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武汉医院看男科排名指南武汉龟头起红点是咋回事

2019年10月16日 12:32:34来源:新华指南

When Fortune spoke with Lufthansa CEO Carsten Spohr in November, the company had just scaled back its earnings targets due to a weaker global economy and overcapacity. The German airline is being squeezed on short-haul flights by discount carriers like Easyjet and Ryan Air and by booming Middle Eastern carriers on long-haul routes. It’s been also been plagued by pilot strikes, which have cost the company hundreds of millions of dollars.《财富》杂志在去年11月采访汉莎航空首席执行官卡斯滕o斯波尔时,该公司刚因为全球经济疲软和产能过剩调低了自己的收益预期。这家德国航空公司在短途航班市场遭遇了易捷航空和瑞安航空等廉价运营商的挤压,在长途航班上又面临着一众新兴中东运营商的挑战。飞行员罢工更是给汉莎航空雪上加霜,使其付出了数亿美元的代价。But when surveying his airline’s overall operations, the CEO, who’d been on the job just six months at the time of his conversation with Fortune, pointed to its discount arm Germanwings as a bright spot.不过纵览公司整体运营情况,这位当时才上任六个月的首席执行官指出,汉莎旗下的廉价航空运营商德国之翼是一个亮点。“Our low cost subsidiary Germanwings [has] been a great success; bigger than we expected,” he said. Indeed, Lufthansa is in the process of shifting more of its European traffic from its flagship brand to Germanwings and its other discount subsidiary, Eurowings, because of their lower operating costs. Spohr told Fortune that he expected Germanwings—which launched in 2002—to be profitable in 2015. “It very much looks like we will be meeting that target.”他说:“我们的廉价航空子公司德国之翼做得非常成功,超乎公司预期。”确实,汉莎航空正把更多的欧洲客流从自身的旗舰品牌移向德国之翼和另一家廉价航空子公司欧洲之翼,因为其运营成本更低。斯波尔对《财富》表示,他希望2002年成立的德国之翼能在2015年盈利:“看起来我们很有可能达成这个目标。”On Tuesday, it was easy to wonder if that still holds true.但在本周二,我们不由怀疑这个预测是否还能实现。An Airbus A320 jetliner operated by Germanwingscrashed in the French Alps on its way from Barcelona to Dusseldorf on Tuesday morning. All 150 people on board are presumed dead.24日,德国之翼运营的一架空客A320客机从巴塞罗那起飞,前往杜塞尔多夫,途中坠毁于法国阿尔卑斯山区。预计机上的150名乘客全部罹难。Spohr Tweeted on Tuesday that it was a “dark day” for Lufthansa. The company said on its website, “Everyone at Germanwings and Lufthansa is deeply shocked and saddened by these events. Our thoughts and prayers are with the families and friends of the passengers and the crew members.”斯波尔周二在Twitter上表示,对汉莎航空而言,这是“黑暗的一天”。公司官网称:“对于这起坠机事件,德国之翼和汉莎航空的每个人都感到深深的震惊和悲哀。我们将与机上乘客和机组人员的家人和朋友一起哀悼和祈祷。”When asked about the business implications of the crash, a Lufthansa spokeswoman said that its highest priority was conducting a full investigation of the crash and providing the families and friends of the plane’s passengers and crew with “all the care and assistance they need.”当被问到坠机事件将对公司业务产生哪些影响时,汉莎航空发言人表示,公司首先要做的是对坠机事件进行全面的调查,并对机上乘客和机组人员的亲友提供“他们所需的一切关怀和援助”。Shares of Lufthansa dipped as much as 4.6% in European trading on Tuesday and closed 1.7% lower.汉莎航空的股价在周二一度暴跌4.6%,收盘时跌幅止于1.7%。When such airline catastrophes occur, there’s always speculation about what it will mean for the businesses involved for the long-term. Robert Mann, an industry consultant and a former airline executive, says that most plane crashes, as tragic and headline-grabbing as they may be, “have very little impact on a carrier’s ongoing business.”当这样的空难发生后,坊间都会推测其对公司业务的长期影响。不过一位行业顾问兼前航空公司高管罗伯特o曼恩表示,尽管大多数坠机事件令人悲伤,被媒体头条大幅报道,但“对运营商的未来业务基本不会造成影响”。