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2019年10月14日 19:54:17

Citigroup is testing new technology that will allow customers to withdraw money using retinal scanning.花旗正在测试允许客户通过扫描视网膜取款的新技术。The bank wants to replace PIN codes with biometric scanners that could identify customers using only their eyes.花旗打算用仅通过客户的眼睛即可识别其身份的生物识别扫描仪来取代个人识别号码。Customers would use a smartphone app to key in the amount they want to draw out ahead of time.客户只需在智能手机客户端上提前输入他们想取出的金额就可以了。As they approached the ATM, the app would link up to the machine and use retinal scanning to confirm the customer’s identity.当客户走近自动取款机时,该客户端将与自动取款机连接,并通过扫描视网膜确认其身份。The ATM would then release the cash, providing the scanner recognises the individual.若扫描仪识别出客户的身份,自动取款机就会吐出现金。Citigroup said the retinal scans would take 15 seconds to complete compared to 45 seconds for traditional transactions.花旗表示,传统交易方式需花费45秒,而视网膜扫描技术可在15秒内完成交易。It would, they claim, be more secure and would mean that cards could never be skimmed at an ATM again.该声称,此项技术更加安全,将意味着再也不用将卡插入自动提款机了。The Wall St Journal reported that Citigroup has not set a date for when the retinal scanners would be introduced.《华尔街日报》报道称,花旗尚未确定何时将视网膜扫描仪投入使用。The bank may have to overcome privacy concerns as some customers may be uncomfortable giving their biometric data to such an institution.花旗可能需要解决人们对隐私的担忧,因为部分客户可能会对将自己的生物识别数据提供给这种机构感到不安。Citigroup says it has been working with cash machine manufacturer Diebold and has confirmed that preliminary scanning tests have been carried out on 30 consumers in a laboratory at its head office in New York.花旗称,该一直都在与自动取款机制造商迪堡公司合作。花旗还确认,花旗已经在纽约总行的实验室对30名客户进行了初步的扫描测试。The test cash machines do not even need a screen or a touchpad as all the information is loaded by the app ahead of time.受测的自动取款机甚至不需要安装屏幕或触摸板。因为客户端提前加载了所有的信息。Citigroup is not the only financial institution testing out cardless cash machines - JP Morgan Chase and Bank of America are working on similar technology.花旗并非唯一一个测试无卡取款机的金融机构。根大通和美国也在研发类似的技术。The moves comes in response to US credit scoring firm FICO announcing that in May this year the number of attacks on debit cards used at ATMs had reached its highest level in 20 years.今年5月,美国信用评分公司FICO宣布在自动取款机上使用的借贷卡遭到攻击的数量创20年新高,各个的举措旨在改善此现状。 /201511/407504富阳哪家妇科医院看的好湖源乡儿童医院做输卵管通液多少钱The possibility that robots may one day take all the jobs and put the human race out of work is an idea that has taken a strong hold on the public imagination of late. Not since the 1960s has the prospect of machines replacing people inspired such awe and angst.也许有一天,机器人会抢走所有的工作,让所有人类失业,这是近来公众的想象中挥之不去的一个念头。自20世纪60年代以来,机器代替人类的前景还从未引发眼下这种程度的畏惧和焦虑。Left out of this picture, however, is a bigger narrative about how the onrush of robot technology could change humanity’s future. Automation — for which, sophisticated software routines informed by advanced algorithms — is aly creeping into many walks of life far beyond the workplace, steering our decisions and promising to take the effort out of everyday tasks.然而,被排除在这种想象之外的,是关于机器人科技的汹涌来袭可能如何改变人类未来的更大议题。自动化,也就是用先进的算法设计的复杂软件程序组,已经悄然进入各行各业,出没的地方远不止工作场所。自动化不仅引导着我们的决策,更许诺让日常工作变得简单轻松。