到你。* 准备好罐装食品,新式急救箱,每人3加仑(11.4公升)的水,防尘面具和护目镜,还有电池型收音机和手电筒。* 知道如何关闭煤气和水管的总开关。如果地震开始* 卧倒;躲在课桌或餐桌下,保持不动。* 直到震动停止前呆在室内,确定安全后再逃出。* 远离书架和家具,它们可能会压倒你。* 远离窗户。在高楼大厦里,火警和洒水装置在震动中可能会启动。* 如果你躺在床上,躺在原地保持不动,用枕头保护头部。* 如果你在室外,找一块远离房屋,树木和电线的空地,然后蹲在地上。* 如果你在车里,减速开到空地上。直到震动结束前呆在车里。 /200805/39980Beijing is engaged in systematic cyber spying on the US military and private businesses to acquire technology to boost its military modernisation and strengthen its capacity in any regional crisis, according to the Pentagon.五角大楼称,中国正对美国军方和私营企业展开系统化的网络间谍活动,以求获取有助于中国军事现代化的技术、加强自身在地区性危机中的实力。In its annual report to Congress on the People’s Liberation Army, the Pentagon gives new emphasis to the threat of cyber espionage from China, an issue that has been the subject of top-level complaints to Beijing by Washington.在其提交给美国国会的、关于中国人民解放军的年度报告中,五角大楼对来自中国的网络间谍活动威胁给予了新的强调。这个问题已成为美方向中方发出的高层抱怨的主题。The report says China “is using its computer network exploitation capability to support intelligence collection against the US diplomatic, economic and defence industrial base sectors that support US national (military) programmes.”报告称,中国“正动用其电脑网络利用能力来持情报收集活动,活动的目标是那些撑美国国家(军事)计划的美国外交、经济和国防工业基础部门。”Although such allegations have long been directed at China, the Pentagon’s comments are perhaps the strongest yet about an issue that is raising the ire of many of Beijing’s critics in Congress. Washington has also used cyber warfare tactics, most notably in its battle to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons capability, but US officials have said the country does not steal commercial or technological secrets.虽然中国一直受到这类指控,但五角大楼的最新报告在措辞上可能是迄今为止最强烈的。这个问题正在美国国会中激起许多对中国持批评态度的人士的怒火。美国自身也使用网络战战术,最突出的就是它为阻止伊朗获得核武能力而发起的网络战斗,但美国官员表示,美国并不窃取商业或技术秘密。In its report, the Pentagon paints a picture of a highly organised adversary which is using multiple methods to acquire technology, ranging from state businesses to students to old-fashioned espionage.五角大楼在报告中描绘了一个具有高度组织性的对手。从国企、留学生到传统的间谍手段,这个对手正利用多种方法来获取技术。“China continues to leverage foreign investments, commercial joint ventures, academic exchanges, the experience of repatriated Chinese students and researchers, and state-sponsored industrial and technical espionage to increase the level of technologies and expertise available to support military research, development and acquisition,” the report says.“中国继续利用海外投资、商业合资项目、学术交流、回国的中国留学生和研究人员的经验、以及政府持的工业和技术间谍活动,来提高技术水平、提升可持军事研究、开发及获取的技能,”报告表示。“In 2012, numerous computer systems around the world, including those owned by the US government, continued to be targeted for intrusions, some of which appear to be attributable directly to the Chinese government and military.”“2012年,世界各地有无数电脑系统,包括美国政府拥有的电脑系统,继续成为侵入目标,其中一些侵入行为似乎可直接归咎于中国政府和中国军方。”The PLA is under the direct leadership of the Communist party, and its head, Xi Jinping, appointed last year. Mr Xi carries the less important title of state president as well. The party also appoints all the senior executives of the big state-owned enterprises, arousing suspicion from China’s rivals overseas that these companies are both commercial entities and vehicles for the broader interests of the state.解放军受中国共产党及去年上任的中共中央总书记习近平的直接领导。习近平另外还担任重要性不那么高的国家主席职务。中共还任命大型国有企业的所有高管,这种做法使得中国在海外的对手怀疑这些企业既是商业实体、也是国家整体利益的工具。The Pentagon report reiterates that the primary aim of PLA modernisation has been to ensure that Beijing prevails in any possible clash with Taiwan, which it regards as a renegade province and part of China.五角大楼的报告重申,解放军现代化的首要目标是确保中国大陆在其与台湾可能发生的冲突中占据上风。北京方面把台湾视为一个叛离省份及中国的一部分。