There are a few exceptions, mainly in cases where “there is an indication of systemic issues or incompetence.” Mann points to ValuJet as an example of a carrier that was wrecked by the latter.也有少数例外,主要出现在那些“有迹象表明公司出现了系统性问题,或是失职”的情况。曼恩指出,瓦卢杰航空就是因为后一种情况走向了衰亡。In 1996, ValuJet Flight 592 caught fire shortly after takeoff and crashed into the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 passengers that were on board. An investigation into the crash determined that a ValuJet subcontractor that had illegally loaded oxygen tanks into the plane’s cargo hold was responsible for the tragedy “It’s ironic, since it wasn’t even ValuJet’s fault; it just happened to use a vendor who was incompetent,” Mann says.1996年,瓦卢杰航空592号航班起飞后不久就遭遇失火,坠毁于佛罗里达州大沼泽地,机上110人全部罹难。空难调查发现,瓦卢杰的外包商在飞机货舱内非法放置了氧气罐,从而导致了这场悲剧。曼恩表示:“这很讽刺,因为这甚至不是瓦卢杰的错,他们只是用了一个失职的供应商。”But still, ValuJet couldn’t shake the scrutiny and fallout from the tragedy. After the Federal Aviation Administration grounded all ValuJet planes, the carrier eventually returned to the air with a reduced fleet, but it never rebuilt its customer base and ultimately merged with the smaller AirTran Airways, which is now a part of Southwest Airlines.尽管如此,瓦卢杰航空也无法动摇审查结果,打消悲剧事件产生的负面影响。美国联邦航空对瓦卢杰所有飞机下了禁飞令,这家运营商最终精简机队后重新开始运营,但他们再也无法挽回客户群体,并最终与小公司穿越航空合并,如今一起化作了美国西南航空公司的一部分。Then there’s Malaysia Airlines, which saw a drastic drop-off in passengers following the disappearance of Flight 370 in March 2014 and the fatal downing of Flight 17 in Ukraine in July. The Malaysian government took the airline private in August in an attempt to restore its financial health.还有一个例子是马来西亚航空公司。该公司接连遭遇了2014年3月的MH370航班失联和7月的MH17在乌克兰坠机,乘客数量急剧下降。马来西亚政府在2014年8月将其私有化,试图恢复这家公司的财务健康。Based on reports of Tuesday’s plane crash, it’s not clear what caused the Germanwings aircraft to go down. Mann notes that Lufthansa services its Germanwings fleet, alongside the rest of its planes, at Lufthansa Technik, one of the airline industry’s largest maintenance providers. Lufthansa’s last fatal accident occurred 20 years ago, and Germanwings’ safety record was perfect until Tuesday.从有关周二这起坠机事故的报道来看,导致德国之翼飞机坠毁的原因尚不清楚。曼恩指出,德国之翼的机组与汉莎航空其他机组一样,都由汉莎航空技术公司进行维护。这是航空业最大的维修公司之一。汉莎航空上一起致命空难发生在20年前,而德国之翼在本周二之前的安全记录堪称完美。Lufthansa is “a quality organization”, Mann says. The value of that attribute can’t be overstated. Every airline passenger is after a good price, but “the one thing people will not trade away is safety,” he says.曼恩表示,汉莎航空是“一家高品质的公司”。其价值怎么夸张都不为过。他说,每位乘客都想要便宜的价格,但“有一样东西没人会拿来换钱,那就是安全。” /201503/367076。

  • On the annual occasion in China for recognizing teachers’ contributions to society, a group of professors and students have called on Chinese education officials and university administrators to take more vigorous action against sexual harassment on university campuses.在中国每年一度表彰教师社会贡献的特殊时刻,一群高校师生呼吁中国的教育官员和大学管理者,为防止校园性骚扰事件的发生采取更有力的行动。On Tuesday, the day before Teachers’ Day, the 256 professors and students signed open letters addressed to China’s Ministry of Education as well as to Zhu Chongshi, the president of Xiamen University.周二,也就是教师节的前一天,256名高校师生分别签署了致中国教育部以及厦门大学校长朱崇实的公开信。