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HONG KONG — When the ed States government punished ZTE of China this month, saying it had done business with Iran, it released internal company documents that it said detailed how the electronic equipment maker had done it — and that also suggested the problem might not be limited to one Chinese company. 香港——在本月以中国的中兴(ZTE)公司与伊朗有生意往来为由对其施加制裁时,美国政府公布了该公司的内部文件,称文件提供了有关该电子设备制造商与伊朗交易的细节,还称这个问题可能不仅限于一家中国公司。 One document described how ZTE would set up seemingly independent companies — called “cut-off companies” — that would sign the deals in other countries. That could enable it to continue to do business in Iran, North Korea and other countries placed under American restrictions. 一份文件称,中兴会设立看似独立的公司——“隔断企业”,通过这些公司在其他国家签署协议。这会使得中兴能够继续在伊朗、朝鲜及其他受到美国限制的国家开展贸易。 In describing the effort, the document cited as a model — and at times a cautionary tale — a rival company it called F7. ZTE said F7 had done something similar, though its business in restricted companies ended up hurting its American ambitions. 该文件在说明这些举措时,提到了一个范例——有时是为了敲响警钟——一个被称为F7的竞争对手。中兴称F7也有类似的做法,但该公司在受限国家的业务,最终损害了它在美国的宏图大业。 The document does not give F7’s real name. But the description offered by ZTE matches a company far larger and more politically sensitive: Huawei Technologies, its chief rival and a major force in the technology world. 该文件没有说明F7的真实名称。但中兴的描述符合一个规模大得多且更具政治敏感性的公司:华为技术公司——中兴的主要对手、技术领域的一股重要力量。 The ZTE document, dated August 2011, suggests that other Chinese companies could have potential exposure to American export limits. Given the recent sanctions against ZTE, it also suggests that the issue could be a continuing one between Chinese and American government officials. 这份在2011年8月发布的文件显示,其他中国公司可能会受到美国的出口限制。中兴最近遭受的制裁也说明,这将成为中美政府官员间持续存在的一个问题。 ZTE on Thursday said that it had delayed the release of its annual financial results because of the sanctions, which limit the ability of American companies to sell equipment to it. 中兴在周四表示,由于遭到制裁,该公司会延期公布年度财务业绩。制裁举措使得向中兴出售设备的美国公司受到限制。 ZTE officials declined to comment on the identity of F7, and Huawei declined to comment. ZTE has said it is cooperating with investigators and is committed to complying with the law. 中兴官员拒绝就F7的身份置评,华为拒绝。中兴曾表示,公司正在配合调查人员的工作,承诺遵守法律。 The ed States Commerce Department, which last week restricted sales of American telecommunications equipment to ZTE, accusing it of violating embargoes, did not respond to requests for comment. 美国商务部上周限制相关公司向中兴出售电信设备,指责中兴违反禁令,商务部没有回复置评请求。 It is rare for the Commerce Department to publicly provide evidence for an addition to its blacklist of restricted companies, especially full disclosure of internal documents. 商务部很少公开提供有关增加受限公司的据,特别是全面披露内部文件。 It is not clear how accurate ZTE’s version of the events might be. The document says some information about F7 was gathered by ZTE’s legal department, without offering details. 目前尚不清楚,中兴有关该事件的说明与事实是否有出入。文件称,一些有关F7的信息是由中兴法务部门收集的,但没有提供细节。 F7, the document says, tried in 2010 to buy an American company called 3Leaf but met with opposition from American officials. That same year, Huawei agreed to buy major assets from 3Leaf, but it dropped the bid in February 2011 because of opposition from American officials. 文件称,F7在2010年试图收购一家名为3Leaf的美国公司,但遭到美国官员的反对。就在那一年,华为同意收购3Leaf的主要资产,但最终因为美国官员的反对,在2011年2月放弃了投标。 