What is to stop automation from ultimately assuming all of mankind’s mental and physical efforts? And when the machines do all the heavy lifting — whether in the form of robots commanding the physical world or artificial intelligence systems that relieve us of the need to think — who is the master and who the slave?有什么能阻止自动化最终承担人类所有的脑力和体力劳动?不管是在实体世界发号施令的机器人,还是让我们无需进行思考的人工智能系统,当机器挑起了一切重担,谁是主人,谁是奴仆?Despite the antagonism he sometimes stirs in the tech world (an influential article of his published by the Harvard Business Review in 2003 was called, provocatively, “IT Doesn’t Matter”) author Nicholas Carr is not a technophobe. But in The Glass Cage he brings a much-needed humanistic perspective to the wider issues of automation. In an age of technological marvels, it is easy to forget the human.尽管作者尼古拉斯#8226;卡尔(Nicholas Carr)有时会在科技界招来敌意(2003年他在《哈佛商业》(Harvard Business Review)上发表的一篇影响力巨大的文章标题富有煽动性,叫做《IT无关紧要》(“IT Doesn’t Matter”)),他本人并不是一个恐惧技术的人。但在《身处自动化的玻璃牢笼》(The Glass Cage)一书中,他为理解更广泛的自动化问题提供了一个我们迫切需要的人文主义视角。在技术大放异的年代,人类很容易遭到遗忘。Carr’s argument here is that, by automating tasks to save effort, we are making life easier for ourselves at the cost of replacing our experience of the world with something inferior. “Frictionless” is the new mantra of tech companies out to simplify life as much as possible. But the way Carr sees it, much of what makes us most fulfilled comes from taking on the friction of the world through focused concentration and effort. What would happen, in short, if we were “defined by what we want”?卡尔的论点是,通过将工作任务自动化以节省精力,我们让生活变得更轻松,代价则是用一种次级的体验取代了我们对世界的真实体验。“无擦”是试图最大程度简化生活的技术公司的新口号。但在卡尔看来,让我们感到充实的东西大多来自于全神贯注、努力应对世界中的“擦”的过程。简而言之,如果我们“用我们想要的东西定义自身”,那会怎样?Mankind’s mastery of the environment owes much to the use of tools that extend our limited physical and intellectual powers, as Carr ily admits. What’s different now, though, is both the pace of change — it’s hard to adjust when so much can alter in the course of a human lifetime — and the nature of the technology itself.卡尔坦然承认,人类对自然环境的掌控大多归功于对工具的使用,工具扩展了我们有限的体力和智力。然而,现在与以前的差异不仅在于变化的速度(在人一辈子的时间里就能发生如此巨大的改变,让人很难适应),还有技术本身的性质。At the risk of simplifying, Carr’s assertion is that there are two types of technology, which might loosely be described as the humanist and the anti-humanist. The former sets its makers free. Tools such as hammers or cars fall into this category: they extend the user’s capabilities.卡尔提出,存在两种技术,分别可大致称为人本型技术和反人本型技术(这样划分或许有过分简化之嫌)。前者旨在解放人类。锤子、汽车之类的工具就属于这个范畴:它们扩展了使用者的能力。Anti-humanist technology, on the other hand, sidelines its creator. Its sole purpose is to replace human effort, not enhance it. If humans are ever brought into the equation to interact with this technology — for instance, when pilots have to override automatic flight systems in an emergency — the results are often dismal: deskilled by the machines and forced into machine-like modes of behaviour to operate in the machine’s world, the people seldom excel. The inevitable result is a call for more automation to take fallible humans out of the picture entirely. Removing the need for sustained physical and intellectual effort causes a degeneration in people’s capabilities, argues Carr. His description of research into these areas is exhaustive, to the point where some chapters of this book like a glossary of academic work in the field. But it helps him build a persuasive argument.相反,反人本技术则会使人类边缘化。其唯一的目的是替代掉人的努力,而不是提高人努力的效率。