In the letter addressed to Mr. Zhu, the group called on him to make public the findings of an investigation into a sexual harassment case that came to light in June involving a history professor who was accused of luring female students into having sex with him. After the allegations surfaced, the university suspended the professor, Wu Chunming, and announced that it had set up a special team to investigate the case.在给朱崇实的信中,他们呼吁公布今年6月曝光的一桩性骚扰案的调查结果。该案涉及一名被指诱奸女学生的历史系教授。在指控浮出水面之后,学校中止了涉事教授吴春明的工作职责,并宣布已成立专门小组调查此案。But after three months, the university has yet to announce the results of that investigation.但三个月过去了,厦门大学仍未宣布调查结果。“We hope that Xiamen University will deliver a just and fair conclusion for the involved parties and the public,” says the letter, which was made available to The New York Times. “But we also learned that before the media got involved in the Wu Chunming case, a number of people had aly filed complaints about Wu, but the complaints were not taken seriously or properly investigated.”“我们期待厦门大学能给当事人和公众一个公正、公平的结论,”这封《纽约时报》所见的信中写道,“不过我们也获知,在媒体介入之前,吴案中的一些当事人早就已经通过组织途径进行了投诉,但却并未得到足够重视与相应调查处理。”“The reason,” continues the letter, which includes some signatures from Chinese studying or working abroad, “is because the colleges and universities in mainland China do not have established anti-sexual harassment mechanisms.”“究其原因,”信中接着说,“在于我国大陆地区高校并未建立反性骚扰机制。”Included in the letter to the Education Ministry was a proposed set of guidelines for establishing nationwide regulations to prevent and respond to sexual harassment on university campuses.给教育部的信中还包含了一份高等教育学校性骚扰防治管理办法的建议稿。While the focus of the letters is on the Wu Chunming case, organizers say they see the case as an opportunity to effect change nationwide.尽管这两封信的关注焦点是吴春明案,发起人说,他们将此案看做在全国范围内促成改变的契机。“The main thing is that we don’t think this is an individual case,” said Luo Ruixue of the Women Awakening Network, a Guangzhou-based women’s rights group that helped organize the letter to the ministry and Xiamen University. “What we really need is a system in place at universities to deal with these kinds of situations.”“主要是,我们不认为这是个案。”新媒体女性网络的罗瑞雪说。这家位于广州的女权组织参与发起了致教育部和厦门大学的这两封公开信。“我们真正需要的,是在高校建立起处理类似情况的制度。”“We hope that Xiamen University can set an example by creating this kind of a system,” Ms. Luo said in a telephone interview.“我们希望厦门大学可以建立起这样的机制,成为全国的典范,”罗瑞雪在电话采访中说。One of the signatories to the letter was a woman who recently completed a master’s degree at Xiamen University.联名信的签署人中包括一名刚刚从厦门大学获得硕士学位的女生。On Wednesday morning, the woman, who uses the pseudonym Xiao Wu to protect her privacy, took part in another, separately organized activity, intended to raise awareness about sexual harassment on campus. In photos circulated on Sina Weibo, Xiao Wu and nine other female students can be seen standing at the entrance of their respective universities, dressed in identical Little Red Riding Hood costumes and carrying swords and shields inscribed with the characters: “Give female students back our freedom and our nights.”周三上午,她参加了另一个旨在提高对校园性骚扰案关注的活动。为了保护个人隐私,她化名为“小五”。新浪微上传播的照片显示,小五和另外九名女生站在各自的学校门口,穿着相同的小红帽装,手里举着剑和盾牌,盾牌上写着:“把自由和夜晚还给女生。”“The traditional understanding is that Little Red Riding Hood was eaten by the Big Bad Wolf because she was not careful, so the moral of the story is often said to be to stay at home and not go anywhere,” said Xiao Wu by telephone from Xiamen. “Every time something happens or a sexual harassment case comes up, there are always voices that come out and say that the female students involved were not careful enough, were not aware enough of their safety.”