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2019年11月14日 01:05:07    日报  参与评论()人

襄樊人民医院治疗膀胱炎多少钱襄阳南漳县妇幼保健院中医院治疗女性疾病怎么样襄阳治疗阴茎生殖器疱疹的牛皮癣医院 Epidemics and pandemics are like earthquakes. Tragic, inevitable and unpredictable. It starts as a random event. A virus jumps species from a bird, bat, or other animal to “Patient Zero” – who passes it on to other human beings. More likely than not, over the course of this century we will face an influenza pandemic similar to the one in 1918 that killed 50m people.流行病和流行病疫情就像地震一样:悲惨、不可避免而且不可预测。它起源于一个随机事件。一种病毒跨越物种界限,从一只鸟、一只蝙蝠或其他动物跳到“零号病人”身上,接着这个人再把病毒传到其他人身上。在本世纪,我们很有可能会经历一次类似于1918年那样的流感疫情,当年的疫情曾导致5000万人死亡。President Barack Obama’s first chief of staff, Rahm Emanuel, said in the wake of the global economic meltdown that “you never let a serious crisis go to waste”. Crises are opportunities to learn. They point to measures that will prevent the collapse of institutions when they are under extreme pressure.美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)的首任幕僚长拉姆#8226;伊曼纽尔(Rahm Emanuel)曾在全球经济危机过后表示,“你绝不能让一场严重的危机白白浪费”。危机也是机遇,我们可以从中吸取教训。它们会揭示一些有助于防止机构在极端压力下崩溃的措施。While the focus is understandably on responding to the Ebola crisis, it is equally important that it serves as a wake-up call with respect to inadequacies that threaten not just tragedy on an unprecedented scale but the basic security of the US and other wealthy nations. As with climate change, no part of the world can insulate itself from the consequences of epidemic and pandemic.在世人不难理解地专注于应对埃拉疫情之际,同样重要的是,这场疫情应让人们警醒,各种不足之处不仅可能带来规模空前的悲剧,还会危及美国和其他富国的基本安全。就像气候变化一样,全球任何一个角落都无法摆脱流行病的影响。The report of the Global Health 2035 commission, which I co-chaired, points up three crucial lessons.“全球健康2035”(Global Health 2035)委员会的报告提出了3点重要教训。我担任该委员会的联合主席。First, collective action must be taken to build strong health systems in every corner of the globe. In west Africa, Ebola was a “stress test” on national health systems, and in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea the systems could not cope. There were too few trained health professionals; there was also too little equipment and too few supplies, and too little capacity for public health surveillance and control.第一,必须采取集体行动在全球所有地区建立强大的卫生体系。在西非,埃拉是针对各国卫生体系的一场“压力测试”。塞拉利昂、利比里亚和几内亚的卫生体系应付不了这场疫情。受过训练的专业医护人士太少;设备和物资太少,公共卫生监测和控制能力也太弱。Nigeria’s containment of the virus after the first case was diagnosed in July is instructive. Its success, hailed by the World Health Organisation as a piece of “world class epidemiological detective work”, is explained by its aggressive, co-ordinated surveillance and control response. It aly had a polio surveillance system, with skilled outbreak specialists who were quickly put to work tackling Ebola. Every country needs this kind of system. Prevention is cheaper than cure and leads to better outcomes.在首例埃拉患者今年7月被确诊后,尼日利亚对埃拉病毒的防控具有指导意义。强有力而协调的监控回应是该国防控成功的原因,世界卫生组织(WHO)称赞其为“世界级的流行病学侦探工作”。尼日利亚已建立小儿麻痹监测体系,拥有有技能的疫情专家,能够依靠他们来对付埃拉疫情。每个国家都需要这种体系。防范的代价低于治疗,而且会取得更好的结果。