如果让人类参与进来,与这种技术相互作用(比如,飞行员在紧急情况下被迫停止自动驾驶系统的时候),结果往往令人沮丧:机器使人变得低能,为了适应机器世界里的工作,人被迫在行为方式上向机器靠拢,因此在这种情况下很少得心应手。不可避免的结果是,进一步提高自动化程度、让容易犯错的人类彻底出局,成为人们的呼声。卡尔认为,消除对持续体力和脑力劳动的需要,导致人类能力退化。他对这些领域的研究描述得非常详尽,以至于书中的有些章节读起来就像是该领域学术成果的汇编。但详细的成果汇编也有助于提高作者论述的说力。In some instances, the effects of using technology to disintermediate the world sound minor. It’s hard to feel much sympathy for Carr’s complaint that automatic transmission systems in cars, for instance, have robbed him of the pleasure of driving. But others are more persuasive. As machines take on an increasing number of everyday tasks, they will inevitably have to make decisions with moral consequences, weighing courses of action that have different impacts on the people affected. And that is before even thinking about battlefield robots that are programmed to kill.在某些情况下,技术对于阻隔我们对世界的直接感知所起到的作用似乎微不足道。比如,对于卡尔抱怨汽车自动变速系统夺走了驾驶的乐趣,我们很难感到特别认同。但在其他一些情况下,他的说法更有说力。随着机器承担的日常工作越来越多,它们将不可避免地被迫做出有道德后果的抉择,权衡对相应人群影响不一的行动。我们甚至还没有开始考虑任务设定为杀戮的战场机器人。If there’s a criticism to be made of Carr’s attempt to save mankind from its own technology, it’s that he underplays the very substantial benefits. Driverless cars would go a long way towards eradicating the millions of deaths and injuries that are almost entirely caused by human error. Also, through advances in productivity, automation is a significant contributor to economic betterment.对于卡尔试图从人类自己开发的技术手中挽救人类的举动,如果要进行批评的话,那就是他淡化了技术带来的巨大好处。交通事故几乎完全是由人类的错误导致的,无人驾驶汽车在这方面大有助益,能使数百万人免于伤亡。自动化还能提高生产效率,从而极大地促进经济状况的改善。Nor does he make allowances for the new types of work thrown up by making older forms of human endeavour redundant, or the possibility that mankind might find more rewarding outlets for its energy and creativity if the need to work was largely removed.他也没有考虑到,自动化虽然使一些旧式的人类劳动变得多余,但也同时创新了新型的工作;此外,在基本不需要工作之后,人类或许有可能找到更有价值的发挥精力和创造力的方式。Surprisingly, however, Carr manages to find a positive note to end on. He considers, but largely rejects, the possibility that a more human-centric form of design will emerge to put people back at the centre of their own technological creations.然而,令人惊讶的是,卡尔设法以一种乐观的方式进行了收尾。他考虑了一种可能性,那就是会出现一种更以人为中心的设计形式,使人重新回到技术创新的中心,但他大体上驳倒了这个可能性。The economic forces leading towards replacing people completely with software are simply too strong.用软件彻底取代人工的经济推动力实在过于强大。Likewise, he holds out little hope that people will voluntarily turn their backs on the latest technology in favour of less sophisticated tools that demand more of them, but which are ultimately far more rewarding to use. The lure of labour-saving is too great.同样的,对于人类自愿抛弃最新的技术,转而使用更需要人力、复杂程度较低、而且最终将更有益于使用者的工具,他也不抱多少希望。省力的诱惑太大了。The hope arises, instead, from a belief that the social strains from the present wave of technological advance will force a reaction. Just four pages from the end, after contemplating the dire consequences of putting all the world’s workers out of work, he ventures: “To ensure society’s wellbeing in the future, we may need to place limits on automation.” Ideas of progress may have to change, he adds: today’s blinkered celebration of all forms of progress would need to be replaced by a more sophisticated approach that takes into account the social and personal consequences.相反,我们只能寄望于这样一种信念,即当前的技术进步浪潮引发的社会压力会迫使人们做出反应。