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来源:预约常识    发布时间:2019年12月10日 00:41:21    编辑:admin         

But as Puck passes the boat, the team get a stark reminder of just how much danger she and her family are facing.但当帕克穿过船只时,小队突然想起它和这个家庭要面对多少危险啊!Oh, she has a shark bite.噢,它被鲨鱼攻击过。Did you see that? Did you see that scar?看到了吗?伤疤?Oh, I see that.我看到了。Its a new one.是新的。Yeah. Its new. Thats bad.是新的,真糟糕。A big shark bite.真是很大的伤口。Its in the same size as the previous shark bite.在同一边还留着上次的伤疤。It looks like whatever happened. She got in the way that a tiger shark or something be fine.它在虎鲨的掠食路线上。到底发生了什么,小海豚看起来很好。Its highly likely Puck took the bite, protecting little Samuel.很有可能帕克挡住了鲨鱼,保护了莎木。Dolphin mums will risk their lives to protect their calves.海豚妈妈冒着生命危险,保护它们的孩子。You know this morning that Puck has a looking like a shark bite scar, but shes healed that.今天早晨,我注意到帕克身上有一大块鲨鱼的咬痕,但已经愈合了。They heal remarkly fast and there is not a mark on Samuel, so obviously he remains unscathed.恢复的很快,莎木身上没有咬痕,显然它没有受到伤害。But since nearly 80 percent of the dolphins here have shark bite scars, hes bound to get one sooner or later.这里80%的海豚都有鲨鱼的咬痕,不久它也会有一块。Pucks choice of this shallow sandy bay is no chance.帕克别无选择,只能呆在浅水,多沙的地方。Its the safest place for Samuel to play.这里很安全,莎木可以放心玩耍。During a shark season like this, its a perfect spot, shallow, beautiful water.在鲨鱼季里,像这样美丽的浅水地总是很吸引人。You can see everything around you.你能看到周围的一切。Big tigers show up, they would be able to see it miles away.如果有几只虎鲨出现,几英里外就可以看到。Look at them! Hes kiddy.看,它真是可爱。Now Samuels three months old.莎木现在三个月大了。Puck allows him a lot more freedom.帕克给了它点自由空间。He races alone, chasing a tiny sholer fish.它赶着一小群鱼往前游。Its his first time hes been this far away from Puck, but hes clearly enjoying his freedom.这是它第一次离帕克那么远,但很明显,它享受这一切。Skiing along at his back, hes trying to track the fish just beneath the surface.后背轻轻掠过,它想把鱼儿困在下面。201406/306112。

Youre out on the golf course one pleasant afternoon.在一个舒适的下午,你站在高尔夫球场上。Your ball is set on the tee.把球在球托上放好,You lean overthe ball.身体倾斜到球的上方,You grip the club just right.握好球杆。Your arms are straight. Your stance perfect. Whoosh!呼地一声!你挥杆了,高尔夫球飞了起来,You swing, and the ball takes off toward the green, sailing in a beautiful arc–almost as if its weightless.奔向绿地,划出一道优美的弧线,轻盈得似乎没有重量。Your impeccable technique certainly has a lot to do with the success of that drive, but you got amajor assist from the little dimples on the golf ball-and theyre the subject of this Moment ofScience.这一杆的成功当然和你完美的技术密不可分,但高尔夫球上的那些小窝也帮了你的大忙,它们就是本期《科学一刻》的主题。Combined with the proper spin, the dimples help keep the ball in the air longer, and heres how.如果加上适当的旋转,这些小窝可以帮助高尔夫球在空中停留更长时间,原因如下。Your picture-perfect swing puts back spin on the ball.你完美的挥杆动作使球向后旋转。The dimples trap a layer of air next to theball, and this layer spins with the ball.球上的小窝吸附了周围薄薄的一层空气,这层空气会与球一块旋转。The air being dragged across the top of the spinning ball moves in the same direction as the airthats rushing past.球所吸附的这层空气转到球的上方时,它的运动方向与周围空气流动方向一致。As the air spinning with the ball comes around the bottom it is moving in theopposite direction from the air on top, and therefore against the onrushing air.