Building these systems takes time and money. Our research, conducted with an international team of economists and health experts, and published last year in the medical journal The Lancet, suggests that the price of this “systems strengthening” would be about bn a year for the next two decades. The good news is that we have the financing to pay for this through a combination of aid and domestic spending. The cost represents well under 1 per cent of the additional gross domestic product that will be available to low- and lower-middle-income countries due to increased GDP growth over the next 20 years.建立这些体系需要时间和金钱。我们的研究表明,未来20年,“加强体系”的成本为每年约300亿美元。这项研究由一个由经济学家和卫生专家组成的国际团队开展,去年发表在医学杂志《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上。好消息是,通过援助和国内出,我们可以筹措这笔资金。其成本远远低于中低收入国家未来20年国内生产总值(GDP)增量的1%。The second lesson is that the lack of investment in public health is a global emergency. The WHO’s slow response to Ebola was not surprising, given its recent staff cuts. For that, we all share the blame. Since 1994, the WHO’s regular budget has declined steadily in real terms. Even before the Ebola crisis, it struggled to fund basic functions. The entire budget for influenza was just ·7m in 2013 – less than a third of what New York City alone devotes to preparing for public health emergencies.第二个教训是,公共卫生投资匮乏是一项全球性紧急事件。鉴于世界卫生组织最近的裁员,该组织对埃拉疫情的缓慢回应并不令人意外。对此,我们都要承担责任。自1994年以来,世界卫生组织的经常预算按实际价值计算一直稳步下滑。甚至在埃拉疫情爆发之前,该组织就连维持基本职能都捉襟见肘。2013年,该组织针对流行病疫情的预算总额为770万美元,不到纽约市公共卫生紧急事件预算的三分之一。It takes just one infected airline passenger to introduce an infection into a country. We need the WHO more than ever. It alone has the mandate and legitimacy to serve as a health protection agency for all countries, rich and poor. Starving it of funds is reckless.一位受病毒感染的航空旅客就能把疾病带入一个国家。我们比任何时候都更需要世界卫生组织。该组织具备成为所有国家(穷国和富国)的卫生保护机构的授权和合法性。任由它资金匮乏是鲁莽的。The third lesson concerns scientific innovation. When it comes to discovering and developing medicines, vaccines and diagnostic tests, we have been largely ignoring the infectious diseases that disproportionately kill the world’s poor. Consequently, we still have no medicines or vaccine for Ebola. All we can do is provide basic life support, such as fluids and blood pressure treatment . For prevention, we have to rely on old-fashioned measures such as quarantine.第三个教训与科学创新有关。就发现和开发药物、疫苗和诊断测试而言,我们基本忽视了那些导致大量穷人死亡的传染病。其后果是,我们还没有针对埃拉病毒的药物或疫苗。我们所能做的是提供基本的生命持,例如补液和血压控制。至于预防,我们不得不依赖老式的隔离等措施。Margaret Chan, WHO’s director-general, has explained the reason for this neglect. Doctors were “empty-handed”, she said, because “a profit-driven industry does not invest in products for markets that cannot pay”. Ebola affects poor African nations, so drug companies see no profit in working on it. No society will allow companies to reap huge profits when disease is sping rapidly.世界卫生组织总干事陈冯富珍(Margaret Chan)解释了这种忽视的原因。她表示,医生们“两手空空”,因为“一个由利润驱动的行业不会为付不起钱的市场投资开发产品”。埃拉病毒影响的是非洲穷国,因此制药企业认为在这方面投入是不会带来任何利润的。任何一个社会都不会允许企业在疾病快速蔓延时获得巨大利润。Rich governments and donors need to step up. Investing several billion dollars a year, less than 0.01 per cent of global GDP, could be decisive in preventing tragedy on the scale of world war.富有的政府和捐赠者需要加快脚步。每年投资几十亿美元(不到全球GDP的0.01%)有望在防止世界大战规模的悲剧方面发挥决定性作用。Some issues are more important than recessions and elections. Ebola is a tragedy. Let us hope that it will also be a spur to taking the necessary steps to prevent the far greater one that is nearly inevitable on the current policy trajectory. The next Ebola is just around the corner.有些问题比经济衰退和选举更重要。埃拉疫情是一场悲剧。让我们希望它也将促使我们采取必要举措,防范那些规模大得多、按照目前政策轨道近乎不可避免的悲剧。下一个埃拉距离我们并不远。 /201411/342277襄阳市职业病防治医院流产手术多少钱

