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武汉华夏男子医院有什么科放心生活

楼主:飞度生活 时间:2019年10月21日 06:38:03 点击:0 回复:0
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In the winter of 1902, an Alabama woman named Mary Anderson visited New York and was appalled by how the weather slowed down streetcars. Snow and sleet obscured the trolleys’ two-paneled windshields, forcing drivers to open both panes and peer through the gap between them. In her notebook, Anderson sketched out a solution: a squeegee wiper on the outside of the windshield, connected to a lever on the inside.1902年冬天,阿拉巴马州的一个名叫玛丽·安德森(Mary Anderson)的女人来纽约旅行,糟糕的天气令行车如此缓慢,她感到大为震惊。雪和冷雨模糊了有轨电车的两块挡风玻璃,司机们只好打开玻璃,透过两块玻璃之间的缺口向前张望。安德森在笔记本上画了一个解决方案:在挡风玻璃外面装一个橡胶刮水器,与车里的一个杠杆相连。Anderson patented her invention the following year, but so few people owned automobiles that it attracted little interest. Motorcars were open-air in those days, and windshields were an optional accessory. “The reaction to rain on the windscreen was just to take off the windscreen,” explains Leslie Kendall, curator at the Petersen Automotive Museum. By the time Henry Ford’s Model T took motoring into the mainstream a decade later, Anderson’s “window cleaning device” had been forgotten.次年,安德森为自己的发明申请了专利,但那时候很少人有汽车,所以她的发明没引起人们的兴趣。那时候的汽车是敞篷的,挡风玻璃只是个可选的配件。“下雨时,人们就把挡风玻璃取掉,”彼得森汽车物馆(Petersen Automotive Museum)的策展人莱斯利·肯德尔(Leslie Kendall)解释说。十年后,当亨利·福特(Henry Ford)的T型车让汽车成为主流时,安德森的“窗户清洁装置”已经被遗忘了。Unto the breach stepped John Oishei, an aspiring playwright who operated a vaudeville theater in Buffalo. While driving his National Roadster on a rainy night in 1916, Oishei hit a cyclist, a “harrowing experience,” he later said, “that imprinted on my mind the definite need for maintaining vision while driving in the rain.” (The cyclist was uninjured.)后来约翰·奥森(John Oishei)又进行了尝试。他是一位有抱负的编剧,在水牛城经营一个轻歌舞剧院。1916年的一个雨夜,他开着国家跑车(National Roadster)撞上了一个骑自行车的人(那个人没有受伤)。他后来说,“那个经历太可怕了,让我深深觉得在雨中开车一定要有清晰的视野。”By then, others had come up with windshield-clearing devices similar to Anderson’s, but none were in wide distribution. Oishei found a locally made, hand-operated wiper called the Rain Rubber, which slid along the gap between the upper and lower panels of the split windscreens that were then in use. He then founded a company to market it. The device required a certain amount of dexterity — drivers had to operate it with one hand while shifting and steering with the other — but it quickly became standard equipment on American motorcars.那时候,其他人也想出了与安德森的设计相似的挡风玻璃清洁装置,但都没有流行开来。奥森找到当地生产的一个手动操作的刮水器,名叫雨胶(Rain Rubber),当时使用的挡风玻璃分为上下两部分,雨胶沿着两块玻璃之间的缺口滑动。然后他成立了一个公司推广它。这个设备需要司机身手敏捷——一只手操纵它,另一只手控制方向盘——但它很快成为美国汽车的标准装备。Oishei’s company, which was eventually called Trico, soon dominated the windshield-wiper market. While not an inventor himself, Oishei was relentless in his pursuit of patents, purchasing whatever technology he couldn’t develop in-house or litigate out of existence. After William M. Folberth patented a vacuum-powered windshield wiper that ran on suction from the engine’s intake manifold, for example, Trico spent three years battling him in court before buying his company in 1925 for million. A later patent war, between Trico and rival windshield-wiper company Anco, stretched from the mid-1940s until 1971, making it one of the longest-running lawsuits of its day.奥森的公司最终命名为特瑞科(Trico),很快主导了雨刷器市场。虽然奥森本人不是发明家,但他坚持不懈地追求专利,购买自己公司不能开发的所有技术或者为了生存提起诉讼。例如,在威廉·M·弗尔伯思(William M. Folberth)为真空动力雨刷器(它以引擎进气管的吸力为动力)申请专利后,特瑞科花了三年时间与他在法庭上较量,直到1925年以100万美元买下了他的公司。后来,特瑞科和竞争对手安科雨刷器公司(Anco)之间的专利争夺战从20世纪40年代中期持续到1971年,成为当时持续时间最长的诉讼之一。