而这层空气到球下方的时候,它的运动方向与上方空气相反,因此与周围气流相抵。Consequently itsslower than the air on top.这样就使得下方的空气的速度比上方的要慢。A slow moving air stream has higher pressure than a fast moving air stream.速度慢的气流压强较大,速度快的气流压强较小。So, the higherpressure on the bottom of the ball is going to hold the ball up longer.因此,球底部较高的气压可以把球向上托使它在空中驻留更长时间。The effect of the dimples is so significant that a drive of two-hundred yards hit with a dimpled golf ball, would be shortened with a non-dimpled ball to about one hundred yards.这些小窝的作用是十分重要的,同样的一杆,如果可以把有小窝的高尔夫球击出200码,那它只能把没有小窝的球击出大约100码。 201404/289949。

Imagine getting on a train at twelve noon and heading out on a four-hour trip to another town.设想一下:您正乘坐一辆中午12点整出发的火车前往另外一个城市,路途耗费4个小时。Youd expect to arrive at four oclock in the afternoon, right? But before the last few decades of the 19th century, there was no guarantee that this would happen, and it usually had little to do with slow trains or drunken conductors.你肯定期望在下午四点能够准时到达,对吧? 但是,在19世纪末之前,保障准确的抵达时间是基本不可能的,并且这与晚点或醉酒的列车长几乎毫无关系。Until the end of the 19th century virtually every town across the world kept time according to its own methods, creating problems for industries such as railroads that relied on precise timing to deliver goods.实际上,直到19世纪末为止, 几乎世界上每个城市都有自己记录时间的方式,这就给需要精确定时发送货物的行业,如铁路运输业等带来无尽的麻烦。To bring order to this chaos, a conference was held in Washington, D.C. in 1884. Delegates from around the world designated Greenwich, England as the starting point from which to create international time zones.为了让混乱的时间变得有序,各国代表于1884年在华盛顿特区召开了一次会议。代表们指定英国格林威治作为创建国际时区的起点。But why was this small, London suburb chosen to create what became known as Greenwich Standard Time?为什么这个伦敦郊区小镇会被选定并创建格林威治标准时间呢?Over 100 years before the Washington conference, King George II of England designated Greenwich as zero degrees longitude in order to help stabilize the shipping trade. If you look at a globe of the earth youll see that the vertical line marked ‘zero that runs from the North to the South Pole- zero degrees longitude–runs directly through Greenwich.在华盛顿会议100多年以前,英国国王乔治二世为了稳定航运业,曾将格林威治标为0度经线所在地。如果你看一下地球仪,你可以看到联通南北极的零度经线正好穿过格林威治。By the time of the Washington conference many shippers aly used the longitude system to keep time when traveling by sea. It was only natural for most countries to adopt this system as the basis for creating standard time for the entire planet.在华盛顿会议召开之时,需要船公司在海运过程中已经使用经度系统来掌控时间。大多数国家自然就容易接受使用这一系统作为确认全球标准时间的基础。Based on longitude increments of fifteen degrees, time becomes one hour earlier each longitude west of Greenwich, and one hour later each longitude east of Greenwich. In other words, when its twelve noon at zero degrees longitude, its one oclock at fifteen longitude east.以每增加经度15度为基准,格林威治每往西一个时区时间便减少一个小时,而每往东一个时区则增加一个小时。换句话说,当零度经线处是中午十二点时,东经15度处便是下午1点。 /201306/242436。