襄樊市中心医院男科咨询One of Hong Kong’s richest families plans to give money to the University of Southern California on the heels of presenting Harvard University with the largest donation in its four-century history.在向哈佛大学(Harvard University)捐出其建校四个世纪以来收获的最大一笔捐款后,香港的一个巨富家族打算向南加州大学(University of Southern California)捐款。Ronnie and Gerald Chan, whose family controls the Hang Lung property group, last week revealed they had pledged 0m to Harvard’s School of Public Health, from which Gerald graduated. A spokesperson for Hang Lung said they planned to make a donation to USC where Ronnie completed an MBA.陈启宗(Ronnie Chan)和陈乐宗(Gerald Chan)兄弟上周透露,他们已承诺向哈佛大学公共卫生学院(School of Public Health)捐赠3.50亿美元。陈乐宗毕业于该学院。陈氏家族控股香港恒隆地产(Hang Lung Properties),该公司发言人表示,他们拟向陈启宗获得MBA学位的南加州大学捐款。Forbes estimates that the brothers, whose father founded Hang Lung, are worth a collective bn, placing them 17th on the Hong Kong rich list. The spokesperson said they had not yet made their gift, but the South China Morning Post reported that Ronnie had flown to Los Angeles to make the pledge.《福布斯》(Forbes)估计,陈氏兄弟的身家合计30亿美元,在香港富豪榜上名列第17位。二人的父亲创建了恒隆地产。上述发言人称,他们尚未捐出款项,但据《南华早报》(South China Morning Post)报道,陈启宗已飞往洛杉矶去做出捐赠承诺。Ronnie Chan told the SCMP that his family – through their Morningside Foundation – had now donated more money than any other philanthropist, including Bill Gates, Microsoft founder, and Warren Buffett, the billionaire investor.陈启宗告诉《南华早报》,陈氏家族通过旗下晨兴基金(Morningside Foundation)捐赠的金额现已超过其他任何一位慈善家,包括微软(Microsoft)创始人比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)和身家亿万的投资者沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)。He also criticised Mr Gates and Mr Buffett for making a “shameful” visit to China in 2010. The US billionaires invited 50 wealthy Chinese to dinner in Beijing to spur charity in the country, which lacks a western-style tradition of philanthropy despite the rapid rise in wealth that has come with its economic rise.他还批评2010年盖茨与巴菲特的慈善中国行是在“羞辱”别人。这两位亿万富翁当时在北京邀请了50位中国富豪赴宴,以推动中国慈善事业的发展。尽管伴随着经济的腾飞,中国的财富迅速增长,但中国缺少西方式的慈善传统。Hong Kong has had a stronger tradition of philanthropy than China thanks to tycoons such as Li Ka-shing, Asia’s richest man, and Sir Run Run Shaw, the media mogul who died earlier this year.拜媒体大亨邵逸夫爵士(Sir Run Run Shaw)和香港首富李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing)等富豪所赐,香港的慈善传统要比中国内地深厚。邵逸夫爵士已于今年早些时候辞世。But Rupert Hoogewerf, who publishes annual rankings of Chinese billionaires and philanthropists, said the Chinese territory did not donate as much as might be expected given the amount of wealth that had been generated over the years.然而,发布年度中国亿万富翁和慈善家排行榜的胡润(Rupert Hoogewerf)表示,考虑到多年来创造的财富总额,香港人的捐赠金额可能仍低于公众的预期。“I have been surprised at the lack of public giving by Hong Kong families,” said Mr Hoogewerf, adding that the Chan family’s donations would generate more transparency about charitable donations in Hong Kong.