“传统的理解是,小红帽被大灰狼吃了,是因为她缺乏警惕,所以人们认为,这个故事告诉我们,要待在家里,哪也别去,”小五在厦门通过电话表示。“每次某些事件或性侵案发生时,总是有人说,是因为女学生缺乏警惕,安全意识不够。”“By choosing Little Red Riding Hood and by holding those shields and swords, we are trying to make a statement to say that we aren’t going to be those people who only stay at home and don’t go anywhere.”“我们选择装扮成小红帽,手举剑和盾牌,是想说,我们不打算成为只待在家里,哪儿也不去的人。”In addition to the photos, which were taken at 10 different universities, including Xiamen University, Beijing Foreign Studies University and Fudan University in Shanghai, the Little Red Riding Hood organizers also sent letters to the presidents of 116 of China’s top universities, calling for them to establish systems to prevent sexual harassment.这些照片拍摄于10所不同的大学,包括厦门大学、北京外国语大学和上海复旦大学。除了这些照片,“小红帽”活动的组织者还向中国116所重点大学的校长寄出了公开信,呼吁建立性骚扰防范机制。“The school should be a safe environment,” Xiao Wu said. “Why can men go out but women can’t go out? I think this is very unfair. So we want to hit back against the Big Bad Wolf.”“学校应该是一个安全的地方,”小五说,“为什么男生可以出去,而女生却不能?我认为这很不公平。所以我们想要赶走大灰狼。” /201409/328362。
  • In 2012 when 17-year-old Malala Yousafzai was shot in the head on a school bus by the Taliban, she became the first Pakistani student to be actively targeted by the militants. Two years later, Yousafzai is tragically joined by hundreds more.2012年,17岁的马拉拉在一辆校车中遭塔利班击,头部中弹。她是第一个被武装恐怖主义分子追杀的巴基斯坦学生。两年后,悲剧再次发生在上百名巴基斯坦学生身上。On Tuesday, a Taliban attack on a school in Peshawar has left more than 100 schoolchildren killed. Shiza Shahid, the co-founder and CEO of the Malala Fund, an organization working to break the cycle of poverty and empower girls through education, has devoted much of her life to championing women around the world. In an exclusive interview with Fortune, Shahid — speaking as a Pakistani advocate — shared her initial reactions.上周,塔利班袭击了巴基斯坦北部城市白沙瓦的一间学校,100多名学生因此丧生。关注扶贫及女童教育问题的马拉拉基金(Malala Fund)联合创始人兼首席执行官希扎o沙希德接受《财富》(Fortune)的独家专访,以一名巴基斯坦持者的身份,与记者分享了她对这一事件的看法。Edited excerpts:以下是经编辑节选的采访内容:What was your reaction when you first heard about the attack?在最初听到这起校园袭击案时,你的第一反应是什么?It’s been incredibly heartbreaking as a Pakistani and as a human being. I have seen so many terrible things happening in Pakistan in recent years. Suicide attacks, sieges, Malala’s own shooting, but this really hits home in a way that is deeply painful. Malala was the first child to be deliberately target in Pakistan. Now they are targeting over 100 children dead.对巴基斯坦人和全世界其他人来说,这起事件都令人心碎。近年来我在巴基斯坦经历过如此多可怕的事情,包括自杀式袭击、围攻、马拉拉被击等,但是这次事件仍令我如被击中要害般痛彻心扉。马拉拉是第一个被塔利班蓄意袭击的巴基斯坦青少年,现在他们变本加厉,谋杀了100多名孩子。What is missing in Pakistan right now that these violent attacks are continuing?暴力袭击仍在继续,巴基斯坦目前最缺失的是什么?The roots of terrorism in Pakistan are deep and complicated and lawless and ungoverned. Various ideologies are all in the quest for the very same thing: Power. When territories are ungoverned, and people are disappointed and not given opportunities to strive for a better tomorrow, people fall prey to terrorist groups who have the means to intimidate and frighten.巴基斯坦国内的恐怖主义根深蒂固、错综复杂,而且缺少法律的约束和政府的管治。