Over time, windshield wipers have been re-engineered again and again, in response both to changing windshield designs and to automakers’ desire for enticing new add-ons. But the basic concept remains true to what Anderson sketched aboard that New York trolley in 1902: a squeegee that wipes water from the glass. As one early windshield-wiper advertisement explained: “A Clear Sight Ahead Prevents Accidents. An Undimmed Vision Makes It Easier to Drive.”经过这么多年,雨刷器被再三改造,以应对挡风玻璃设计的变化以及汽车制造商对迷人新配件的渴望。但是基本的概念仍是1902年安德森在纽约电车上画的草图:一个从玻璃上刮水的橡胶清洁器。就像早期的一个雨刷器广告所说的那样:“清晰的视野能预防事故,让驾驶更轻松。”Number of windshield-wiper-related patents issued per decade.每十年与雨刷器相关的专利个数:1920s: 43020世纪20年代:430个1940s: 26020世纪40年代:260个1960: 65020世纪60年代:650个1980: 41020世纪80年代:410个2000s: 66021世纪前十年:660个2010 to present day: 3902010年至今:390个 /201411/339910China gets it. Russia doesn#39;t.中国明白了。俄罗斯却没有。For now, Vladimir Putin appears to be outsmarting the West. The Group of Seven nations called on Russia Wednesday to #39;cease all efforts to annex Crimea#39; and condemned its #39;unprovoked violation of Ukraine#39;s sovereignty.#39; But there was no sign of real, meaningful sanctions. And that#39;s because Europe--for now--needs Russia#39;s gas.暂时而言,俄罗斯总统普京(Vladimir Putin)现在似乎比西方国家技高一筹。七大工业国(Group of Seven)周三呼吁俄罗斯停止一切吞并克里米亚的努力,并谴责俄罗斯无故侵犯乌克兰主权的行为。但没有迹象显示俄罗斯将真正受到有实质意义的制裁。原因在于欧洲目前需要俄罗斯的天然气。The good news is that future Russian presidents will find it harder to follow in Mr. Putin#39;s footsteps. In due time, capacity improvements in world energy markets will erode Russia#39;s ability to use its mammoth supplies of natural gas to hold its neighbors hostage. Russia will eventually have to join, rather fight against, the modern global economy. It#39;s as if the protesters who ousted Ukraine#39;s Russia-leaning President, Viktor Yanukovych, moved a few years too early.好消息是,俄罗斯未来的总统将发现他们很难追随普京的脚步。在未来的某个时间,全球能源市场产能的提高将削弱俄罗斯利用其庞大天然气供应来挟持邻国的能力。俄罗斯最终将不得不加入现代全球经济,而不是与之对抗。只不过那些抗议者推翻乌克兰亲俄罗斯总统亚努科维奇(Viktor Yanukovych)的时间或许稍微早了几年。By contrast, policymakers in that other former communist power seem to understand that the world is changing and that their economy#39;s standing hinges upon integration rather than isolation. China is hardly a model international citizen--it engages in restrictive trade practices, cyber-spying and saber-rattling over regional territorial claims. But at least some key officials--notably People#39;s Bank of China Governor Zhou Xiaochuan--are deliberately setting a path of liberalization that will eventually compel their country to fall in line with international norms.相比之下,另一个前共产主义阵营中的国家的决策者似乎了解世界正在变化,意识到经济地位取决于融合而非孤立。很难把中国看做标准的国际公民,因为中国采取限制性贸易措施,展开网络间谍活动,并咄咄逼人地提出地区领土主张。但至少一些关键的官员正在刻意设定自由化之路,而这将最终推动中国遵循国际惯例。其中最明显的便是中国央行行长周小川。This week, Mr. Zhou announced that interest rate policy would be fully liberalized in one to two years and that a fully floating, convertible yuan wouldn#39;t be far behind. His comments didn#39;t grab headlines in the way that Mr. Putin#39;s troop maneuvers in Crimea did. But these actions will generate market pressures that will drive further political and economic reform in China, shifting it toward a more market-driven and consumer-focused economy to the benefit of its own citizens and those of rest of the world.本周,周小川宣布利率将在两年内完全放开,人民币距离自由浮动和完全可兑换也不远了。和普京派军队进入克里米亚相比,周小川的讲话并不是那么重要的消息。但这些行动将带来市场压力,进一步推动中国的政治和经济改革,使中国经济向更加依赖于市场力量的消费主导型经济转型,从而令中国民众和世界其他地方受益。