Business商业报道Asian shipyards亚洲造船厂The deeper the better越深越好Korean and Singaporean yards have adapted well to Chinas challenge韩国、新加坡的造船业对来自中国的挑战应付自如PLENTY of behemoths are being welded into shape in South Koreas shipyards at the moment.目前,韩国造船厂里大量大型船只已成型。Clustered around the southern city of Busan, the big three yards—Samsung Heavy Industries, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering, and Hyundai Heavy Industries—are churning out the worlds biggest container ships, 400 metres long; an oil barge whose length, at about 460 metres, or 1,462 feet, is almost half the height of Scafell Pike, Englands tallest mountain;聚集在南部釜山市的三大造船厂—三星重工集团、大宇造船和海洋工程有限公司以及现代重工集团—正大量建造世界最大的集装箱货船,其长达400米。油驳大约长460米或1462英尺,几乎是英国最高山斯科菲峰的一半高。and some of the largest oil rigs yet built.一些最大的石油钻塔还未建成。But size isnt everything.但是型号并非全部。Just as impressive, and more important commercially, are four ultra deepwater drill-ships coming off the line at Samsung Heavy Industries.同样惊人,并且在商业性方面更为重要的是由三星重工业生产的4大超级深海钻井船。Commissioned by a Danish shipping giant, Maersk, the first one has just been christened: Viking, appropriately enough.在丹麦轮船巨头Maersk的授权下,第一艘船命名为Viking再适合不过了。Described by a Maersk engineer as giant Black amp; Deckers, these ships are designed for work in the deepest of waters, such as in the Gulf of Mexico.正如Maersk的一位工程师所描述的巨大的黑色甲板,这些船是用来在海洋最深处工作,例如墨西哥湾。As inland and coastal wells run dry after decades of exploitation, oil firms are being forced farther out to sea, and ships like Viking, which will be used by Exxon Mobil, are designed to meet their requirements.随着几十年的不断开采,内陆以及沿海的油井已经快枯竭。石油公司不得不迈向海洋更深处。并且,像Viking这一批船,它们的制造就是为了满足埃克森美孚这样的顾客的需求。Viking can operate in 3,000 metres of water, and then drill down through another 12,000 metres of earth—more than the height of Mount Everest.Viking能在深入水下3000米工作,然后再向下挖12,000米—深度比珠穆朗玛峰还高。The centrepiece of the vessel is the derrick, which is over 60 metres high.船的中心是高达60余米的油井架吊杆,But the most advanced bits of kit are probably the six thruster engines.但是装置中最先进的部分要数6部推力器引擎。The engineers claim that they can keep the ship steady and drilling even in waves of up to 9 metres.工程师们说,这些引擎能够让Viking高达9米的巨浪中保持平稳并继续工作。Strong technical skills have proved to be the salvation of Korean shipyards.强有力的专门技能来自于韩国造船厂。Only a decade or so ago most analysts were assuming that Chinas heavily subsidised yards would soon take much if not all of South Koreas share of the world shipbuilding market, just as South Korean yards had wiped out much of Europes capacity a generation before.大约10年前,大多分析家设想,中国受极大补贴的造船厂,如果不能占据韩国在世界船只建造市场的全部份额,那么至少也得大部分,就如上一年代韩国造船行业一扫欧洲大部分国家造船业一样。But it has not worked out like that.但是中国不及韩国当年。It is true that China now gets more orders in terms of gross tonnage, but in the year to July 2013 South Korea produced 76.2% more than China by dollar value.的确,现在中国就总吨数而言,是接到更多订单,但是按美元来算总价值,到今年7月,韩国的生产值比中国多76.2%。The Koreans, and their Singaporean counterparts, are making money in a highly competitive market by focusing on complex vessels like Viking, often for the offshore market.韩国,以及和它相当的新加坡,正通过制造出像Viking这样的复杂型船只在竞争激烈的市场里获利,并且他们的专注点在海外市场。China has failed to break out of the basic bulk-carrier market, where ships may cost as little as 30m.中国没能突破制造仅值3000万美元的基本散装货船。As a result it is Chinas yards that are struggling, confined to a part of the market that is plagued by overcapacity, whereas Korean and Singaporean order books are almost full. Maersk reckons the market for offshore rigs and drill-ships is now worth 44 billion a year.结果就是,中国造船业不停地挣扎,被限制在了一个有产能过剩麻烦的市场之中。