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时间:2019年09月16日 00:15:46

US satellite observations have produced the first strong evidence for water flowing on Mars.美国卫星观测找到了火星表面存在液态水的首批强有力据。The water is a brine saturated in salts such as perchlorates. As it seeps down the slopes of Martian craters and mountains, it leaves narrow streaks less than five metres wide, which appear and lengthen during the warm season and fade during the Martian winter.这种水是含有饱和盐类(如高氯酸盐)的咸水。随着咸水渗入火星陨石坑和山丘的斜坡,它留下了不到5米宽的狭窄条纹,这些条纹在温暖季节显现并延长,而在火星冬季时逐渐消失。Although the salty liquid would not be drinkable by visiting astronauts in its present form, the presence of any water strengthens the idea that Mars may harbour microscopic lifeforms.虽然这种咸水以目前形态无法被到访火星的宇航员饮用,但任何形式水的存在都会加强火星可能存在微小生命形态的设想。“Our quest on Mars has been to ‘follow the water’ in our search for life in the universe, and now we have convincing science that validates what we’ve long suspected,” said John Grunsfeld, Nasa’s head of science. “This is a significant development, as it appears to confirm that water, albeit briny, is flowing today on the surface of Mars.”“我们在火星上的探索一直在‘循着水’寻找宇宙中的生命,而现在我们有了令人信的科学据来实我们所长期怀疑的,”美国宇航局(NASA)科学部门主管约翰格隆菲尔德(John Grunsfeld)说,“这是一项重大发现,因为它似乎实了如今有水(尽管是咸的)在火星表面流淌。”Nasa scientists announced their “major science finding” at a news conference in Washington and in a scientific paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience.NASA科学家在华盛顿的一场新闻发布会以及发表在《自然地球科学》(Nature Geoscience)期刊上的科学论文中宣布了他们的“重大科学发现”。 /201510/401931

Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge南京长江大桥Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge in the north-west of the Yangtze River, connecting the urban areas with the Pukou District, is one of China#39;s own design and construction of double-lane highways, railways dual-use bridge, completed on December 29, 1968.南京长江大桥位于南京市西北长江上,连通市区与浦口区,是一座我国自己设计建造的双层双线公路、铁路两用桥,1968年12月29日竣工。Highway, on top of the bridge, is 4589 meters long with 15 meters wide carriageway, which can accommodate four large auto parallel. The two sides also have more than two meters wide sidewalks. The railway bridge is 6772 meters long, 14 meters wide, with the two-track shop. Two trains can be off at the same time. The bridge on surface of the river is 1577 meters long, and the remaining is for the highway bridge with the rich Chinese characteristics Double Arch Bridge hyperbolic form. 200 iron relieves are embedded into the highway bridge railings on both sides, besides, there are 150 pairs of magnolia flower-shaped lights on sidewalks. Each of two north-south ends of the bridge has a 70 meters high bridge tower. The lift in the tower will carry people reach the railroad bridge, the road bridge and the watch station on the tower. In front of each tower, it stands a 10-metre high sculpture of worker-peasant-soldier. Down the south tower, it is a beautiful park.上层的公路桥长4589米,车行道宽15米,可容4辆大型汽车并行,两侧还各有2米多宽的人行道;下层的铁路桥长6772米,宽14米,铺有双轨,两列火车可同时对开。其中江面上的正桥长1577米,其余为引桥,公路引桥采用富有中国特色的双孔双曲拱桥形式。公路正桥两边的栏杆上嵌着200幅铸铁浮雕,人行道旁还有150对白玉兰花形的路灯,南北两端各有两座高70米的桥头堡,堡内有电梯可通铁路桥、公路桥及桥头堡上的嘹望台。堡前还各有一座高十余米的工农兵雕塑。南堡下是一个风景秀丽的公园。On December 18, 1968, China#39;s own design and construction of the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was opened to traffic. It marks a leap of China#39;s bridge construction. Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge is recorded by Guinness World Revenue.The completion of the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, shortened one and a half hours by ferry from the river in the past to two minutes by train on the bridge, greatly facilitated cross-strait exchanges and the exchange of personnel, materials, promoting the economic development and people#39;s lives.1968年12月18日,中国自行设计和施工的南京长江大桥建成通车。它标志着中国桥梁建设的一个飞跃。南京长江大桥被收入世界吉尼斯纪录。南京长江大桥建成,使南来北往的火车由过去靠轮渡过江的一个半小时缩短为两分钟,大大方便了长江两岸的物资交流和人员来往,对促进经济发展和改善人民生活产生了积极的作用。 /201602/419393

