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2019年10月15日 19:09:17来源:医苑大夫

  • HONG KONG — Millions of Chinese businesspeople like Ou Chengbi are seeing scant signs of recovery in their country’s economy, even as data released Wednesday morning suggest growth is stabilizing.香港——尽管周三上午发布的数字暗示中国的经济增长正趋于稳定,但是,像欧成壁(Ou Chengbi,音译)这样的几百万中国商人,还没有看到多少迹象表明国家经济正在复苏。Ms. Ou, a butcher at an open-air market on the outskirts of Guangzhou in southeastern China, dripped perspiration near the unrefrigerated slabs of beef in her stall as she described how as recently as last winter, she could still chop up an entire cow each day and sell it all.欧女士在中国东南城市广州的一个郊外露天市场卖肉,她汗流满面地站在摆着没有冷冻的牛肉的摊子旁,讲述着就在去年冬天,她还怎样能把每天屠宰的一整头牛卖出去。“Now I can only sell half a cow a day,” she said.“现在我每天只能卖掉半头牛,”她说。The National Bureau of Statistics in Beijing said Wednesday that growth in gross domestic product edged up in the second quarter to 7.5 percent compared with a year ago. But independent surveys of businesses across China show that in sector after sector, sales and confidence are still deteriorating.位于北京的国家统计局周三表示,与去年同期相比,第二季度的国内生产总值小幅上升,增长速度达到7.5%。然而,对中国各地工商业的独立调查显示,在各个行业中,销售额和信心仍在继续恶化。“All of them are pointing in the opposite direction from this supposed G.D.P. number,” said Leland Miller, the president of China Beige Book International, a New York data service that surveys 2,200 private businesses across China each quarter to gauge economic activity.“所有这些都指向与这个所谓的GDP数字相反的方向,”中国褐皮书国际公司(China Beige Book International)总裁勒兰德·米勒(Leland Miller)说,该公司是纽约的一家数据务机构,每个季度都对中国各地的2200家私营商家做问卷调查,以衡量中国的经济活动。Three of the four cylinders of the Chinese economy — exports, private sector construction and retail sales — are sputtering. But the fourth, government investment and spending, is running strong, propelled by redoubled lending this spring by the state-controlled banking system to the national railroad system, local governments and state-owned enterprises.中国经济引擎的四个缸中有三个在熄火:出口业、私营建筑业,以及零售业。只是政府投资和开这第四个缸有强大的动力,动力来自今年春季国有对国家铁路系统、地方政府,以国有企业的加倍贷款。The result has been frenzied spending on the construction of new railroad lines — up 32.1 percent in June from a year earlier — and subsidized housing. Steel output in China is setting records by tonnage as a result, even as the number of housing starts in the private sector falls steeply.在新铁路线建设和补贴住房上的投资疯狂增长,截至6月,铁路建设开与过去一年相比增长了32.1%。结果是以吨为计的中国钢铁产量达到历史最高水平,虽然私营行业住房建设的开工量大幅下降。Total lending has now risen faster than economic output, even before adjusting for inflation, in every quarter since late 2011. Lending accelerated further in June, according to figures released on Tuesday by the People’s Bank of China. Yet Mr. Miller’s survey and others show that private businesses are becoming less and less interested in borrowing money because they see few opportunities to invest it profitably.如今,贷款总额的增长速度已超过2011年底以来每个季度的经济增长速度,即使没有将通货膨胀考虑进去的话。中国人民周二发布的数字显示,放贷在6月份进一步加速。但是,米勒的调查及其数据显示,私营行业对贷款的兴趣越来越小,因为人们看不到多少能让投资赢利的机会。“Generally speaking, comparing recent months to the same period last year, business has been very slow and very quiet,” said Kay Lam, the manager of UB Office Systems, an office furniture store in Guangzhou.“总的来说,最近几个月与去年同期相比,生意一直很慢,很冷清,”广州一家办公家具店“优美办公系统”(UB Office Systems)经理林佳(Kay Lam,音译)说。Chinese officials have repeatedly called for rebalancing the economy: encouraging more spending by households, which save nearly half their incomes, and less dependence on debt-financed investment projects. But each time growth starts to fall below the official target of roughly 7.5 percent — as it did in the first quarter, when it was 7.4 percent — the government quickly opens the spigots for further credit.