F7 also has a joint venture with the American digital security company Symantec, the 2011 document says. Huawei had a joint venture with Symantec before the American company dissolved it in 2012. 这份2011年的文件显示,F7还与美国数字安全公司赛门铁克(Symantec)成立了合资企业,但2012年美国公司解散了这个企业。 Like ZTE, Huawei makes telecommunications equipment for corporate networks and for big telecommunications systems such as phone companies. American officials have long suspected it has Chinese government ties, and ed States intelligence officials have tried to tap into the company’s network. Both companies are effectively barred from selling equipment for American networks. 与中兴一样,华为为公司网络及大型电信系统——比如手机公司——制造电信设备。美国官员一直在怀疑该公司与中国政府有关联,美国情报官员曾试图潜入该公司的网络。两家公司实际上都被禁止向美国网络出售设备。 Huawei says that it is privately owned and that accusations of government ties are an excuse to hurt the company for protectionist purposes. 华为表示,该公司为私有企业,有关公司与政府关系的指控只是为了实施保护主义、损害该公司的借口。 Huawei is much larger than ZTE. In 2014, it reported revenue of about billion, about four times that of ZTE. Depending on the measure, it ranks with Sweden’s Ericsson as the world’s largest supplier of the base stations and other equipment that make mobile telecom networks run. Huawei equipment supports networks in countries across the world, including many European markets. 华为的规模比中兴大得多。2014年,该公司报收600亿美元,大约是中兴的四倍。根据该数据,华为和瑞典爱立信公司(Ericsson)成为世界最大的基站及移动通信网络运营所需的其他设备的供应商。华为的设备撑世界各国网络的运行,其中包括很多欧洲市场。 While both Huawei and ZTE are given privileged status as high-tech innovators by China’s leadership, Huawei is more prominent. 虽然华为和中兴都被中国领导人称为高科技行业的创新者,给予它们特权,但华为更为重要。 Huawei has also had greater success selling its smartphones in America, and indeed across the world. The company was the third-largest smartphone vendor by units sold in the fourth quarter of 2015 according to IDC, with an 8.1 percent share of the global market, compared with the 21.4 percent share of Samsung, the company in first place. 华为的智能手机在美国的销售更成功,实际上在全世界也更为成功。IDC的数据显示,以2015年第四季度的销售量来看,该公司成为世界第三大智能手机卖家,在全球市场占据8.1%的份额,三星(Samsung)占21.2%,排名第一。 Despite the trouble in the ed States, Huawei has not shied away from potentially controversial deals. In September, Huawei signed a deal with Syria’s Communications and Technology Ministry to help the country develop its communications networks. 尽管在美国遇到麻烦,华为对可能存在争议的交易并不避讳。9月,华为与叙利亚通信技术部签署协议,以帮助叙利亚发展通信网络。 The ZTE document details how F7 recruited compliance experts and placed them in its joint ventures as part of efforts to mitigate its risks. It says that the company recruited one “senior export control compliance specialist from Texas Instruments” and a “Chinese-American attorney who is familiar with the related laws in the U.S.” 中兴的文件详细讲述了F7如何聘用合规专家,并将他们安置在合资企业,以此作为减少风险的举措的一部分。文件称,该公司聘用了“德州仪器(Texas Instruments)的资深出口管制合规专员”及一名“熟悉美国相关法律的美国华人律师”。 It also describes how F7 found partners that it could say were independent companies and that could work on its behalf in countries under embargo. F7, it said, found a big information technology company that was “serving as its agent to sign contracts for projects in embargoed countries.” 该文件还称F7找到了一些合作伙伴,它可以说这些都是独立公司,但又可以代表F7在管制国运作。文件显示F7找到了一家大型信息技术公司,“作为其签署管制国项目的签约主体”。 “This cut-off company’s capital credit and capability are relatively strong compared to our company; it can cut off risks more effectively,” the document said. 文件称,“该隔断企业资质及能力较强,相对于我司能较好地隔断风险。” But ZTE came to believe that F7’s activities in embargoed countries hurt its American expansion efforts. 