在考虑了让全世界劳动者失业的种种可怕后果之后,作者在离全书结尾仅剩4页时大胆提出:“要确保未来社会的健康,我们或许需要对自动化加以限制。”进步的概念或许也需要改变,他补充道:我们应该用一种更成熟的态度看待技术进步,将社会和个人影响纳入考虑,而不是像现今这样对任何形式的技术进步都盲目加以赞扬。How to achieve a more balanced view of progress when all of today’s incentives are geared towards an ever-faster cycle of invention and deployment of new technologies? There is no room for an answer in this wide-ranging book. As ever, though, Carr’s skill is in setting the debate running, not finding answers.眼下,所有的激励措施都在推动新技术的发明和应用周期加快,如何在这种情况下实现更全面地看待技术进步?这本书谈到了太多问题,限于篇幅,无法为这一个问题找到。不过,卡尔的长项一直都是挑起辩论,而不是找到。The Glass Cage: Where Automation Is Taking Us, by Nicholas Carr, Bodley Head RRP#163;20/WWNorton RRP.95, 288 pages《身处自动化的玻璃牢笼》(The Glass Cage: Where Automation Is Taking Us),尼古拉斯#8226;卡尔(Nicholas Carr)著,288页,建议零售价20英镑(Bodley Head出版社)或26.95美元(WWNorton出版社) /201503/363301WASHINGTON — In an investigation involving guns and drugs, the Justice Department obtained a court order this summer demanding that Apple turn over, in real time, text messages between suspects using iPhones.华盛顿——今年夏天,在一起涉及和毒品的调查中,美国司法部获得了法院命令,要求苹果(Apple)实时提交使用iPhone的嫌疑人之间的短信。Apple’s response: Its iMessage system was encrypted and the company could not comply.苹果的回应是:iMessage系统是加密的,所以公司无法提交。Government officials had warned for months that this type of standoff was inevitable as technology companies like Apple and Google embraced tougher encryption. The case, coming after several others in which similar requests were rebuffed, prompted some senior Justice Department and F.B.I. officials to advocate taking Apple to court, several current and former law enforcement officials said.在此之前的多个月里,政府官员就不断发出警告:随着苹果、谷歌(Google)等科技公司开始采用更加严格的加密方案,这种僵局是不可避免的。一些现任和前任执法人员表示,在此案发生之前,还有其他几次类似的要求也遭到拒绝,导致司法部和联邦调查局(FBI)的一些高级官员主张把苹果公司告上法庭。While that prospect has been shelved for now, the Justice Department is engaged in a court dispute with another tech company, Microsoft. The case, which goes before a federal appeals court in New York on Wednesday and is being closely watched by industry officials and civil liberties advocates, began when the company refused to comply with a warrant in December 2013 for emails from a drug trafficking suspect. Microsoft said federal officials would have to get an order from an Irish court, because the emails were stored on servers in Dublin.虽然此事被暂时搁置到一边,司法部却正在与另一家科技公司微软(Microsoft)对簿公堂。位于纽约的一家联邦上诉法院本周三将审理该案,行业人士和公民自由权益提倡者正在密切关注。该案的起因是2013年12月,法院开出一份搜查令,要求微软提供一名贩毒嫌疑人的电子邮件,但微软拒绝从,表示联邦官员必须获得爱尔兰法院的命令,因为那些邮件储存在都柏林的务器里。The conflicts with Apple and Microsoft reflect heightened corporate resistance, in the post-Edward J. Snowden era, by American technology companies intent on demonstrating that they are trying to protect customer information.政府与苹果和微软之间的这些冲突,反应了企业在“后爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)时代”施加的阻力有所加大,因为美国科技公司想要表明,自己在努力保护用户的信息。“It’s become all wrapped up in Snowden and privacy issues,” said George J. Terwilliger III, a lawyer who represents technology companies and as a Justice Department official two decades ago faced the challenge of how to wiretap phone networks that were becoming more digital.“这些事都演变为围绕着斯诺登和隐私问题,”代表科技公司的律师乔治·J·特威利格三世(George J. Terwilliger III)说。他二十年前在司法部任职,当时电话网络正变得日益数字化,因此他曾面临如何窃听的挑战。