But while preparing for a potential conflict in the Strait of Taiwan appears to remain China’s principal focus, the military has been expanding its contacts with the armed forces of other countries.但是,尽管为台海潜在冲突进行准备似乎仍是中国的主要关注点,但中国军方近来也一直在扩大对抗范围,与其他国家的军队发生对峙。“Its military modernisation has also become increasingly focused on investments in capabilities to conduct a wider range of missions beyond its immediate territorial concerns,” the report says.“中国的军事现代化还日益聚焦于投资发展各种能力,以执行超出其紧迫领土关切范围的更广泛任务,”报告表示。The PLA’s expanded role has included counter-piracy and humanitarian assistance missions.解放军扩大后的角色迄今已包括打击海盗和执行人道主义援助任务。 /201305/238599

Women may get a glow during pregnancy, but now it turns out that men feel they are more attractive as well - only after the baby has arrived.女人在怀期间可能会容光焕发,但现在研究发现,男人也会因此而感到自己魅力倍增——不过是在宝宝出生以后。In the first study of its kind, men said that their self image improved after the birth in what is being called a ‘hidden benefit’ of becoming a dad.这一研究是首次对这一课题进行探讨,男人表示他们的自我形象在宝宝出生后有所改观,这就是初为人父的“潜在益处”。The scientists said that men could get the boost because they feel they are more masculine having just seen a mini version of themselves enter the world.科学家称,男人自我形象改善是因为他们刚目睹自己的微缩版降临世间,这让他们感觉自己男子气概倍增。They could also get a kick out of women cooing over them as they walk around with their baby.在男人抱着宝宝外出散步时,那些围着他们柔声交谈的女人们也让他们感到愉快。Women by contrast did not experience such a lift about their appearance - possibly because the physical demands of raising a child left them a shadow of what they used to be.相比之下,女人在孩子降生后却没有感觉自己形象有所改善,这可能是因为带小孩对女人的体力要求较高,让她们无暇自顾,所以感觉自己还是老样子。The study examined 182 people who were all newlywed adults with an average age of 24 for a woman and 26 for a man.该研究调查了182名新婚成人,其中女性的平均年龄为24岁,男性的平均年龄为26岁。They asked them to give their verdict on their own wellbeing and appearance at the start of the study, the one year anniversary and the second anniversary.研究人员让这些人分别在研究开始时、结婚一周年时和结婚两周年时对自己的幸福度和形象做出评价。One question asked them to rate how attractive they found themselves on a scale of one to 10 and how ordinary they thought they were on a scale of one to five.其中一个问题是让他们按1到10的等级对自己的魅力指数做出评价,还让他们按1到5的等级评价自己有多普通。For men who didn’t have children, notions of attractiveness remained stable.那些没有生育小孩的男人对自身魅力的看法一直保持稳定。But those who became fathers during the study’s timeframe felt more attractive after their child was born than they did previously.但那些在研究期间成为新爸爸的人在孩子出生后相比以前感到自己更有魅力。Lead researcher Alicia Cast, an associate professor the University of California-Santa Barbara, said: ‘I was talking about this paper with my husband and he commented on the attention he got when he was seen in public holding our son after he was born. Like: ;Aren’t you a good dad;, ;Look at that new dad with his baby;.首席研究员、加州大学圣塔芭芭拉分校的副教授艾丽西娅?卡斯特说:“我和我的丈夫谈论这篇论文时,他提到他抱着刚出生的儿子外出时所得到的关注。人们会说:‘真是个好爸爸’,或者说‘看那个抱着宝宝的新爸爸’。#39;Women get that feedback, too, because everybody loves a new baby. But that (benefit) may be countered by other things she’s experiencing that he’s not, in terms of how her body has changed and being more physically tired.“女人也会得到这样的回应,因为大家都喜欢小宝宝。不过这一益处可能被她正经历而男人没有经历的其他事情抵消了,比如身体发生了变化,感觉更疲劳。‘There’s a lot of attention paid to how women think about themselves – particularly their bodies and their physical attractiveness – after childbirth.“很多研究关注的是女人在生孩子后如何看待自己——尤其是自己的身体和外表吸引力。‘But to our knowledge there’s been nothing that looked at men’.“但据我们所知还没有研究关注男人在孩子出生后对自己的看法。” /201304/234414