In 2001, while interviewing executives at Nokia, I was introduced to the Finnish word. It meant humility, I was told, but humility with a quiet self-assurance. That self-assurance seemed well-deserved. Nokiawas then the giant of the mobile phone world, controlling 35 per cent of the global market.2001年,在采访诺基亚(Nokia)高管时,有人跟我提到了一个芬兰词 。 有人告诉我,它的意思是谦逊,是带着默默自信的谦逊。这种自信似乎当之无愧。诺基亚当时是全球手机行业的巨擘,控制着全球手机市场35%的份额。Could it last, I asked in the articles I wrote at the time. We now know that it did not. After being eclipsed by Apple’s iPhone and by Android-based Asian handsets, Nokia last year handed over its much-weakened mobile phone business to Microsoft. But Nokia has not disappeared. It is now a mobile networks operation, has a digital mapping business and owns a host of patents.我在当时写的文章中问道,它能长期屹立不倒吗?我们现在知道,它不能。在被苹果(Apple)的iPhone和基于安卓(Android)系统的亚洲手机夺去光后,诺基亚去年将其实力大大减弱的手机业务售予微软(Microsoft)。但诺基亚没有消失。它现在经营着移动网络业务,拥有数字地图业务和很多专利。Reinventing itself is not new to Nokia. It has done so repeatedly since it began life in 1865 as a paper manufacturer. It has since been a maker of rubber boots, raincoats, cables and television sets. It has been an electricity generator, was once Ireland’s leading producer of toilet paper and the world’s only supplier of studded bicycle tyres.重塑自身对于诺基亚并不新鲜。自从1865年作为一家造纸商创建以来,它曾多次这么做过。之后诺基亚生产过橡胶靴、雨衣、电缆和电视机。诺基亚做过发电商,曾经是爱尔兰主要卫生纸制造商,也曾是全球自行车防滑钉轮胎的唯一供应商。This is unusual. Few companies change their businesses as dramatically and only a minority last as long. In an influential book, The Living Company, first published in 1997, Arie de Geus asked why some companies endured while others died young. The average multinational company lasted less than 50 years, but some, such as Nokia, were well over 100 years old.Royal Dutch Shell, where Mr de Geus worked for 38 years, began in 1833. A few had been around for centuries, he wrote. The Sumitomo Group of Japan could trace its origins to a copper casting shop founded in 1590.这不同寻常。很少有企业会进行如此剧烈的业务转型,而且只有少数能够存活这么长时间。在1997年首次出版的颇具影响力的《长寿公司》(The Living Company)中,阿里德赫斯(Arie de Geus)问道,为什么一些公司可以长寿,另一些公司却英年早逝。跨国企业的平均寿命不到50年,但诺基亚等一些公司的历史却远远超过了100年。德赫斯为之工作了38年的荷兰皇家壳牌(Royal Dutch Shell)是在1833年创建的。他写道,很少有企业会存活几个世纪之久。日本住友集团(Sumitomo Group)的起源可以追溯到1590年创建的一家铸铜店。In no other type of organisation, whether universities, armies or churches, was there such a disparity between the shortest and longest-living institutions.其他任何类型的组织(不管是大学、军队还是教堂),寿命最长和最短者之间都不会出现如此巨大的差异。Does it matter whether companies live centuries or not? Is not the death of companies and the birth of new ones the way economies and societies progress – through what Joseph Schumpeter called “creative destruction”?公司能否存活数个世纪是否重要?老公司的灭亡和新公司的诞生,不是经济和社会通过约瑟夫訠籱祟(Joseph Schumpeter)所称的“创造性破坏”进步的方式吗?Yes. Companies can become complacent, as Nokia was about the arrival of the smartphone. Many are replaced by quicker, more alert competitors. But Mr de Geus and others have argued that long-living companies perform a valuable role.是的。公司可能会变得自满,诺基亚对于智能手机的出现的态度就是如此。很多公司被行动更迅速且更警觉的竞争对手取代。但德赫斯和其他一些人认为,长寿公司发挥着重要作用。