但中兴认为F7在管制国的活动影响了该公司在美国的扩张计划。 It said it believed that F7’s efforts to acquire companies in the ed States were in part blocked because of its “ongoing projects in embargoed countries.” 中兴称,它相信F7在美国收购公司受阻,部分是因为F7“在管制国的运作项目”。 /201603/432720Record sales in the American auto industry have left the biggest carmakers flush with cash, which they are pouring into new models on display this week at the annual North American International Auto Show here.美国汽车行业创下销售记录,为那些规模最大的汽车生产商带来大笔收入。它们将资金投入研发新车型,并在本周举行的一年一度的北美国际车展(North American International Auto Show)上进行展示。But even the smallest auto companies are flourishing in the booming American market, none more so than the tiny Chinese-owned, Swedish-run luxury brand Volvo.不过,就连规模最小的那些车企也在繁荣的美国市场蓬勃发展,尤其是由中国人拥有、瑞典人运营的小众豪华品牌沃尔沃(Volvo)。While General Motors, Ford Motor and others held lavish news conferences, Volvo showed off a new sedan, the S90, and won recognition for its flagship sport utility vehicle, the XC90, as the best truck introduced in 2015.通用汽车(General Motors)、福特汽车(Ford Motor Company)及其他一些品牌举行了奢华的新闻发布会,而沃尔沃则展示了新款轿车S90,其旗舰款运动型多功能车XC90也获得了2015年度最佳新款卡车大奖。It illustrated how even the littlest car companies — Volvo has just 0.3 percent of the American market — can succeed when demand soars.这说明了,当需求飙升时,即便规模最小的车企也能成功。沃尔沃在美国市场仅占0.3%的份额。Bought from Ford in 2010 as part of that automaker’s retrenchment during the financial crisis, Volvo has been expanding under its new owners, Geely Auto of China, whose ambitions include Volvo’s first factory in North America.2010年金融危机期间,福特将沃尔沃卖给中国吉利汽车集团,以此作为削减开举措的一部分。有了新东家后,沃尔沃不断扩展。吉利的目标包括建造沃尔沃在北美的第一座工厂。While overall industry sales increased about 6 percent last year in the ed States compared with the previous year, Volvo’s sales rose 24 percent to 70,000 vehicles, according to the research firm Autodata.调研企业汽车数据公司(Autodata)的报告显示,美国汽车市场去年的总销量同比增加了6%,而沃尔沃的销售量飙升了24%,增至七万辆。“We have always placed great significance on our presence in the U.S.,” Hakan Samuelsson, the company’s chief executive and president, said. “That is why we decided to present our S90 to the public for the very first time at the Detroit show and why we have begun to build a Volvo factory here.”“我们一直非常重视在美国市场的发展,” 沃尔沃首席执行官兼总裁哈坎·萨缪尔森(Hakan Samuelsson)说。“因此我们决定在底特律车展上首次公开展示S90,并且开始在这里建造沃尔沃工厂。”Other smaller brands that benefited from the surge in consumer demand included the Japanese automaker Subaru, which reported a 13 percent increase in sales, and Land Rover, the British maker of sport utility vehicles owned by Tata Motors of India, which posted a 37 percent increase.从消费需求激增中获益的其他小品牌包括日本汽车生产商斯巴鲁(Subaru)和英国SUV生产商路虎(Land Rover)。前者通报销量增加了13%,印度塔塔汽车(Tata Motors)旗下的路虎品牌的销售增长则达37%。“Those brands and their new owners have all gone on and have really started to flourish,” said Matt Degen, senior editor with Kelley Blue Book. “It took Volvo longer to do so, but we’re seeing it reimagine itself, and it’s really starting to connect.”“这些品牌及其新东家都取得了进步,真正开始蓬勃发展,”汽车调研公司凯利蓝皮书(Kelley Blue Book)高级编辑马特·德根(Matt Degen)说。“沃尔沃花的时间要长一些,但我们看到它对自己重新有了构想,的确开始良好运行了。”Under Geely, Volvo has emphasized the brand’s long reputation for safety and quality and its distinctive Swedish styling.归吉利所有后,沃尔沃强调该品牌长期以来在安全和质量方面享有的盛誉,以及它独特的瑞典造型。Geely was able to build on those attributes and prevent Volvo from joining discontinued brands like General Motors’ Saturn and Ford’s Mercury in the automotive graveyard.