中国官员们多次呼吁要重新平衡经济:鼓励家庭更多地消费,(中国家庭将收入的一半存起来),减少对用贷款来投资项目的依赖。但是,每次经济增长速度降到低于官方的7.5%的目标时,比如今年第一季度的增长速度为7.4%,政府又很快打开更多贷款的水龙头。Some economists inside and outside the government say China has a choice: slow down lending and accept steady declines in economic growth each year, or continue heavy lending and risk a sharp drop in economic growth someday when the financial system begins to teeter. But nobody knows when that might happen.政府内部和外部的一些经济学家说,中国面临一个选择:减缓贷款,接受每年经济增长速度的稳步下降;或继续大幅贷款,从而承担金融系统出现问题时,经济增长有朝一日迅猛下跌的风险。但没人知道那会在什么时候发生。“Although there is no way to predict with accuracy and certainty the point at which China will reach the limits of its debt capacity, I believe that current rates of credit expansion can continue at most for another 3-4 years,” Michael Pettis, a finance professor at Peking University’s Guanghua School of Management, wrote in his newsletter after the release of the economic data.“虽然还没有办法能准确和确定地预测,中国将在什么时候达到其举债能力极限,我认为目前的信贷扩张速度最多可再继续3到4年,”北京大学光华管理学院金融学教授迈克尔·佩蒂斯(Michael Pettis)在经济数据出来后自己发的通讯中这样写道。Yet China’s economic outlook retains pockets of long-term strength. One of them is that tens of millions of Chinese workers have more money each year to spend. The data Wednesday showed that average wages for migrant workers were up another 10.6 percent this summer from a year ago, nearly five times the increase in consumer prices over the past year, at just 2.3 percent.然而,中国的经济前景中有一些能维持长久强盛的方面。其中一个是数以千万计的中国工人每年都有更多的钱可花。周三的数据显示,农民工的平均工资在今年夏天与一年前相比增长了10.6%,几乎是过去一年中居民消费价格2.3%增长率的5倍。Migrants, often with less than a high school degree, have fared better than more educated young people in China’s job market in recent years, however, as a quintupling in the number of college graduates has produced a glut in a country still heavily reliant on blue-collar sectors like construction and manufacturing.农民工通常没有受过高中教育,但是,在中国近年来的职业市场上,他们比受过更多教育的年轻人有更多的机会,因为大学毕业生人数翻了五番导致过剩,而这个国家在很大程度上仍依赖诸如建筑业和制造业等蓝领行业。Retail sales are growing strongly, up 12.4 percent in June from a year earlier, according to the government figures released Wednesday, nearly matching a pace of 12.5 percent in May. But that has not been fast enough to offset the deceleration in private sector investment as housing prices deflate.根据政府周三发布的数字,零售业销售额增长强劲,与一年前相比,6月份增长了12.4%,与5月份12.5%的增长率几乎持平。但是,这种长速还不足以抵消私营行业投资随着房价下跌的加速下降。 /201407/312884。
  • More companies are cutting ties to a U.S.-owned Chinese food supplier over worries that they may have served expired meat to their customers, as they moved to shore up their reputations in a market known for food-safety issues.由于担心向顾客出售的是过期肉制食品,越来越多的企业正在停止从一家美资中国食品供应商购货,同时采取措施巩固在中国这个以食品安全问题闻名的市场上的声誉。The issue, which on Monday prompted KFC owner Yum Brands Inc. and McDonald#39;s Corp.#39;s China arm to cut ties with the China-based food supplier, on Tuesday sp to Japan. McDonald#39;s on Tuesday said its outlets there cut ties with Shanghai Husi Food Co., an arm of OSI Group Inc. of Aurora, Ill. Shanghai Husi has been accused in Chinese media reports of selling meat products beyond their shelf life.上述问题已令肯德基(KFC)母公司百胜餐饮集团以及麦当劳中国子公司周一停止向这家中国食品供应商购货。这一问题的影响周二扩散到了日本。麦当劳周二宣布,旗下位于日本的门店停止向上海福喜食品公司(Shanghai Husi Food Co.)购货。上海福喜的母公司是总部位于美国伊利诺伊州奥罗拉的福喜集团(OSI Group Inc.) 。中国媒体报道称,上海福喜出售过期肉制品。McDonald#39;s said it pulled chicken nuggets supplied by the company, affecting 10% of its Japanese stores, a move that will create a short-term nugget shortage until new orders arrive from a supplier in Thailand.麦当劳称取消接收上海福喜供应的鸡块,这对旗下10%的日本门店造成影响。