President Obama has charged White House Homeland Security and cybersecurity officials, along with those at the Justice Department, the F.B.I. and the intelligence agencies, with proposing solutions — some legislative, some not — to the technology access issue. They are still hashing out their differences, according to law enforcement and administration officials.奥巴马总统让白宫的国土安全和网络安全官员,连同司法部、联邦调查局及各情报机构的官员一起,提出一些方案——部分涉及立法,部分不涉及——来解决从科技公司获得信息的问题。根据执法官员和奥巴马政府内部人士的说法,目前他们还在努力消除彼此间的分歧。Some Justice and F.B.I. officials have been frustrated that the White House has not moved more quickly or been more outspoken in the public relations fight that the tech companies appear to be winning, the law enforcement officials said, speaking only on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the private conversations.多名执法官员表示,司法部和联邦调查局的一些官员感到不快,他们觉得白宫行动太慢,在公关大战中不够慷慨陈词,似乎被科技公司占据了上风。由于没有获得私下讨论的许可,这些官员不愿具名。The White House, after months of study, has yet to articulate a public response to the argument that a victory in the Microsoft case would provide authoritarian governments, particularly the Chinese and Russians, with a way to get access into computer servers located in the ed States.有人提出,如果微软这次败诉,那么极权政府——尤其是中国和俄罗斯——就可能会获得一条途径,从位于美国的计算机务器上取得信息。白宫已经研究了数月之久,但尚未公开阐明对这种观点的回应。“Clearly, if the U.S. government wins, the door is open for other governments to reach into data centers in the U.S.,” Brad Smith, Microsoft’s general counsel, said in a recent interview. Companies and civil liberties groups have been sending in briefs of their own, largely opposing the government’s surveillance powers.“很显然,如果美国政府获胜,大门就会敞开,其他国家的政府就可以从美国的数据中心获取数据了,”微软的总法律顾问布拉德·史密斯(Brad Smith)在近期的一次采访中说。公司和公民自由组织在散发自己的宣传资料,主要是表示反对政府掌握监视的权力。At issue are two types of encoding. The first is end-to-end encryption, which Apple uses in its iMessage system and FaceTime, the conversation system. Companies like Open Whisper Systems, the maker of Signal, and WhatsApp have adopted such encryption for stand-alone apps, which are of particular concern to counterterrorism investigators.问题关乎两种类型的编码。一种是端到端加密,苹果公司在iMessage和视频聊天务FaceTime中就使用了这种方式。Signal所属的Open Whisper Systems公司和WhatsApp在单独的应用上也采用了这种加密方式,而此类应用是反恐调查人员尤其关注的一个问题。With Apple, the encryption and decryption is done by the phones at either end of the conversation; Apple does not keep copies of the message unless one of the users loads it into iCloud, where it is not encrypted. (In the drug and gun investigation this summer, Apple eventually turned over some stored iCloud messages. While they were not the real-time texts the government most wanted, officials said they saw it as a sign of cooperation.)在苹果公司,加密和解密都是由其中一方的通话手机来进行的。苹果没有相关讯息的备份,除非一方用户将其上传到不加密的iCloud上。(在今夏那起毒品和调查中,苹果最后还是移交了存储在iCloud上的部分讯息。尽管它们不是政府最想要的实时短信,但官员表示,他们认为这是合作的标志。)The second type of encoding involves sophisticated encryption software on Apple and Android phones, which makes it all but impossible for anyone except the user of the phone to open stored content — pictures, contacts, saved text messages and more — without an access code. The F.B.I. and local authorities oppose the technology, saying it put them at risk of “going dark” on communications between terrorists and about criminal activity on city streets. The American military is more divided on the issue, depending on the mission.第二种编码涉及苹果和Android手机上的复杂的加密软件。