吉利能够在保持这些特性的基础上推动沃尔沃发展,防止它像通用土星(Saturn)和福特水星(Mercury)等品牌一样,从市场中消失。The hot-selling XC90 wagon and S90 sedan, for example, have given new momentum to the automaker’s transformation and return to core values, Mr. Samuelsson said.萨缪尔森表示,热卖的沃尔沃XC90货车和S90轿车为公司进行转型、回归核心价值带来了新动力。The S90, a four-door coupe that was unveiled at the show here, will go on sale this summer with a base sticker of around ,000.在北美车展上发布的S90四门轿跑车将于今年夏季开售,起步价在4.7万美元 左右(约合31万元人民币)。In another outgrowth of the automaker’s renewed ambitions, Volvo has broken ground on its first automotive manufacturing plant in North America, a 0 million facility in Ridgeville, S.C., that will build the next generation S60 sedan and employ 2,000 workers over the next decade.公司的新目标带来了另一项发展成果:沃尔沃投资五亿美元在北美地区的第一家汽车制造工厂破土动工。这家厂位于南卡罗来纳州里奇维尔,将生产下一代S60轿车,并计划在未来十年雇佣2000名员工。The plant will give Volvo a manufacturing presence in its three main regions of Asia, Europe and the ed States.它将让沃尔沃在三大主要市场——亚洲、欧洲及美国——拥有生产基地。“The turnaround is pretty remarkable,” said Jessica Caldwell, senior automotive analyst for Edmunds.com. “New designs and features are coming together to create more interest in the brand.”“这种转变相当出色,” Edmunds.com高级汽车分析师杰茜卡·考德威尔(Jessica Caldwell)说。“新设计和功能配合起来,使得这一品牌更具吸引力。”Volvo is also embracing its reputation for producing safe vehicles, joining what has been a rush by automakers to introduce technologies that enhance safety. With its latest technology, Volvo has articulated a goal of having no crash fatalities or serious injuries in a new Volvo by 2020.汽车生产商们纷纷引进能够提高安全性的技术,沃尔沃也加入这一行列,重拾自身注重安全的声誉。拥有最新技术的沃尔沃明确了目标,即到2020年实现旗下产品无致命或严重伤害事故。“At one point Volvo ruled the safety world,” Ms. Caldwell said. “They walked away from that a decade or so ago. Now, they’re pushing the safety element, but are more mainstream, a little less quirky.”“沃尔沃一度在安全领域独领风骚,”考德威尔说。“他们在大约十年前放弃了这一策略。如今,他们又在强调安全元素,但变得更为主流,没那么怪异了。”The safety technology in the S90 will, among other things, detect pedestrians, cyclists and, Volvo says, large animals.沃尔沃表示,除了其他特性外,S90的安全技术将能探测到行人、骑自行车的人及大型动物。The car also offers new autonomous features like steering assist at high speeds and a feature that automatically maintains a set speed or distance to the vehicle in front. The car will be available in gasoline and hybrid versions.这款轿车还提供了一些新的自主功能,比如高速转向辅助功能,以及自动保持设置的速度或与前面车辆的距离。它将拥有汽油版和混合动力版。Geely has left the management of Volvo to its Swedish executives and given Volvo the billions of dollars it needs to develop new vehicles and technology.吉利将沃尔沃的管理工作交给了瑞典高管,并为它提供了研发新车和技术所需要的大笔资金。“We’re now seeing the results of those investments,” Mr. Degen said.德根表示,“我们现在看到了投资成果。”By the end of this decade, Volvo will have renewed its entire lineup, better positioning it to compete with global competitors. Autonomous drive technologies will be a focus. The automaker also plans to develop its first all-electric vehicle and adopt a global small-car strategy.到2020年,沃尔沃将会完成所有产品线的升级工作,占据更好的位置来与全球对手展开竞争。自动驾驶技术将会成为重点。沃尔沃还计划研发第一款纯电动汽车,推行全球小型车战略。It is a starkly different look from 2009, when Ford did not even have a buyer for the flagging automaker. “They’ve come a long way from their lowest point,” Ms. Caldwell said, “when it was uncertain whether the company would continue to exist.”这与2009年的情况迥然不同。当时,福特甚至没有找到一个愿意购买这家陷入低迷的车企的买家。“他们挺过了最低谷,取得了很大进展,”考德威尔说。“那时候根本不知道公司是否还能继续走下去。” /201601/423176

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