这一举动意味着,在公司向泰国一家供应商订购的相关货品运抵之前,短期内鸡块产品或出现短缺。A spokeswoman for McDonald#39;s said the fast-food company may have been deceived. McDonald#39;s, which has more than 2,000 outlets in China, is working with Chinese authorities to investigate, the spokeswoman said. #39;It appears from the initial news report that these alleged mis-practices have been hidden from McDonald#39;s,#39; she said.麦当劳的一位新闻发言人称公司可能受到了欺骗。这位发言人称,麦当劳正在与中国政府机构合作展开调查。她称,最初的媒体报道显示这种不合法的行为可能向麦当劳进行了隐瞒。麦当劳在中国拥有超过2,000家门店。OSI representatives in China didn#39;t respond to requests for comment on Tuesday. On Monday the company said it believed the Chinese media reports depicted an isolated incident, but said it takes full responsibility and would act accordingly.福喜集团驻中国的代表周二未回应记者的置评请求。福喜集团周一称,公司认为中国媒体报道的是一个独立事件。不过该公司也表示将负全责,并采取相应措施。In China, Starbucks Corp., Burger King, the 7-Eleven convenience store chain and others on Tuesday also said they cut ties with Shanghai Husi.在中国,星巴克、汉堡王、7-Eleven连锁便利店以及其他公司周二也表示,已经停止从上海福喜购货。China#39;s Food and Drug Administration ordered nationwide checks Tuesday of restaurants that Shanghai Husi supplied. Local authorities in China have also moved to seize meat products across the country that they deem suspicious. Shanghai#39;s municipal government said Tuesday it visited nine companies that used the supplier and seized 100 metric tons of meat products.中国国家食品药品监督管理总局周二部署各地彻查上海福喜供货的餐厅。各地有关部门也已经收缴了可疑的肉制产品。上海市政府周二称,已经检查了九家使用上海福喜供货的公司,收缴100吨肉制品。The sping worries and swift actions by foreign companies show the sensitivity of the issue in China. Chinese consumers don#39;t react well to a perception of lax quality control, said Ben Cavender, a senior analyst at Shanghai-based consultancy China Market Research Group.不断蔓延的担忧情绪和外国公司的迅速行动显现出中国食品安全问题的敏感性。位于上海的咨询公司China Market Research Group的资深分析师Ben Cavender说,中国消费者们对于松懈的食品质量管理问题反应很大。#39;When you#39;re looking at the Chinese market, you have to see what the consumer sees,#39; said Mr. Cavender, adding, #39;They trust foreign companies like McDonald#39;s and they expect them to hold up their end of the bargain.#39;Cavender还说:你必须以消费者的眼光去打量中国市场,他们信赖麦当劳这样的外资企业,期待它们坚持自己的承诺。Experts say China#39;s food safety has improved since 2008, when the country was galvanized by the deaths of six infants and illness in more 300,000 in a tainted-milk scandal. But they say enforcement hasn#39;t kept up with new regulations mandating inspections of meat processing plants and manufacturers, and episodes of food problems are commonly reported by local media.专家们表示,2008年导致六名婴儿死亡和30多万名婴儿中毒的毒奶粉丑闻震惊了中国,自那以来中国的食品安全问题已有所改善。但专家们也表示,虽然新规要求对肉类加工厂和生产商进行检查,但执行没有跟上,食品安全事件经常见于当地媒体的报端。The problems aren#39;t lost on Chinese consumers. In a survey last year of more than 3,200 Chinese people, 38% said food safety was a #39;very big problem,#39; up from 12% in 2008, according to Pew Research.食品安全问题并未被中国消费者遗忘。据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research)去年进行的一项调查显示,接受该中心调查的3,200多名中国人中,有38%的人认为食品安全是个“很大的问题”,而在2008年该比例为12%。Many companies selling food in China are forced to take action beyond what they do in the U.S. or other markets to make up for lax enforcement. Many also beef up inspections because Chinese regulators often levy fines and other penalties on retail outlets for problems that stem from manufacturers, the retailers say. In the U.S. and most other countries, it is usually manufacturers that have primary responsibility for product quality.很多在中国销售食品的公司不得不采取在美国或其他市场无需采取的措施,以弥补执法不到位的问题。一些零售企业表示,由于中国监管机构常常会因食品生产商出的问题而对零售企业处以罚款或其他惩罚,它们也在加强对食品的检查力度。在美国和其他大多数国家,产品质量问题的主要责任通常由生产商承担。