Once China removes a cap on deposit rates and forces banks to compete for savings, the artificially cheap borrowing rates that have propped up thousands of inefficient government-connected enterprises and allowed them to flood the world with cheap goods will have to be phased out. Next, as local banks#39; profit margins shrink, the government will need to fully open up the Chinese capital account. This will bring welcome cheap foreign capital into the economy, but it will also radically shake up the hitherto cloistered Chinese financial system. The end result will be a wholesale restructuring of the Chinese economy, which in turn will test the viability of a centrally planned system and the Communist Party apparatus that has thrived off it. Big changes are afoot.一旦中国取消存款利率上限,迫使为揽储而展开竞争,则中国被人为压低的借款利率将最终一去不复返。这样的低利率造就了成千上万低效率的政府相关企业,并让它们得以在全球大量销售廉价商品。接下来,随着中国本地的利润率收窄,中国政府将需要完全放开中国的资本项目。这将为中国经济引入受欢迎的低成本外资,但这同时也将从根本上动摇中国至今仍与外界相对隔绝的金融体系。最终的结果将是中国经济的大规模重组,而这反过来又将检验中央计划体制的可行性以及中共通过中央计划而发展出来的运作方式。巨大的变革正在酝酿之中。These are incredibly bold moves in China. But they are also realistic and pragmatic. With financial innovations --digital currencies, for example--making it ever harder to shut out world economic forces, Beijing knows it can#39;t swim against the tide. The evolving Chinese model recognizes that in the 21st century, true power comes from a nation#39;s ability to harness the innovative drive of global competition. In Russia, by contrast, power is seen as a function of military might and control of natural resources.这些都是中国极其大胆的举措。但这些措施也是现实而可行的。随着诸如电子货币之类的金融创新使得世界经济力量越来越难以被拒之门外,北京深知其不能逆潮流而动。不断变革中的中国模式认识到,在21世纪,真正的实力来自一国利用全球竞争创新动力的能力。相比之下,俄罗斯则认为,实力是军事力量和对自然资源的控制。But this model of power is at the mercy of changes in the rest of the world#39;s energy capacity. Just look at Venezuela, which for many years used its oil monopoly to cajole Latin American states into defying the liberal economic prescriptions of the Washington Consensus. With technological advances now allowing the U.S. to extract ever growing amounts of domestic shale oil and gas, Venezuela#39;s influence is rapidly waning. Not coincidentally, it is now gripped by a roiling financial and political crisis, with inflation hitting 56%.但这种力量模式受制于世界其他地方能源产能的变化。委内瑞拉就是一个例子。该国多年来利用其原油垄断地位诱使拉美国家反对“华盛顿共识”(Washington Consensus)提出的自由经济政策。现在,技术进步令美国得以在本土开采越来越多的页岩油气,委内瑞拉的影响力正迅速减弱。同时委内瑞拉现在正陷入一场动荡的金融和政治危机,通胀率高达56%,这绝非偶然。For now, Russia is avoiding such a fate. The E.U.#39;s hands are tied so long as it needs Russian gas to keep the power on. The U.K. foreign secretary#39;s suggestion this week that the E.U. will purchase more gas from the U.S. wasn#39;t much of a threat while the infrastructure needed to get liquefied natural gas across the Atlantic is still lacking. The best anyone could suggest was Poland#39;s idea that E.U. member countries pool their bargaining power and jointly negotiate gas contracts with Russia.俄罗斯目前暂时避免了这种命运。只要欧洲还需要俄罗斯的天然气发电,欧盟(EU)就难以对俄罗斯采取什么措施。英国外交大臣本周表态称,欧盟将从美国购买更多的天然气,这话还没有太大的威胁,原因是目前仍缺乏跨越大西洋输送液化天然气的基础设施。最好的建议就是波兰提出的办法,即集合欧盟成员国的议价能力,联合起来共同与俄罗斯谈判天然气合约。But Russia#39;s belligerence in Ukraine will inspire an acceleration in the upgrade of production infrastructure elsewhere. What better reason to open up hydraulic fracturing, or fracking -- the technology behind the U.S. shale revolution -- in hitherto inaccessible gas fields in Eastern Europe and the U.K.? And there#39;s now greater incentive to build the liquefaction and re-gasification plants, along with the shipping ports and vessels, that will transport U.S. LNG into Europe#39;s power generation plants.但俄罗斯在乌克兰问题上的好战性将促使世界其他地区加快升级能源生产设施。要在东欧和英国迄今尚难以开采的天然气田采用美国页岩气革命所用的水力压裂技术,这是再好不过的理由了。同时,现在修建液化再气化工厂以及运输口岸和船只的理由也更充分了,这些设施将把美国的液化天然气输送到欧洲的发电厂。