各个流派都在追逐同一个目标:权力。领土之内缺乏有力管治,人民对此深感失望,却又无力为争取更好的未来而抗争,只能活在恐怖分子的威胁和恐吓之下。Why do school children remain a target for the Taliban?为什么塔利班一再袭击在校学童?Significant progress has been made by the military to root out certain terrorist leaders and this was really an act of retaliation. This is a school that mostly has children of military officers and cadets and their wives were teachers. So really, this was retaliation to what was done by the military, and it shows how long this battle is going to be.巴基斯坦军方铲除了一部分恐怖分子头目,取得了反恐的重大进展,这次的袭击显然是报复行为。遭受袭击的是一间军人子弟学校,学校的老师大多数是军官和军事学员的家属。因此,这就是一次针对此前巴军方反恐行动的报复行为,表明了这场战争将会旷日持久地进行下去。Also, there is nothing more precious than our children. By going as far as attacking children, they are saying that nothing is off limits, so there is an utter lack of humanity. There have been instances where terrorists have bombed empty schools as a way to protect the teachings of western ideologies, but this act was clearly and deliberately meant to kill children, and it is as heinous as can be.没有什么比我们的孩子更加珍贵。恐怖分子袭击手无寸铁的儿童,表明他们毫无顾忌,没有底线。这种做法惨无人性。此前恐怖分子曾经轰炸无人的学校,以此拒绝西方的意识形态,但此次事件攻击的目标直接就是儿童,实在令人发指。Do you think this act of violence marks a tipping point in Pakistan?你认为这次暴力袭击会否成为巴基斯坦的一个转折点?We are at a point now were the country needs to stand up and stand up together. We need to grieve for who has been lost and take action for once and for all, and we need to say no more and say never again.在这个时刻,整个国家都应该团结起来,奋起抗争。我们既要哀悼逝者,又要采取行动彻底铲除恐怖分子,不再姑息并坚决杜绝此类事件重演。Are you fearful that this will deter children from going to school?这次事件是否会让孩子们害怕去学校上课?This has been happening for awhile. In the past, areas around schools have been targeted and school buses have been threatened and for a while now, military schools have been targeted as well. I live about a mile away from the Navy complex in Islamabad, and for awhile there has been heavy security. If children aren’t given an education there really isn’t anything left. So hopefully we will take the time to grieve, and hopefully the people will come together and do everything we can to protect children. For more children to lose their one chance to get an education will result in many more tragedies just like this.这种情况已经持续了一段时间。过去恐怖分子打击学校附件的地区,袭击校车,而现在他们袭击军事管理学校。我住在伊斯兰堡海军基地一英里以外的地方,当地暂时处于戒严状态。如果儿童无法接受教育,那这个国家就真的没有未来了。所以我希望人们为逝者哀悼,同时行动起来尽一切努力保护孩子们。如果越来越多的孩子失去受教育的机会,就会酿成更多这样的悲剧。What, if anything, has changed for the better in Pakistan since 2009 when you started a summer camp to empower young girls and their education?2009年时你组织了一个夏令营为女孩提供受教育机会,在那之后,巴基斯坦国内在此方面取得了怎样的进展?Where we have taken two steps forward, we have also taken two steps backward in various aspects. We have more girls going to school than before and we have more parents agreeing that sending their girls to school is a priority. We also have more women in medical school than men. On the other hand, you have terrorists targeting schools, and you still see female medical school graduates not going to work because they are worried about getting a husband. The terrorist threat is very real against women.我们有两点进步也有两点退步。上学读书的女孩子比以前多了,有更多家长认识到了送女儿上学的重要性。医学院的女学生也比男学生多。另一方面,出现了恐怖分子袭击学校的事件,还有医学院的女生毕业后为了结婚而不去就业的情况。恐怖主义对女性存在着切实的威胁。How can concerned people outside of Pakistan help?