胡润表示:“香港家族的公共捐赠之少让我感到意外。”他补充称,陈氏家族的捐赠会让香港的慈善捐赠变得更加透明。The Chans made their Harvard donation in the name of their late father TH Chan, after whom the public health school will be renamed. They have also donated money to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.陈氏兄弟是以他们已故的父亲陈曾熙(TH Chan)的名义向哈佛大学捐款的,哈佛大学公共卫生学院将易名为哈佛大学陈曾熙公共卫生学院。他们还向香港中文大学( Chinese University of Hong Kong)做出了捐赠。Their huge Harvard endowment mirrors a trend in China where Mr Hoogewerf said an overwhelming amount of philanthropy – which took off after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake that destroyed hundreds of schools – is directed towards education.陈氏兄弟向哈佛大学捐出的巨款反映出中国的一种趋势——胡润表示,在中国,有不计其数的慈善捐款正流向教育领域。中国的慈善捐款是在2008年造成数百所学校垮塌的四川大地震后开始增多的。Mr Hoogewerf said the three top charitable givers, including Cao Dewang, the founder of Fuyao Glass, have focused their donations on educational causes.胡润说,中国前三大慈善捐赠者(其中包括福耀玻璃(Fuyao Glass)创始人曹德旺)的捐赠都聚焦于教育事业。 /201409/329205襄阳市襄州区人民医院人流多少钱 襄阳人民医院做人流多少钱

襄阳保康人民医院泌尿外科The fortnight it took for UN climate talks to finally stagger to an end in Lima yesterday morning has shaken many assumptions about what it will take to achieve the historic global climate deal due to be sealed in Paris next December.持续两周的联合国气候谈判利马会议昨日上午蹒跚撑到终点。对于需要付出怎样的努力才能在明年12月的巴黎会议上达成历史性的全球气候协定,这两周的经历动摇了人们的许多设想。“If so much blood flows negotiating the prenuptial, what does that mean for the marriage?” asked Yvo de Boer, a former UN climate chief who heads the Global Green Growth Institute that helps developing nations.“如果谈判婚前协议要流这么多血,那么这对婚姻意味着什么?”曾是联合国气候变化机构负责人、如今执掌全球绿色增长研究所(Global Green Growth Institute)的伊沃#8226;德波尔(Yvo de Boer)表示。全球绿色增长研究所为发展中国家提供帮助。The Lima meeting did eventually manage to fulfil its main aim of approving guidelines for how countries will set out their plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions in the lead-up to the Paris agreement.利马会议最终确实设法达到了主要目标,即批准了各国在巴黎会议之前应当如何制定减排计划的指引。The agreement, if it is approved, would be the first to commit all countries to make such reductions.有望在巴黎达成的协定如果获得批准,将是首份要求所有国家削减温室气体排放的全球气候协定。But this only happened after a fraught round of negotiations that ran more than 30 hours overtime and sometimes appeared to be in danger of collapsing.但上述指引是在经过一轮艰辛的谈判之后才达成的。利马谈判超时30多个小时,而且有时似乎面临谈崩的危险。This is not that unusual. Few of the mammoth annual climate negotiations the UN has conducted over the past 20 years have ended on time, forcing negotiators to sleep where they can in their offices as meetings drag on through the night.这种局面并非那么不同寻常。过去20年里,联合国主持的庞大年度气候谈判很少按时结束,各国谈判代表不得不在办公室里随便找个地方小睡片刻,因为会议会彻夜举行。What made this year’s round of pyjama diplomacy especially sobering, however, was the nature of the disputes and the expectations that had preceded it.然而,今年这轮“睡衣外交”特别发人深省的地方在于纠纷的性质和会前的期望。The delegates who arrived in the temporary white tent venue that was erected for the conference in Peru’s army headquarters had been buoyed by events that had raised hopes this meeting would be far less contentious than its predecessors.当谈判代表们抵达秘鲁陆军总部为本次会议搭建的临时白色帐篷场地时,他们得到近期一些事态的鼓舞;这些事态加大了各方对今年的会议将比往年更加顺利的期待。