Stuck in the #39;friend zone#39; with that special someone who you wish could see you in a more romantic light? Here#39;s a simple insight into getting that someone of your interest, interested。是不是跟那个自己希望能共度浪漫时光的人还处在“朋友阶段”?下面就教你如何让心仪的人对你来电。1. Be Patient。耐心。This individual who has been your friend, is not going to overnightfall magically in love with you with no matter what advances you make. Don#39;t assume because you#39;re good friends, she will believe you can be a good lover to her by just upfront telling her, you have to subtly reveal it to her. Remember you first have to stack the odds in your favour first before you can go for the kill。甭管你多么优秀,这个人既然是你的朋友,就不太可能突然莫名其妙爱上你。别想当然以为,既然你俩是朋友,只要你直接向她坦白她就愿意接受;相反,你应该潜移默化地让她明白你的心。为避免碰壁,还是先从对自己有利的小事做起吧。2. Carry on being a good friend。继续保持亲密的朋友关系。Don#39;t just stop all friendly things with her and become this new flirty guy. You#39;ll creepher out and lose her friendship。千万别光顾了要成为恋人而忘了要朋友,这样你不仅可能吓到她,还会损失友情。3. Be Bold.勇敢点。This is probably the reason why you got stuck in the friend zone in the first place. Let her know how amazing you think she is (but don#39;t overkill it), live in the moment, when you’re out compliment her on her physical features, for example ;You always look great, but tonight you#39;re figure in that dress...... simply flawless.;也许正是因为缺乏勇气,你俩才会从一开始就只是朋友关系。请告诉她你是多么欣赏她(但别夸大其辞),赞美此时此刻的她。比如当你俩在一起时,夸夸她的外貌,说:“你总是这么漂亮,今晚穿这身裙子简直无可挑剔哇!”4. Flirt more。讲点俏皮情话Start flirting a little more. Learn the art of kino, touch her more, especially when flirting. But don#39;t just flirt with her, flirt with other women especially in her presence (don#39;t overkill though), let her see other women desire you, in doing this you are leveling the playing field, allow her to think you#39;re interested in other women, it displays confidence, she#39;ll respect you。多跟她调调情吧。你可以学电影里的样子,跟她俏皮嬉笑、拉手搭肩。但也别只跟她一个人调笑,也逗逗其他女人,尤其是当着她的面(别太过分就是),让她知道还有别的女人仰慕你;如此你掌控了这场爱情游戏,使她以为你也喜欢其他女人,其实你也还挺有魅力嘛。然后,她就会用心对你喽。5. Go for the kill.拿出行动。By now you are y to ask her out on a date. The best way to do this, ask her out at an event where you#39;re likely to be a very important figure in the room, for example, your birthday party. Take her outside or somewhere quiet, where the two of you can be alone, pull her in close, look her dead in the eye and say, ;Would you like to go out some time?; She#39;ll know its not on a friendship term。关系发展到这个阶段,你就可以跟她约会了。最好带她一起参加能让你显得比较重要的活动,比如你的生日派对。带她到外面或安静点的地方,就你和她,然后拉过她、看着她的眼睛,说:“愿不愿意什么一起出去玩玩?”她定能意会到友谊之外的情意。6. Get physical early。亲密接触。You need to get out that friend zone and the best way is to get intimate. When you go out hold her hand, put your arms around her and her body language, if she’s not pulling away she’s comfortable with you。若想跨越朋友阶段,最好的办法就是亲密接触。俩人约会的时候,牵着她的手,搂着她的腰,留意她的反应;要是她没推开你,说明她也喜欢与你这样亲密接触哦。7. If you#39;re close with her, hint that you like them or straight out tell them。如果你跟她很亲密,直接暗示你喜欢她,要么干脆表白吧。Most of the time they will feel the same way, even if they don#39;t want to admit it because some people are afraid of losing a great friendship. But most of the time a great friendship is a great relationship. It#39;s just the transition between the two and the fear of losing the friendship that usually gets in the way。有时候她或许跟你想的一样,只是担心表白了就做不成朋友才嘴上不承认而已。有时候友谊也能成就一段爱情,横隔在中间的只是俩人的姿态和对失去友情的担忧罢了。 /201303/232076