有了它们,除手机用户外,任何人在没有访问码的情况下几乎都不可能打开存储内容,如照片、联系人、保存下来的短信等。FBI和地方当局反对这项技术,称它让自身面临对通讯信息一无所知的风险,而相关通讯会涉及恐怖分子,以及街头犯罪活动。美国军方在这个问题上则存在一定的分歧,具体情况视任务而定。Officials say a court fight with Apple is still an option, though they acknowledge it would be a long shot. Some object that a legal battle would make it harder for the companies to compromise, the law enforcement officials said. They added that Apple and other companies have privately expressed willingness to find common ground.官员称,与苹果对薄公堂依然是选择之一,但他们承认,成功的可能性很小。执法官员称,一些人持反对意见,认为打官司会导致科技企业更难妥协。他们还表示,苹果等公司私下里表示愿意寻找共同点。Apple declined to comment on the case for this article. But company officials have argued publicly that the access the government wants could be exploited by hackers and endanger privacy.苹果拒绝为本文该案。但公司领导层曾公开表示,政府希望获得的访问权限可能会被黑客利用,危及隐私。“There’s another attack on our civil liberties that we see heating up every day — it’s the battle over encryption,” Tim Cook, the company’s chief executive, told a conference on electronic privacy this year. “We think this is incredibly dangerous.”“我们看到,又一场针对公民自由的攻击每天都在升温,它就是围绕加密展开的斗争,”苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)在今年的一次有关电子隐私的会议上说。“我们认为这种情况极其危险。”Echoing the arguments of industry experts, he added, “If you put a key under the mat for the cops, a burglar can find it, too.” If criminals or countries “know there’s a key hidden somewhere, they won’t stop until they find it,” he concluded.接下来,他重复了行业专家的观点,“如果为了给警察行方便而把钥匙放在门垫下,那么窃贼也能找到。”如果罪犯或某些国家“知道有一把钥匙藏在某个地方,那么他们不找到钥匙是不会罢休的,”他总结道。The Microsoft case centers on whether the fact that data is stored around the world relieves American firms of turning it over. The government, which won in Federal District Court, has argued in its brief to the appeals court that where the data is stored is irrelevant because the company still has control of email records. The White House declined to comment because the case is in litigation.微软一案的核心是,数据存放在世界各地这个事实,是否能免除美国公司移交数据的责任。在联邦地区法院胜诉的政府在给上诉法院的案情摘要中称,数据存放在哪里无关紧要,因为微软依然控制着电子邮件记录。因为案件正在诉讼过程中,白宫拒绝置评。“People want to know what law will be applied to their data,” Mr. Smith of Microsoft said. “French want their rights under French law, and Brazilians under Brazilian law. What is the U.S. government going to do when other governments reach into the U.S. data centers, without notifying the U.S. government?”“大家想知道他们的数据会适用什么法律,”微软的史密斯说。“法国人希望用法国的法律保护自己的权利,巴西人希望用巴西的法律。假如其他国家的政府无需通知美国政府就能进入美国的数据中心,美国政府会怎么做?”Chinese firms aly have plans to build facilities on American soil that would store electronic communications, so the question may be more than hypothetical. In its brief, Microsoft argues that Congress will ultimately have to weigh in on the issue, since it is as much a political matter as a legal one: “Only Congress has the institutional competence and constitutional authority to balance law enforcement needs against our nation’s sovereignty, the privacy of its citizens and the competitiveness of its industry.”中国公司已经打算在美国境内修建设施,用以存放电子通讯信息,所以这个问题并非凭空想象。在案情摘要中,微软认为国会最终将不得不介入此事,因为这既是一个政治问题,也是一个法律问题:“只有国会拥有相应的制度能力和宪法权力来平衡执法需求与国家主权、公民隐私和业界竞争力之间的关系。” /201509/397738鹿山街道妇女医院收费合理吗