Wal-Mart Stores Inc. tests at least 600 products daily in China to catch flaws before the food is sent out to stores. Chicken processor Tyson Foods Inc. has spent hundreds of millions of dollars in recent years to build its own farms in China so that it can control the safety of its entire supply chain, from chicks hatching to the grocer#39;s shelf. In the U.S., Tyson doesn#39;t run its own farms.沃尔玛连锁公司在中国每天都会对至少600种产品进行检查,以便在食品运往零售店之前发现问题。鸡肉加工企业泰森食品有限公司(Tyson Foods Inc. )近年来已斥资数亿美元在中国建立自己的农场,以便能控制从鸡的孵化到杂货商货架的整个供应链的安全。而在美国,泰森食品并不自己经营农场。Seven amp; i Holdings Co., the parent of the 7-Eleven chain, said it halted sales of products including pork-egg hamburgers and pepper-chicken hamburgers that it sold only in its Shanghai outlets. A spokesman said there were no reports of illnesses so far, and that the company reported information to health authorities in China.7-Eleven连锁便利店的母公司7amp;I控股公司(Seven amp; i Holdings Co.)表示,已停售包括猪肉鸡蛋汉堡和辣鸡汉堡等仅在上海门店销售的产品。该公司一位发言人称,目前为止尚无病例报道,该公司已向中国卫生监管部门通报了信息。Starbucks said it withdrew a chicken applesauce panini available at some of its Chinese stores because its supplier used chicken ingredients from Shanghai Husi.星巴克表示,已将其部分中国门店出售的鸡肉苹果酱帕尼尼产品下架,原因是该产品的供应商采用了上海福喜的鸡肉原料。Burger King Worldwide Inc. said on its official microblog that it severed supplies from Shanghai Husi on July 21. Fast food chain Dicos, owned by Taiwanese company Ting Hsin International, said on its official microblog that the China-based company has stopped selling breakfast sandwiches that used ham from the meat supplier.汉堡王在其官方微上称,该公司已在7月21日封存下架上海福喜供应的产品。台湾顶新国际集团(Ting Hsin International Group)旗下的快餐连锁店德克士(Dicos)也在其官方微上称,公司已停止贩售含有上海福喜生产的火腿片的早餐火腿三明治。Closely held OSI, which had .1 billion in sales last year and ranks among the largest U.S. meat processors, has been active in China since 1991 and currently operates in eight cities there, supplying meat as well as produce. OSI began supplying the Chinese operations of McDonald#39;s in 1992 and those of Yum in 2008, according to the meat processor#39;s website.少数股东持股的福喜集团去年的销售额为61亿美元,是美国最大的肉类加工企业之一。该公司自1991年以来一直活跃于中国市场,目前在中国八个城市运营,供应肉类及农产品。据福喜集团网站显示,该公司自1992年开始向麦当劳中国公司供应产品,自2008年开始向百胜餐饮集团供应产品。 /201407/314533。
  • Dozens crushed to death in a tragic stampede at a place where people congregated to enjoy themselves, not to die. Police blamed for failures in crowd control. Emergency services pilloried for a slow and chaotic response which led to needless deaths.悲剧性踩踏事故发生了,有数十人被挤压至死。人们聚集在这个地方,原本是为了享受快乐,而不是为了走向死亡。事故发生后,人们指责警方未能对人群实施有效管控。应急部门也因应对迟缓且混乱、导致毫无必要的伤亡,而受到公开谴责。Sound like the New Year’s Eve disaster at the Shanghai Bund, in which 36 people died and dozens more were injured? It’s not: it’s a description of the 1989 Hillsborough stadium tragedy in Sheffield, England, in which 96 people died and hundreds were injured in a similar human pile-up. My point? China has no corner on the market for unruly crowds, incompetent police and unnecessary disasters. But you’d never know that, from the way many mainlanders reacted to the carnage.这听起来是不是像是在说新年夜(New Year’s Eve)上海外滩发生的那场导致36人丧生、数十人受伤的灾难?事实并非如此。这里说的是1989年英格兰谢菲尔德市希尔斯堡体育场(Hillsborough stadium)惨案,当时同样发生了人员踩踏,最终有96人丧生,数百人受伤。我为何提到这起事故?在不听管控的人群、不称职的警察和不必要的灾难方面,中国的表现并不突出。不过,从许多中国人对外滩惨案的反应中,你肯定认识不到这一点。When news of the Bund bloodbath surfaced on a frigid bright New Year’s morning in Shanghai, the first reaction of many locals was to blame the Chinese. Only hours after dozens of young people had suffocated to death at the very same spot, Chinese bystanders at the scene of the stampede repeatedly told me versions of the same thing: “Chinese are like that”, or sometimes “young Chinese are like that, they like to push and shove”, or occasionally “Chinese from outside Shanghai are like that, they don’t know how to behave in a civilised fashion”.