They lay down roots. They establish links with communities, provide employment and memories to successive generations of workers and act as an important social glue. As families have become more fragmented and people more mobile, long-living companies provide a sense of cohesion and communal solidarity.它们会扎下根基。它们与社会建立联系、为一代代员工提供就业和回忆,同时充当一种重要的社会粘合剂。在家庭变得更为分散且人们的流动性变得更强之际,长寿公司提供了一种凝聚感和社会团结感。When they die, neighbourhoods are often left desolate, longstanding suppliers lose business and former employees and their families are deprived of their workday memories.当这些公司灭亡时,临近的社区通常会变得荒凉起来,长期供应商会丢掉业务,以前的员工和他们的家人会丧失他们对于工作的回忆。So why do some companies manage to last so long?那么,为什么一些公司能够存活很长时间呢?In his book, Mr de Geus pointed to four characteristics of long-lived companies. First, they were sensitive to changes in the business environment and in their societies. Second, they had a strong sense of identity. Third, they were “tolerant”, by which he meant that they were not over-centralised and allowed experiments and eccentricities among their staff. Finally, they were conservative in their financing – “they knew the usefulness of having spare cash in the kitty”.德赫斯在书中指出了长寿公司的4个特点。第一,它们对商业环境和所处社会的变化相当敏感。第二,它们有强烈的认同感。第三,它们“宽容”,他的意思是它们并不过分集权,允许员工试验和特立独行。最后,它们在融资方面相当保守,“它们知道留有备用现金的用处。”There are other questions we can ask.我们还可以提出其他问题。Is ownership important? Some companies survive because they are family-owned, educating each new generation to take a role and become executives. But family ownership is no panacea. It is difficult to instil hunger for success, hard work and managerial savvy in successive generations. And not all of the oldest companies are family-owned.所有权是否重要?一些公司存活下来的原因是它们由家族所有,他们会教育新一代人承担角色并成为高管。但家族所有权并非万能药。很难将成功的渴望、勤奋和管理头脑连续植入几代人。而且并非所有历史最长的公司都由家族所有。Does the industry matter? Is it easier to survive in the resources business, say in mining, than in the tech industry? It is difficult to judge. The technology industry is too young for us to know whether, for example, Apple, Microsoft or Facebook are going to show real staying power. Certainly, companies that were once big names in technology – Wang and ICL, for example – are no longer around.行业是否重要?在资源行业(例如矿业)是否要比在科技行业更容易存活?现在很难判断。科技行业还太年轻,我们无法了解苹果、微软或Facebook是否会展示出真正的持久力。当然,科技行业那些曾经的巨擘(例如,Wang和ICL)都已消失。And, most important, can large companies keep innovating or are they inevitably undermined by new arrivals with smaller bureaucracies, no pension liabilities and less of an investment in older technologies and ways of operating?最重要的是,大公司能否保持创新,或者是否会不可避免地受到新公司的削弱?新公司官僚主义较少、没有养老金义务,而且在较老的技术和经营方式方面投资较少。Over the next few months, the Financial Times (which itself is 127 years old) will be examining what helps some companies last so long – and how they can fend off decline. We will be running events and broadcasting s from the leading business cities on four continents: Hong Kong, Johannesburg, New York and London.未来几个月,英国《金融时报》(本身有127年历史)将考察是什么帮助一些公司存活那么长时间,以及它们是如何抵御衰落的。我们将举办各种活动,并播放来自位于四个大陆的领先商业城市的视频:香港、约翰内斯堡、纽约和伦敦。Each of these financial and commercial centres has companies that have been around for decades or centuries, as well as thriving start-ups. We will be interviewing executives from both types of companies, as well as academic experts.这些金融和商业中心都拥有具有几十年或几百年历史的企业以及蓬勃发展的初创企业。我们将采访这两类企业的高管和学术专家。But we also want to hear from you, the FT er. Do you think long-living companies are valuable to our societies and, if so, what do you think helps them endure? Do you work or for a company that has been around forever, or do you work for a recent corporate arrival – or perhaps you have worked for both? How do you think the most successful older companies have done it? Please join in the debate by posting your thoughts here or follow #FTLongevity.on Twitter.但英国《金融时报》的读者,我们也希望听到你的看法。你是否认为长寿公司对我们的社会很重要?如果是的话,你认为它们长寿的秘诀是什么?你是在为一家历史悠久的公司工作,还是在为一家最近才诞生的公司工作,或者你曾经为两种公司都工作过?你认为最成功的历史较长的公司是如何做到的?请加入我们的辩论,在这里提出你的看法,或者在Twitter上关注#FTLongevity。 /201507/387907