杭州富阳中山综合门诊部是正规的富阳去医院人流多少钱There are no equivalents to highway codes, nutritional guidelines and movie-style ratings systems to help people make safe choices on the internet.人们要在互联网上做出安全的选择,没有像现实生活中交通法规、营养指南以及电影风格评级制度之类的东西作为参考。Many consumers feel hopeless and helpless, as retailers, healthcare providers and governments lose millions of records and hackers steal their identities to make fraudulent transactions. Senior businesspeople may be among the most at risk because of their wealth or because they may have access to commercially sensitive material.许多消费者感到绝望和无助,因为零售商、医疗务提供者及政府丢失了数以百万计的记录,而黑客窃取消费者的身份进行欺诈交易。高层商界人士属于风险最高的人士行列,原因在于他们的财富,或是因为他们可能有获得商业敏感材料的途径。Current forms of cyber security protection, particularly for individuals, are not keeping up with wily hackers, who are able to change tactics quickly.当前的网络安全保护形式(尤其对个人来说)跟不上能够快速改变策略的狡诈黑客。Jay Kaplan, chief executive of Synack, a security start-up, says people should prioritise monitoring how their information is being used, because they have to assume it has been stolen by someone.初创的网络安全企业Synack首席执行官杰伊愠湓灦(Jay Kaplan)说,人们应该着重监测他们的信息是如何被使用的,因为他们不得不假定自己的信息已经被别人窃取了。“It is inevitable,” he says. “Everyone needs to take a stance that eventually their information will be compromised unless they live under a rock and never share electronically. Even then, it is impossible, given they do things such as file tax returns.”“这是不可避免的,”他说。“每个人都需要认识到,他们的信息终究都会受到危害,除非他们生活在岩石下面,而且从不使用电子方式分享信息。即便这样,信息泄露也不可能避免,因为他们要做纳税申报之类的事情。”Regularly checking your personal credit rating is the best way to keep track of financial fraud, but it is harder to monitor how hackers are using healthcare data or how identification such as social security numbers in the US or national insurance numbers in the UK, that are used to access myriad sensitive accounts, may be being misused.定期检查自己的个人信用评级是发现金融欺诈的最好方法,但要监控黑客如何利用医疗数据或者那些用来访问大量敏感账户的身份信息(如美国的社会保障号码或英国的国民保险号码)如何被滥用要困难得多。Mr Kaplan says companies’ and government agencies’ dependence on this form of identification and other easily discoverable identifiers such as names, addresses and dates of birth, is archaic and no longer secure.卡普兰说,企业及政府机构对这种身份识别形式以及其他容易被发现的识别信息(如名字、地址和出生日期)的依赖是过时的、不安全的。He recommends companies come up with a more secure authentication system and that consumers use two-factor authentication, where a password is used in conjunction with another randomly created code, often sent by SMS or generated by an app.他建议企业使用一种更安全的身份验系统,消费者使用双重身份验——密码与随机创建的代码配合使用,后者通常由短信发送或由应用生成。Vince Steckler, chief executive of Avast, an antivirus software maker for consumers, says people become scared when they see thefts of individuals’ data from companies such as Target and Home Depot, the US retailers. But he adds they really need to worry about how much data they share voluntarily online.杀毒软件制造商Avast首席执行官文斯施特克勒(Vince Steckler)说,当看到个人信息被从美国零售商——如Target和家得宝(Home Depot)——那里被窃取时,人们会感到害怕。但他补充说,人们真正需要担心的是自己在网上自愿分享了多少数据。“Users probably give far more private information about themselves through their normal use of the internet —Facebook, WhatsApp, just about any kind of app on a phone or computer,” he says. “They give up a massive amount of personal information. The biggest threat to people’s privacy is just the legitimate stuff they are using.”“用户在日常使用互联网(Facebook、WhatsApp等手机或电脑中的任何一款应用)时,提供的私人信息可能还要多得多,”他说,“他们暴露了大量的个人信息。对人们的隐私威胁最大的是他们使用的合法工具。”