其他国家的那些关心你们的人如何能提供帮助?I am a big believer in finding local activists and advocates and supporting them. That is very much the model that I worked with at the Malala Fund. Now I am working on a social impact fund that will invest on the ground, and there are some great organizations that try and highlight local leaders and amplify their work.我强烈建议他们去找当地的活动家和倡导者,给这些人提供持。这就是我在马拉拉基金会的工作模式。现在我在为一个具有社会影响力的基金会工作,它能够在当地进行基础的投资,还有一些大型机构选择与当地领导人联手,扩大其影响力。We have heard Malala’s story, and it was a great example of the power of story telling. We have more stories to tell, and we need to bring those stories into the media and supporting their organizations is a great way for us to do it. You are seeing young girls in villages starting companies to sell handbags that employ local women. You see entrepreneurs and young people creating change and innovation. Those are the things we need to focus on, and those are certainly the things I focus on given how hard it is to get anything done through the government.我们都听说过马拉拉的故事,它充分显示了一个故事讲得好会具有怎样的力量。我们还有很多故事可讲,而且我们要在媒体上讲述这些故事,持相关的组织就是一个很好的方法。你可以看到年轻的乡村女性创建手包品牌并聘用当地的妇女,你还可以看到创业者和年轻人在变革和创新。这些就是我们需要关注的东西,也是我最为关注的方面,因为这些很难通过政府来实现。(财富中文网) /201412/350622。
  • HELIGOLAND, Germany — Of all the developed nations, few have pushed harder than Germany to find a solution to global warming. And towering symbols of that drive are appearing in the middle of the North Sea.德国黑尔戈兰岛——几乎没有哪个发达国家会像德国这般卖力地寻求全球变暖的解决之道。现在,一些高耸的大家伙作为这项努力的象征,出现在了北海中。They are wind turbines, standing as far as 60 miles from the mainland, stretching as high as 60-story buildings and costing up to million apiece. On some of these giant machines, a single blade roughly equals the wingspan of the largest airliner in the sky, the Airbus A380. By year’s end, scores of new turbines will be sending low-emission electricity to German cities hundreds of miles to the south.它们是风力涡轮机,屹立在距内陆60英里的地方,足有60层楼那么高,每台耗资达3000万美元。这些机器都是庞然大物,有的光是上边的一个叶片,大小就和天空中最大的客机——空客A380——差不多了。今年年底前,数十台新安装的涡轮机会给向南数百英里处的德国城市供应清洁电能。It will be another milestone in Germany’s costly attempt to remake its electricity system, an ambitious project that has aly produced striking results: Germans will soon be getting 30 percent of their power from renewable energy sources. Many smaller countries are beating that, but Germany is by far the largest industrial power to reach that level in the modern era. It is more than twice the percentage in the ed States.这将是德国耗资巨大的电力系统改造工程的又一个里程碑。此项宏大的工程已经取得了惊人的成效:可再生能源对该国电力供应的贡献率很快就能达到30%。这对很多小国而言可能不在话下,但迄今为止,德国是近现代达到这一水平的工业国中最大的一个。30%的比例较美国高出一倍多。Germany’s relentless push into renewable energy has implications far beyond its shores. By creating huge demand for wind turbines and especially for solar panels, it has helped lure big Chinese manufacturers into the market, and that combination is driving down costs faster than almost anyone thought possible just a few years ago.德国在不断地推进可再生能源的开发利用,其影响远远超出了它的国界。通过催生出对风力涡轮机和太阳能板(尤其是后者)的巨大需求,它在将中国大型制造企业吸引到这个市场的过程中发挥了作用,由此产生的合力正让成本飞速下降——几年前根本没人料到会降得如此之快。Electric utility executives all over the world are watching nervously as technologies they once dismissed as irrelevant begin to threaten their long-established business plans. Fights are erupting across the ed States over the future rules for renewable power. Many poor countries, once intent on building coal-fired power plants to bring electricity to their people, are discussing whether they might leapfrog the fossil age and build clean grids from the outset.