For Carolin , as for many Germans, the Volkswagen emissions scandal is personal.和许多德国人一样,卡罗琳圠德尔(Carolin )也认为大众汽车(Volkswagen)的尾气造假丑闻影响到了个人。Speaking in the centre of Frankfurt, the country’s financial capital, the young charity worker says: “It’s catastrophic. I feel let down. VW and the other [German carmakers] were companies I felt I could believe in, but Volkswagen has ruined that image for me.这位年轻的慈善工作者在德国金融之都法兰克福市中心发表演讲时表示:“这件事是灾难性的。我感到失望。大众和其他(德国汽车制造商)是我觉得可以信任的公司,但大众破坏了我心目中的这一形象。”“It’s hurt their business, it’s hurt their image, and ultimately it has also hurt people,” she adds.她补充称:“这伤害了他们的业务,伤害了他们的形象,最终也伤害了人们。”Her opinion is widely — though not universally — shared. The German media are almost united in warning that the revelation that VW had been cheating on US emissions tests for years could affect the world’s opinion of “Made in Germany” — the country’s reputation for quality, especially in manufacturing.很多人都抱这种观点,尽管不是所有人。德国媒体几乎一致警告称,大众多年来在美国汽车尾气检测中作弊一事曝光,可能会影响世人对“德国制造”的看法——德国以产品优质闻名于世,尤其是在制造业。Bild, the top-selling tabloid, said this week in an editorial: “What has made Germany great is our engineering skill — and trust in our machine builders... is now directly at risk.”德国发行量最大的小报《图片报》(Bild)本周刊载的一篇社论称,“德国之所以伟大,系于我们的工程技术——以及对我们机器制造商的信任……现在,这种信任直接处于危险之中”。Political leaders from chancellor Angela Merkel down have called on the company to take rapid remedial action, not least to protect the good name of other German companies.从德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)往下的各级政治领导人都呼吁大众迅速采取补救行动——这么做的一大原因是要保护其他德国公司的良好声誉。Sigmar Gabriel, economy minister, said: “We are worried that the justifiably excellent reputation of the German car industry and in particular that of Volkswagen is suffering.”德国经济部长西格马尔加布里尔(Sigmar Gabriel)表示:“我们担心,德国汽车业——尤其是大众——无可非议的卓越声誉正在遭受损害。”Some marketing experts agree that damage from the scandal could easily extend far beyond VW, where the chief executive resigned on Wednesday. BMW and Daimler, two other standard bearers for German engineering, also produce cars with diesel engines — the vehicles at the heart of the affair.一些营销专家也认为,丑闻的影响很容易扩散至大众以外的公司。周三,大众首席执行官辞职。德国另外两家旗帜性工程企业宝马(BMW)和戴姆勒(Daimler)也生产柴油引擎汽车——柴油车正是此次丑闻事件的核心。Doreen Pick, marketing professor at Berlin’s Free University, is firmly in the pessimistic camp. “I think this will very badly damage the image of ‘Made in Germany’. [VW] stands as a synonym for what’s best in Germany — honesty, reliability and efficiency.”柏林自由大学(Free University)营销学教授多琳皮克(Doreen Pick)明显属于悲观派,她说:“我认为这将严重破坏‘德国制造’的形象。(大众)在德国是顶尖的同义词——代表着诚实、可靠和高效。”She adds: “What really matters is whether Germans see this as affecting them personally because they have a VW car or because they believe that the environment here has been polluted.”她补充称:“真正重要的是,德国人是否会因为自己拥有一辆大众车、或因为相信这里的环境已遭到污染,而认为这起事件影响到了他们个人。”However, she notes that a strong legal assault from the US authorities, who uncovered the cheating, could prompt Germans into “a bit of a patriotic/defensive” reaction. “People will ask why the Americans, who don’t really care about the environment, are attacking a German institution.”