The most important were a landmark US-China emissions pact in November and a package of hefty pledges from wealthy countries to help poorer nations deal with climate change that topped the bn mark during the Lima conference.最重要的是美国和中国在11月达成的具有里程碑意义的减排协议,以及富国为帮助穷国应对气候变化而作出的一系列慷慨承诺,这些承诺在利马会议期间突破了100亿美元大关。These commitments were carefully orchestrated to overcome a long-held suspicion among poor countries that they would never get enough help to create a low-carbon economy and adapt to the impacts of climate change.这些承诺经过精心策划,目的是化解贫穷国家长期以来的怀疑,即它们将永远得不到足够帮助来创建低碳经济和适应气候变化的影响。As a result, the UK’s energy secretary, Ed Davey, voiced the views of many when he declared on arrival in Lima: “I am more confident we can achieve a global climate change deal than I have ever been before.”其结果是,英国能源大臣埃德#8226;戴维(Ed Davey)在抵达利马时说出了很多人的心里话:“我比以往任何时候都更加相信,我们能够达成一份全球气候变化协定。”It soon became evident that this conference was going to be dogged by the same rifts between rich and poor countries that have long blocked progress in climate talks.但人们很快就看清本次会议将再次受到富国和穷国之间分歧的困扰。这些分歧曾长期阻碍气候变化谈判取得进展。Eleven days into the talks, delegates had managed to agree only one 28-word paragraph for the final text of the conference outcome. It said countries should “intensify their high-level engagement” to accelerate action on climate change.谈判进入第11天之际,各国代表只就会议成果最终文本中一个28个单词长的段落达成共识。该段称,各国应当“加强高层接触”,以加速对气候变化采取行动。Developing countries have long railed against calls for them to help fix a pollution problem caused by nations that prospered from it.长期以来,发展中国家一直强烈反对呼吁它们帮助解决由已靠化石燃料实现繁荣的国家造成的污染问题。Rich countries say that is increasingly unworkable when China is the world’s largest emitter and India is catching up fast.富国表示,在中国已成为全球最大排放国、印度正迅速赶上的情况下,光靠富国减排已经越来越行不通。The EU and the US had hoped the talks would be limited to making sure the pledges countries were to volunteer for the Paris deal would focus on emissions reduction.欧盟和美国此前希望,利马谈判的范围将局限于确保各国为巴黎协定自愿提交的承诺会侧重于减排。Instead, it rapidly became clear that developing countries wanted to make sure the pledges also included a recognition of the need for financial aid, as well as a firmer acknowledgment of the differences between developed and developing nations.但很快就变得明朗的是,发展中国家希望确保这些承诺还包括承认有必要提供财务援助,以及对于发达国家和发展中国家之间分歧的更确切承认。Amendments in the meeting’s draft outcome, including the insertion of a reference to the loss and damage vulnerable countries faced from climate change, eventually ensured the talks succeeded.对会议成果草案的修订,包括插入关于脆弱国家面对气候变化所造成损失和损害的内容,终于确保利马谈判取得了成功。But the effort it took to achieve this foreshadows the challenges that lie ahead before Paris.但是,为此付出的努力预示着巴黎会议面临的挑战。“I think everybody expected this would be easier,” said Jake Schmidt, a veteran climate talks expert from the Natural Resources Defense Council, a US environmental charity. “What we’ve seen in Lima shows Paris is not going to be an easy undertaking.”“我想此前大家都预期本次会议会更容易些,”美国环境慈善组织——自然资源保护委员会(Natural Resources Defense Council)的资深气候谈判专家杰克#8226;施密特(Jake Schmidt)表示,“我们在利马看到的情况表明,巴黎谈判不会容易。” /201412/348820 襄阳中心医院无痛引流多少钱襄阳宜城妇幼保健院中医院做产检多少钱

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