Hackers often use publicly available data about people that is on the internet to “socially engineer” contacts, pretending to be someone users know or trust in order to get them to download an attachment or click on an infected link. Or they can use online information on friends and family members to answer the questions that might be used to access password codes.黑客经常利用在网上可以公开获得的个人数据来制造社交关系,假装是用户认识或者信任的某个人,为的是让他们下载一个附件或者点击一个有病毒的链接。或者,他们可以利用一个人的朋友和家人的网上信息回答可能被用于获取密码的问题。“On a public profile, people have where they are born, what university they went to, who their family members are, what city they live in. All that information can be used to get more private pieces of information such as social security numbers, addresses and phone numbers,” Mr Steckler says.“在公开简介中,人们透露出自己的出生地、读过的大学、家庭成员以及所居住的城市。所有这些信息都可以被用于获取更多的私人信息,如社会保障号码、家庭地址及电话号码,”施特克勒说。People should be aware of what information is available about them online and be suspicious when they receive emails from unknown senders. When clicking through to another site from an email, do not enter personal details as it could be a fake domain. Instead, search for the site on an independent search engine and log in from there.人们应该了解,自己的哪些信息在网上可以查到,并且在收到陌生人发送的邮件时应保持怀疑态度。当从电子邮件中点击链接进入另一个网站时,不要输入个人详细信息,因为该网站可能是一个假冒域名。你要做的是,在另一个独立搜索引擎上搜索该网站并从那里登录。Senior managers and executives in organisations may be even more at risk, cyber security experts warn, as hackers will presume they have good credit ratings or perhaps access to confidential work files while working remotely.网络安全专家警告称,组织中的高层管理人员可能面临更大风险,因为黑客会推测他们有很好的信用评级,或者在远程工作时可以访问机密的工作文件。Tony Anscombe, head of free products at AVG, a security software maker, says consumers need to think about forgoing some convenience in return for better security. When shopping online, he recommends people use the option to check out as a guest to restrict the number of ecommerce sites that store their details.网络安全软件制造商AVG免费产品主管托尼褠斯科姆(Tony Anscombe)说,消费者需要考虑放弃一些便利,以换取更好的安全性。上网购物时,他建议人们使用访客结账的选项,以限制电子商务网站存储他们详细信息的数量。“One of the first things I suggest to anyone is you can type in your credit card details each time you make a purchase. It is only a 16 digit number, it is not too complicated,” he says.“我对所有人的第一个建议是,每次网购,你都要输入一次自己的信用卡信息。只有16位数字,并不太复杂,”他说。He adds that consumers should use different email addresses for different purposes, such as shopping and banking, so hackers cannot match an email stolen from an ecommerce website to one from a bank. Emails from more than one address can be directed to the same device, so this should not be too inconvenient, he says.他补充说,针对不同的目的(如购物和办理业务),消费者应该使用不同的电子邮件地址,这样黑客就无法利用从电商网站偷来的电邮去匹配从窃取的电邮。可以从同一款设备发送多个不同地址的电邮,因此,这样做应该不会太麻烦。Other basic steps that Mr Anscombe recommends include checking your social media settings to make sure you know what you are sharing, turning off facial recognition so that you do not get tagged in photos without your permission and using different and complex passwords for each account.安斯科姆建议的其他基本措施包括,检查你的社交媒体设置,确保自己知道分享的内容;关掉面部识别功能,这样你就不会在未经自己许可的情况下被在照片中标注出自己的名字;每个账户要使用不同且复杂的密码。“Every time you write something down that is personal, think: Who is storing it, where is it being stored and why am I sending it to them?” he says.“你每次写下涉及个人隐私的信息,都要想一下:谁在存储它,存储在哪里,我为什么要发送给他们?”他说。 /201507/387353富阳超导可视人流富阳做人流手术多长时间

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