Such advances could quickly challenge Russia#39;s closed model of economic and political power. With energy export revenues shrinking, speculators would attack the ruble, eventually running Moscow#39;s sizable foreign-currency reserves dry and forcing a depreciation that provokes defaults by Russian companies on their dollar-based loans. Much like 1998, wealthy Russians would again flee into dollars, euros or pounds, and inflation would return along with economic and political chaos.这类技术进步可能很快对俄罗斯封闭的经济和政治权力模式形成挑战。随着能源出口收入的下降,投机者将会攻击俄罗斯卢布,最终让莫斯科庞大的外汇储备趋于枯竭,并迫使卢布贬值,这会引起俄罗斯企业的美元贷款违约。与1998年的情形一样,俄罗斯的富人将再次通过抢购美元、欧元或英镑来规避风险,俄罗斯也将重新受到通胀的冲击,并再次陷入经济和政治动荡。These changes won#39;t happen overnight. But this is exactly the path that Mr. Putin is laying out.这些变化不会一夜之间就出现。但这正是普京现在安排的道路。 /201403/279767

Chinese companies are significantly ramping up their spending on research and development, according to a new report.一份最新发布的报告指出,中国企业正在大幅增加研发出。Companies based on the mainland of China have increased their spending by a factor of 15 over the past decade, according to a report from the management consulting firm “Strategyamp;,” and the number of Chinese firms on Strategyamp;’s 2014 Global Innovation 1000 has gone from eight in 2005 to 114 today.据管理咨询公司Strategyamp;的报告显示,总部设在中国大陆的企业出水平在过去10年里增长了14倍。入选2014年Strategyamp;“全球创新企业1000强”榜单的中企数量,已从2005年的8家跃升至如今的114家。The reason for the Ramp;D growth: Chinese companies are shifting away from producing cheap goods for export and concentrating on higher quality economic growth.中国企业研发出增长背后的原因在于,它们正把重心从从生产廉价出口商品上移开,专注于实现更高质量的经济增长。“When we are looking at the regional cut, China continues to go gangbusters,” said Barry Jaruzelski, the report’s author and a senior partner with the firm.该报告作者巴里o雅鲁泽尔斯基是Strategyamp;公司的高级合伙人。他说:“在亚洲地区企业纷纷削减研发投入之际,中国企业仍继续大幅增加投入。”“It’s been in the high double-digits for many, many years,” he added. “The rest of the world was double-digit, but lower — around 13 percent — and North America and Europe were positive, but much lower, at 3. 5 percent in North America and 2.5 percent in Europe.”他补充道:“中企研发出已经多年维持两位数的高增长,虽然世界其他地区也有两位数的增幅,但相对较低,在13%左右;而北美和欧洲的增长更是要低得多,分别为3.5%和2.5%。”The findings dovetail with overall research and development trends in China, including government spending, which the National Science Foundation found, is second only behind the ed States.这些结果与包括政府出在内的中国整体研发趋势相契合。美国国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)称,中国政府的研发出仅次于美国。Patents, too, increasingly have a Chinese flavor, with the largest number of applicants coming from China and Chinese residents. The Chinese overtook the ed States in 2012, according to the World Intellectual Property Organization.在专利申请领域,中国份额也越来越大。来自中国和中国居民的专利申请数最多。世界知识产权组织(World Intellectual Property Organization)称,2012年中国的专利申请量已经超越了美国。“In terms of their development, they have advanced a lot over the past 20 years,” said Mosahid Khan, head of the intellectual property and statistics section at WIPO in Geneva. “They are sort of catching up with the ed States and Japan on the technological frontier whether it be patents or R amp; D investment.”世界知识产权组织日内瓦知识产权及统计部负责人莫萨德o肯说:“在发展方面,中国在过去20年中进步了很多,在技术前沿,无论是专利还是研发投资,中国正在赶超美国和日本。”Chinese companies are still are dwarfed by American-based firms when it comes to the 7 billion spent on global research and development. The Americans, as they have traditionally done, are the biggest spenders at 6.9 billion followed by European-based companies at 3.8 billion and then Japan which is third at 6.7 billion.2014年,全球研发投入达到6470亿美元。但中资公司的研发投入仍然远比不上美资公司。美资企业的研发投入规模历来都高居全球首位,今年达到2569亿美元,其次是欧资企业达到1938亿美元,然后是位居第三的日资企业达到1167亿美元。Still, the Chinese growth can’t be ignored. It has gone from almost negligible number in 2005 to billion in 2014. Chinese firms increased their spending from a year ago by 46 percent.