当外滩惨案的消息在上海寒冷而晴朗的元旦清晨传来时,当地许多人的第一反应是谴责中国人。在数十名年轻人窒息而死仅仅数小时后,踩踏事故现场的中国围观者反复向我诉说着内容不同但主旨相同的话:“中国人就是这样”,有时候还有“中国年轻人就是这样,他们就喜欢挤来挤去”,偶尔还有“上海以外的中国人就是这样,他们不懂文明礼貌”。China is a proud nation that can boast the world’s oldest continuous civilisation, but beneath that strain of arrogance runs something that often feels like a national inferiority complex. Ordinary Chinese are always the first to point out shared character flaws (although usually they impute them to compatriots other than themselves). And what better chance to do that, than when 36 people have needlessly lost their lives in the country’s most modern, best run and arguably most civilised city.中国是一个充满自豪感的国家,以拥有世界上历史最悠久的、不曾中断的文明为傲。然而,在这种自负的气质背后,却存在某种往往让人感觉像是民族自卑情结的东西。中国民众经常是首先跳出来,指出国人共同的性格缺陷的(尽管他们通常会把这些缺陷归罪在同胞、而不是自己身上)。如今,在中国最现代化、管理最好、可以说是最文明的城市,有36人无谓地失去了生命。对中国民众来说,再也没有比这更好的机会来发出这样的指责了。Shanghai has pretensions to be the 21st century’s new New York, a green, rationally planned, ultra-modern city. For such a place to lose 36 young people in such an old, old way, is a massive loss of face. It feels like — though it is not — the kind of thing that only third world countries do.上海自命要成为21世纪的新纽约——一座合理规划、超现代的绿色城市。但却以一种非常落后的方式失去了36条生命,是一件无比丢脸的事。感觉只有第三世界国家才会发生这种事——尽管事实并非如此。Maybe that’s why so many people were willing to believe one of the first stories that surfaced to explain the crush (later denied by police): that revellers in a building above tossed coupons into the crowd that looked like US dollars.也许,这就是为什么会有如此之多的人愿意相信,是一座大楼上狂欢的人向人群中抛撒看起来像美元一样的优惠券导致了踩踏事故。人们一开始为这起事故找了不少起因,这件事就是其中之一(警方后来否认此事造成了踩踏)。Many Chinese were quick to accept this as the cause — a sign of how worried they are about excessive greed in mainland society. Somehow the whole story tapped into a narrative of national angst.许多中国人不假思索地认为这件事就是起因,说明他们对中国社会的过度贪婪之风有多么担忧。不知怎么地,整件事与一种关于民族忧虑的叙事建立起了联系。In the days that followed, blame was distributed much more widely: the city government was criticised for failing to give adequate publicity to the cancellation of the evening’s main event; police failed to shutter the closest metro stop to control numbers, and did not send enough officers until it was too late; ambulances were slow to arrive; hospitals were slow to kick into gear; relatives were prevented from getting to their loved ones.随后几天,越来越多的人沦为受指责的对象:人们批评上海市政府未充分宣传这个新年夜重大活动取消的消息;批评警方未封闭离现场最近的地铁站来控制人流,未及时调派足够警力;批评救护车迟迟未来;批评医院进入状态太慢;批评当局阻止死伤者亲属接触他们死伤的亲人。Failure all around, fault all around — much of it deserved. But still, four days after the tragedy, at a spot overlooking the impromptu Bund memorial to the dead, bystanders were still blaming the victims, and in some strange way, their Chineseness. Young tourist Wei Ting, recently arrived from Guangdong in southern China, explained in careful English that pushing and shoving on New Year’s Eve is what Chinese people “usually do”.到处是不足,到处是缺陷——其中很大一部分指责是应该的。但在悲剧发生4天之后,在一处可眺望外滩上人们自发悼念遇难者的场所,仍有旁观者在指责事故受害者,并以某种奇特的方式指责受害者的中国人特色。年轻的游客魏廷(Wei Ting,音译)最近刚从广东来到上海,他以斟酌过的英语解释称,在新年夜挤来挤去是中国人“常做”的事情。But the fact is, the Bund bloodbath is not a verdict on the flaws of modern China. People get crushed to death in developed countries too (including a hideously unlucky Walmart employee trampled by a crowd of US Black Friday bargain hunters in 2008).但事实上,外滩惨案并非一份对现代中国缺陷的判决书。发达国家也会发生人们挤压致死的悲剧(包括2008年一名极其不幸的沃尔玛(Walmart)员工被美国一群在“黑色星期五”(Black Friday)抢便宜货的购物者踩死)。 /201501/352895。
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