Some 87 per cent of gum-chewing teenagers who suffer regular headaches can cure themselves by giving up chewing gum, new research suggests.最新研究表明,那些爱嚼口香糖又常容易头痛的青少年中,87%的人会在停止咀嚼口香糖后症状消失。Scientists at the Tel Aviv University-affiliated Meir Medical Centre, in Israel, found that most adolescents who give up the habit experience significant relief.以色列特拉维夫大学附属梅尔医学中心的科学家发现,绝大多数青少年在改掉咀嚼口香糖的习惯后头痛症状明显减轻。The scientists, led by Dr Nathan Watemberg, believe the finding could allow doctors to cure thousands of patients of migraines and tension headaches without the need for additional tests or medication.由Nathan Watemberg医生领衔的研究组认为,该发现将使医生在不借助任何额外测试和药物治疗的前提下治愈数千患者的偏头痛和紧张性头痛。‘Out of our 30 patients, 26 reported significant improvement and 19 had complete headache resolution,’ said Dr Watemberg.Watemberg医生表示,(在该方法的引导下)参与实验的30名患者中,26名的症状有显著改善,其中有19位患者头痛症状完全消失。‘20 of the improved patients later agreed to go back to chewing gum, and all of them reported an immediate relapse of symptoms.’“20名症状缓和的患者随后同意恢复咀嚼口香糖习惯,然后他们的头痛症状很快复发。”Headaches are common in childhood and become more common and frequent during adolescence, particularly among girls.头痛现象普遍存在于儿童时期,并且在青少年时期日益普遍和发作频繁,女生中这种现象尤为明显。Typical triggers are stress, tiredness, lack of sleep, heat, games, noise, sunlight, smoking, missed meals, and menstruation.常见的触发因素包括压力、疲劳、缺乏睡眠、发热、视频游戏、噪音、日光、吸烟、不吃饭和生理期。But until now there has been little medical research on the relationship between gum chewing and headaches.但直到现在,很少有关于嚼口香糖和头痛之间关系的医学研究。At Meir Medical Centre#39;s Child Neurology and Child Development Centre, Dr Watemberg noticed that many patients who reported headaches were daily gum chewers.在梅尔医学中心儿童神经病学和发展中心,Watemberg医生注意到很多父母说起换头痛的孩子都常嚼口香糖。Dr Watemberg found that in many cases, when patients stopped chewing gum at his suggestion, they got substantially better.Watemberg发现很多案例中,当父母根据他的建议不让孩子再嚼口香糖时,孩子们头痛的状况会大为改善。Taking a more statistical approach, he asked 30 patients between six and 19 years old, who had chronic migraine or tension headaches and chewed gum daily, to quit chewing gum for one month. They had chewed gum for at least an hour a day and some had chewed for more than six hours a day.为了更科学地研究,他要求参与实验的30名6-19岁间,患有慢性偏头痛和紧张性头痛的哎嚼口香糖患者在一个月内停止嚼口香糖。这些患者平时每天至少嚼一个小时口香糖,有的甚至每天嚼口香糖超过6小时。After a month without gum, 19 of the 30 patients reported that their headaches went away entirely and seven reported a decrease in the frequency and intensity of headaches.一个月没嚼口香糖后,19名患者报告头痛症状完全消失,7人报告头痛发作频率和强度均有所下降。To test the results, 20 of them agreed to resume gum chewing for two weeks. All of them reported a return of their symptoms within days.为了测试结果,其中20人回复嚼口香糖的习惯两个星期,然后所有人表示几天后头痛发作。Two previous studies linked gum chewing to headaches, but offered different explanations.之前有两个关于嚼口香糖和头痛之间关系的研究,但得出完全不同的结论。One study suggested that gum chewing causes stress to the temporomandibular joint, or TMJ - the place where the jaw meets the skull.其中一个结论认为咀嚼口香糖的动作导致颞颌关节——下颔与头骨结合处的压力。The other study blamed aspartame, the artificial sweetener used in most popular chewing gums.另一个研究则归咎于阿斯巴甜——口香糖中最常见的人工甜味剂。TMJ dysfunction has been shown to cause headaches, while the evidence is mixed on aspartame. Dr Watemberg favours the TMJ explanation.颞骨关节功能紊乱已被明会导致头痛,但其中的据与阿斯巴甜有关。Watemberg医生倾向于颞骨关节功能紊乱导致头痛的结论。Gum only has a flavour for a short period of time, suggesting it does not contain much aspartame, he says.他说,口香糖的口味只能停留一小段时间,其中阿斯巴甜的含量不高。If aspartame caused headaches, he reasons, there would be a lot more headaches from diet drinks and artificially sweetened products which also contain it.如果阿斯巴甜引起头痛,那膳食饮料和其他含有阿斯巴甜的人工加糖食品会导致更多的头痛。On the other hand, people chew gum well after the taste is gone, putting a significant burden on the TMJ, which is aly the most used joint in the body, he says.另一方面,人们在口香糖甜味消失后继续咀嚼,会给身体最常用的颞骨关节带来更多负担。‘Every doctor knows that overuse of the TMJ will cause headaches,’ said Dr Watemberg. ‘I believe this is what#39;s happening when children and teenagers chew gum excessively.’他说道,“每个医生都知道颞颌关节负担过重会引起头痛,我相信青少年们过度咀嚼口香糖导致了这一状况。” /201312/270083

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