不过,中资企业的研发投入增长也不可小觑,从2005年几乎可以忽略不计的水平跃升至2014年的300亿美元,今年同比增长46%。Robert Atkinson, the president of The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, a Washington, D.C., technology policy think tank, warned that some of the Chinese figures may be “somewhat overstated” due to a “rewards system” for state-owned enterprises which is based on them doing “a lot of R amp; D” and thus classifying some things as research and development which wouldn’t be treated as such in the ed States.美国信息技术与创新基金会(The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation)是一家总部设在华盛顿特区的科技政策智库,该基金会的总裁罗伯特o阿特金森提醒称,中国的企业研发投入数据可能“有些水分”,因为中国对国有企业实施的“奖励制度”看重研发,因此中资企业会将一些在美国不会归为研发的活动列入研发出项目。Still, he said, China was “pulling out all the stops” in Ramp;D as part of a strategy to become more self-sufficient by producing as much as they can indigenously and ending their dependence on foreign firms like Apple or Boeing for help.中国正在加大研发出力度,而美国一直在削减其政府研发出。这也是中国未来也许能赶超美国的原因之一。巴特尔研究所(Battelle)和《R&D 杂志》(Battelle/Ramp;D Magazine)公布的《2014年全球研发经费预测报告》(2014 Global Ramp;D Funding Forecast)预测,在研发投入方面,中国最早可能在2025年超越美国。“They have basically decided the old strategy of attracting foreign firms to set up assembly operations is no longer their path to growth,” Atkinson said.阿特金森说,中国的目标是“超越美国”,因此美国若要想保持世界创新领导者的地位,则必须做出更多努力,包括制定更优惠的税收政策持研发、取消对科技经费的削减。“They feel like they have maximized that potential,” he said. “This is one reason why you are seeing now a real backlash against foreign technology firms in China going after companies like Microsoft, Qualcomm and other with whole set of trumped up anti-monopoly complaints and things like that. They feel like they don’t need them anymore.”他说:“美国要硬着头皮像过去那样大力投入研发,我们必须做到这一点,因为我们不能输,如果我们在投入上做到位了,我坚信我们在创新上能继续领先于中国。如果我们不这么做,未来10年或15年内,中国将在很多领域赶上或超过我们。”And while China is spending more, the ed States has been cutting its government R amp; D spending which could be one reason why the Chinese could one day surpass the Americans. The 2014 Global Ramp;D Funding Forecast, published by Battelle/Ramp;D Magazine, projects China could overtake the ed States as early as 2025.Strategyamp;公司发布的这份报告使用了彭资讯(Bloomberg)和Capital IQ提供的数据,并结合了相关调查和访谈。该报告分析了企业的研发投入和创新水平。除了预测全球趋势,该报告还指出了在研发方面投入最大的行业和公司。Atkinson said the goal of China is “beat us” and that America must do more including more generous tax incentives for Ramp;D and reversing cuts in science and technology if it wants to remain the world’s innovation leader.对于美国而言,让人颇为安慰的是,目前还没有一家中资企业在研发投入或创新方面进入十强榜单。这意味着,在短期内没有中国企业能获得谷歌(Google)或强生公司(Johnson amp; Johnson)那样的辉煌业绩。事实上,排名最高的中资公司仅排在第62位。“We’ve got to go back and just bite the bullet and you know what we are going to do that because we are not going to lose,” he said. “If we did those things, I have every faith we could stay ahead of China from an innovation perspective. If we don’t do those things, within 10 years or 15 years China will have caught up to us in many, many areas or surpassed us.”2014年,大众汽车公司(Volkswagen)和三星公司(Samsung)研发投入分别达到135亿美元和134亿美元,连续第二年荣登研发投入榜单榜首。英特尔(Intel)和微软则分列攀升至第三和第四名,而谷歌也首次进入十强,仅领先默克公司(Merck and Co)。除了默克公司外,还有其他三家医药企业进入研发投入十强名单。The report, which uses data from Bloomberg and Capital IQ data combined with surveys and interviews, looks both at a company’s Ramp;D spending and its level of innovation. Along with charting global trends, the report also highlighted the sectors and companies that are doing the most in research and development.英特尔发言人克里斯汀o多茨说:“我们所处行业的发展日新月异,我们需要时刻准备好取代自己的技术。”他以英特尔的14纳米处理器作为例子并说道:“我们不能按兵不动,我们需要遵循尔定律不断创新。” /201411/341215

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