而韩国跟新加坡的订单,几乎全满。Sokje Lee, an analyst at J.P. Morgan in Seoul, explains that shipbuilding is nowadays a design and quality business rather than a labour-driven one,首尔J.P根的一位分析家Sokie李解释道,如今的造船讲求的是设计和质量,而不仅仅是靠劳力。and South Korean firms, once a lower-cost alternative to their European rivals, have spent heavily and wisely in becoming more technically sophisticated.韩国企业,相对于他们的欧洲对手而言,也曾是一个低耗备胎,但他们花费了大量人力物力变成今天的技术精密型。Each of the big Korean yards has thousands of in-house designers and engineers.每一家大型韩国造船厂都有成千上万的内部设计师和工程师。This has made them world leaders in the new generation of fuel-efficient, cheap-to-run eco ships.正是这一点使得他们成为新一代造船业的世界级领军人物,他们的船,能源高效,操作实惠。Chinas yards have focused instead on offering customers low prices and irresistible financing deals.而中国的造船业关注点在给消费者提供低价船以及难以抵抗的金融交易。Sometimes they demand as little as 10% of the cost on signing a contract, leaving the other 90% until delivery.有时,他们在签订协议时仅仅只需10%的费用,剩下的90%仍处于交付状态。Yet this ruthless competitiveness has not won them a decent share of the lucrative offshore market.但是这种极其可怕的竞争力并没有为他们在有利可图的海外市场赢得可观的份额。Here quality, efficiency and sticking to delivery dates are at a premium, and Chinese yards still score poorly on all counts.在现在市场中,质量,效率以及严格遵守交货时间处于最优先位置,而中国企业在这些方面仍然做得不够。A recent report from CLSA, a stockbroker, concludes that China is still far behind the Koreans in the market for offshore vessels.券投资机构CLSA最近的一份报告总结了,在海外造船市场,中国远远落后于韩国。Even worse, China will soon lose much of its advantage on price.更糟的是,中国很快会失去它的价格优势。CLSA estimates that labour costs in its yards are rising by 10-15% a year, while productivity remains low.CLSA估测,在该行业,中国的劳力费用每年上涨10%-15%,但是生产力仍持低。Singapores two main yards, Keppel and SembCorp Marine, have also invested heavily in quality and efficiency.同样,新加坡主要的两家造船企业,吉宝和胜科海事也在质量跟效率方面投入大量资金。They specialise more in deep-sea rigs than in drill-ships and carriers.相比钻井船和货船,他们更专长于深海钻机。Keppel, the bigger of the two, is building a record 20 such monsters this year; next year it will deliver the first of three giant, 600m jack-up rigs.吉宝的规模比胜科更大。今年吉宝预备制造20艘这样的巨型船,明年将交付三个中的第一个,即值6亿美元的自升式钻井。Time is money时间就是金钱The Singaporeans are also good at building things on time, which is vital in an industry where late delivery can cost the operators of rigs and drill-ships over 500,000 a day.另外,新加坡造船企业还拥有按时完成制造的有点,这对于拖延交货一天就得多花50万在钻机和钻井船操作上的企业来说,尤为重要。Over the past five years, rigs ordered from Keppel and SembCorp were, on average, delivered ahead of schedule, whereas Chinese yards delivered 50-250 days late, says IHS Petrodata, a research firm.一家研究公司HIS揭示,在过去的5年中,吉宝和胜科的钻机一般都是在规定时间前交付的,而中国企业,比规定时间晚50-250天。The only cloud on the horizon for the Koreans and Singaporeans might be fracking.韩国和新加坡目前的唯一问题可能是液压破裂法。The output of tight oil from onshore shale beds has soared in the past few years, especially in America, and could one day reduce the demand for expensive deep-sea rigs and vessels.沿海页岩层密致油的产量在过去的几年中飞增,尤其是在美国,这种油很有肯在某天就降低了昂贵深海钻机和钻井船的需求量。Indeed, Mr Lee even suggests that the offshore business might aly have peaked.诚然,李先生暗示,海外造船业可能达到了顶峰。But Keppel, for one, is not too worried.但是吉宝并不是很担心。The demand for oil has so far kept rising; and as long as the crude price is above 80 a barrel, the big oil firms will have the money and the incentive to keep developing deepwater fields, and thus to keep ordering its rigs.一来,油量的需求持续增长,只要每桶原油价格仍在80刀以上,大型的石油公司就有资金以及动力继续开发深海领域,因此,对钻机仍有需求。 /201311/266130。