但她也指出,揭露大众作弊的美国当局发起的猛烈法律攻击,可能会让德国人产生“轻微的爱国/防御性”反应。“人们会问,为什么并不真正关心环境的美国人要攻击一家德国公司。”Others argue that history shows companies can weather even the biggest scandals as long as they respond properly, and that reputational damage rarely extends beyond the culprit business.还有人认为,从过往经验来看,哪怕是最严重的丑闻,只要应对得当,企业也可以平安度过,而且肇事公司以外的企业很少会因为受到牵连而声誉受损。“This scandal damages VW but does not damage ‘Made in Germany’ at all. Images of countries are very long-lasting. People still associate Germany with Hitler, as well as with Merkel. You can see how long it takes to change an image,” says Sven Reinecke, director of the marketing institute at Switzerland’s St Gallen University.瑞士圣加仑大学(University of St Gallen)营销研究所负责人斯文克(Sven Reinecke)表示:“这桩丑闻给大众造成了伤害,但完全没有损害‘德国制造’。国家形象是非常持久的。人们现在仍将德国与希特勒(Hitler)以及默克尔联系在一起。你可以看出一种形象要多久才能改变。”He adds: “As for VW itself, it depends on how it handles the affair. If they do it badly it will destroy the brand, but if they do it well, then not.”他补充称:“就大众本身来说,这取决于它如何处理这起事件。如果应对不当,那就会毁掉其品牌,但如果应对得体,就不会。”There are plenty of examples of German companies that have been able to rebuild investor and customer confidence after a crisis and a management clear out.过去曾有多家德国企业在遇到危机后,通过整顿管理层,重新获得了投资者和客户的信任。Bayer, the German chemicals group, was rocked in 2001 when its blockbuster cholesterol drug Lipobay was found to have serious side-effects. The company paid .1bn to settle nearly 3,000 cases, replaced management, comprehensively restructured its business and is now Germany’s biggest company by market value.2001年,德国化学品集团拜耳(Bayer)热销的降胆固醇药物拜斯亭(Lipobay)被发现有严重副作用,这让该公司遭受巨大冲击。拜耳拿出11亿美元和解了近3000起诉讼,撤换了管理层,并全面重组业务。如今拜耳是德国市值最高的公司。Siemens, the electronics group, had to shell out bn in fines and advisory payments after the 2006 discovery that slush funds were used to pay bribes to win contracts. The resulting probe shook the company to its core, led to the departure of dozens of senior managers and led to an overhaul of compliance systems.电器集团西门子(Siemens)在2006年被曝出设立贿赂基金行贿以赢取合同之后,不得不付20亿美元罚款和咨询费用。相关调查撼动了该公司的核心,导致数十位高层离职和合规制度的改革。Daimler in 2010 paid almost 0m of penalties to settle US charges that it systematically paid bribes to officials in foreign countries. It responded by appointing a former German judge to its management board to look after “integrity and legal affairs”.2010年,美国指控称,戴姆勒在海外系统性贿赂官员,该公司不得不付近2亿美元罚款了结这些指控。戴姆勒为此还指定一位前德国法官进入董事会负责“廉正和法律事务”。VW knows from its own past how scandal can hurt a company. A former group labour leader was jailed in 2008 after being found guilty in a bribery scandal. He was convicted of accepting almost ㈠洀 in illegal bonuses after a probe that also revealed company cash was used to pay for prostitutes and holidays for VW union chiefs.大众从自身经历中也知道丑闻会对一家公司造成什么伤害。2008年,一名前大众劳工领袖在一起贿赂丑闻中被认定有罪,结果被判处监禁。此人被判定收受了近200万欧元非法奖金,之前的一项调查还显示,大众用公司资金付公司工会领导人招妓和度假的费用。That affair did not stop the group in its drive to try to replace Toyota as the world’s biggest carmaker. But the latest scandal is far more serious, as it affects millions of customers directly.那起事件并没有让大众停下努力超越丰田(Toyota)成为全球最大汽车制造商的脚步。但眼下这起丑闻要严重得多,因为它直接影响到了数百万客户。Professor Martin Gornig, of Berlin’s DIW research institute, says: “If VW can clarify the situation, it can still limit the damage.”柏林DIW研究所的马丁高尼希教授(Martin Gornig)表示:“如果大众能够解释清楚,它就仍能将损害控制在一定范围内。” /201509/401119


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