The World Bank世界Right cause, wrong battle正确的起因,错误的斗争Why the World Banks focus on gay rights is misguided为何世界对同性恋权利的关注是误入歧途的JIM KIM, the president of the World Bank, wants it to promote gay rights. He has declared the “fight to eliminate all institutionalised discrimination” to be an “urgent task”. He recently put on hold a m loan to Ugandas health sector after its government introduced one of Africas most draconian anti-gay laws. He has ordered an overhaul of the banks lending policies to make sure that no loan assists discrimination. At this weeks Spring Meetings in Washington, DC, he is convening discussions with gay activists on how best to do so.世界总裁Jim Kim想要提高同性恋的权利。他曾宣称“消除所有制度化歧视的斗争”是一项“紧急的任务。”近日,本该流向乌干达健康部门的一项九千万美元的世行贷款由于乌干达政府引入一项反同性恋法而被Jim Kim搁置,该法律称得上是非洲最苛刻的反同性恋法之一。Jim Kim已经下令对世行所有的贷款政策进行检查,以确保没有持歧视的贷款出现。在本周于华盛顿召开的春季会议上,他召开了一场讨论,与同性恋积极分子商讨最行之有效的方法。As an early proponent of gay marriage, this newspaper shares Mr Kims sentiments. Bigotry is abhorrent and laws that entrench it should be condemned. Ugandas new law, which allows a maximum sentence of life imprisonment for anyone convicted of homosexuality and requires citizens to report anyone suspected of being gay, is particularly awful. Nonetheless, Mr Kims initiative is misguided. The World Bank is a technocratic development organisation, not a place for political advocacy. Setting up gay rights as a test of its lending decisions is likely to make the bank less effective at what Mr Kim himself has emphasised is its core job: tackling extreme poverty.作为一个早期的同性恋婚姻持方,《经济学人》与Kim先生感情一致。世界不允许偏见,维系偏见的法律也应当受到谴责。乌干达的新法不仅允许对同性恋实行终身监禁这一最高刑罚,还要求市民对任何可能的同性恋进行举报,这是尤其可怕的。然而,Kim先生发起的行动还是被误导了。世行是一个技术主导的发展组织而不是用作政治倡议的。设置同性恋权利作为其贷款政策的检测关卡可能会使得世行在消除极端贫困问题的效率上大打折扣,Kim先生曾经强调这是世行的核心任务。The banks technocratic approach is a big part of its DNA. Its founding documents prohibit “political activity”, however unpleasant a regime might be. Only “economic considerations” should be relevant to lending decisions. That does not, by itself, preclude it from opposing nasty laws. You can draw a link from fighting bigotry to alleviating poverty. Unfair treatment of groups of people, whether on the basis of gender, race or sexuality, leads to their social exclusion, which in turn is likely to harm economic growth and make it harder to alleviate poverty. By this logic the bank has, rightly, long been pushing for the education of girls. The fight against other forms of discrimination can be justified on the same economic grounds.世行的技术解决论在该组织的特色中扮演了一个重要的角色。它的创建文献就写明禁止“政治活动”,无论哪个国家有多么不高兴。只有“经济上的考量”应当与贷款决策有关。这本身并不排斥它反对一些龌龊的法律。从反抗偏见到减轻贫困,人人都能看到之间的联系。群体性的不公平待遇,不管是基于性别、种族还是性征,都会导致社会的排斥,这反过来又可能损害经济增长,使得减轻贫困的道路愈加艰难。正是由于这一逻辑关系,世行长期以来正确地推动了女孩教育。对其他形式歧视的抗争也基于同样的经济原理而合乎情理。A rainbow of reasons原因一箩筐But even if it can be justified in principle, Mr Kims focus on gay rights is likely to be counterproductive in practice, for three reasons. First, it seems capricious. Uganda is hardly the only country with anti-gay laws on the books; nor is it the only one to have recently toughened its anti-gay stance. Almost 80 of the banks member countries, including most in Africa, have legislation that discriminates against gays. In many places the laws are ignored, but several places, notably Ethiopia and Nigeria, have recently introduced stiffer anti-gay statutes. Ugandas behaviour is odious. But it is not alone.但是,就算大体上合乎情理,Kim先生对同性恋权利的关注还是有可能在实践中事与愿违。这出于三个原因。第一,问题反复无常。乌干达不是唯一将反同性恋法合法化的国家,也不是近期唯一强调反同性恋立场的国家。包括非洲多数国家在内的近80个世行的成员国都有歧视同性恋的法律。这些法律在很多地方被忽视,但是在有些地方尤其是埃塞俄比亚和尼日尼亚,最近都出台了更严苛的反同性恋法令。乌干达的做法令人不齿,但它不是唯一有如此行为的国家。Second, the stress on gay rights itself seems arbitrary. Of the many forms of bigotry the bank could battle, it is not clear that anti-gay laws are the most harmful to the poor. The bank lends to plenty of places that discriminate against women under Islamic law. It also lends to countries with laws that discriminate against minorities. The economic impact of these forms of bigotry is far bigger. But if Mr Kim tries to tackle all institutionalised discrimination by withholding lending, he will soon have no customers left.第二,强调同性恋权利本身看来就很武断。在多种形式的世行可以选择对抗的偏见中,并不清楚反同性恋法对穷人造成的伤害就是最大的。世行为很多在伊斯兰法律下歧视女性的地域提供贷款,它也为存在歧视少数民族法律的国家贷款。这些形式的偏见造成的经济危害更大。然而Kim现实试图通过扣贷款的方式来解决一切制度歧视,他很快就会发现他的客户都所剩无几了。Third, his approach is likely to backfire. In the short term, it weakens the campaign to lessen poverty. Ugandas loan, designed to support maternal-care clinics, was the equivalent of 20% of its health budget. And it still has a high child-mortality rate. Politically, the pressure from Mr Kim, though winning plaudits in Washington, is having perverse results, where it matters most. Ugandas government declares itself to be standing up against the arrogant imposition of “Western values”. The more the World Bank adds such conditions to its lending, the more African countries will be inclined to seek money elsewhere, not least from the no-questions-asked Chinese.第三,他的策略可能适得其反。短期来说,它将削弱消除贫困的行动。乌干达的贷款是用来援助当地产科诊所的,它相当于该国卫生预算的20%。现在,乌干达的儿童死亡率还是高居不下。从政治上来说,Kim先生面临的压力正在引发反常的结果。尽管他在华盛顿会议这一举足轻重的场合还是赢得了一片喝。乌干达政府声明反对粗鲁傲慢的“西方价值观”的输入。世行对该国的贷款施加的条件越多,有意从其他渠道寻求资金的非洲国家就会越多,它们尤其可能从不问问题的中国寻求帮助。The uncomfortable truth is that an economic institution like the bank has to pick its battles. There is a limit to how many conditions outsiders can attach to their aid. Its aim is to encourage economic development. Most of the evidence is that the bank is most effective when client countries see it as an economic partner, rather than a boss imposing a Western agenda.像世界这样的经济机构必须选择好战斗方向,这一事实令人不快。外界在援助同时附加的条件是有限度的。世行的目标是推动经济发展。多数据表明,会员国将世行看作经济伙伴而不是强加西方思想的老大才会让世行更加有效率。Ironically, at one level, Mr Kim seems to realise that. He is sponsoring a big management reform designed to make the bank better at finding the most promising solutions from around the world to help countries develop faster. Launching a battle for gay rights may salve consciences, but will make it harder to achieve that goal.很讽刺的是,从一种层面上,Kim先生似乎意识到了这一点:他正在发起一个大型的管理改革,用来使世行在寻找全球范围内帮助国家更快速发展的最有希望的解决方案上做得更好。发起针对同性恋权利的斗争可能会安抚人心,但会使得上述目标的实现变得更加艰难。 201405/297252。