全球的电力公司高管们,眼睁睁看着一度被自己视作无关紧要的技术开始威胁到自家公司长期以来的经营方略,无不如坐针毡。美国各地都爆发了有关可再生能源电力未来规则的讨论。许多曾打算通过建造燃煤发电厂来为国民供电的穷国,眼下正探讨是否可以跳过化石燃料时代,从一开始就构建清洁能源网络。A reckoning is at hand, and nowhere is that clearer than in Germany. Even as the country sets records nearly every month for renewable power production, the changes have devastated its utility companies, whose profits from power generation have collapsed.清算的时刻到了,而德国的情况可能比任何地方都要明了。几乎每个月,德国都会刷新可再生能源电力的生产纪录,但与此同时,这些变化让该国的公用事业公司损失惨重,来自电力生产的利润一路狂跌。A similar pattern may well play out in other countries that are pursuing ambitious plans for renewable energy. Some American states, impatient with legislative gridlock in Washington, have set aggressive goals of their own, aiming for 20 or 30 percent renewable energy as soon as 2020.类似的情况很可能出现在其他那些正推行宏大的可再生能源规划的国家。美国的一些州对华盛顿的立法僵局失去了耐心,已经自行设立了雄心勃勃的目标:在2020年之前就要让可再生能源对电力供应的贡献率达到20%至30%。The word the Germans use for their plan is starting to make its way into conversations elsewhere: energiewende, the energy transition. Worldwide, Germany is being held up as a model, cited by environmental activists as proof that a transformation of the global energy system is possible.德国人把自己的方案叫“能源转型”(energiewende),这个词已经开始被其他国家和地区的一些人挂在嘴边。德国被全世界奉为楷模,环保人士常常以它为例来明,全球能源系统的转型是可以实现的。But it is becoming clear that the transformation, if plausible, will be wrenching. Some experts say the electricity business is entering a period of turmoil beyond anything in its 130-year history, a disruption potentially as great as those that have remade the airlines, the music industry and the telephone business.但人们越来越清楚地看到,这种转型即便可行,也会是一个痛苦的过程。一些业内人士称,电力产业进入了它130年的历史上最激烈的动荡期,它正迎来一场裂变,其影响可能堪比航空、音乐以及电话产业曾经发生的那些重塑产业格局的大裂变。Taking full advantage of the possibilities may require scrapping the old rules of electricity markets and starting over, industry observers say — perhaps with techniques like paying utilities extra to keep conventional power plants on standby for times when the wind is not blowing and the sun is not shining. The German government has acknowledged the need for new rules, though it has yet to figure out what they should be. A handful of American states are beginning a similar reconsideration of how their electric systems operate.行业观察人士表示,要充分利用这种可能性,也许就得抛开电力市场的旧有规则,重新规划——大概还得作一些安排,比如向公用事业公司额外付费,让其保留传统发电厂备用,以应付风力和日照不足的情况。德国政府已经认识到了启用新规则的必要性,尽管它还没弄清新规则该是什么样。美国的少数几个州同样在重新思考本州电力系统的运行方式。“It’s pretty amazing what’s happening, really,” said Gerard Reid, an Irish financier working in Berlin on German energy projects. “The Germans call it a transformation, but to me it’s a revolution.”“正在发生的一切真的十分惊人,”在柏林做德国能源项目的爱尔兰投资人杰拉德·里德(Gerard Reid)说,“德国人称之为转型,但在我看来这是一场革命。”The potential payoff for getting the new rules right is enormous: a far greener electricity system that does not pump as much greenhouse gas and other pollution into the atmosphere. Yet as the German experience shows, the difficulties of the transition are likely to be enormous, too, and it is still far from clear whether the system can be transformed fast enough to head off dangerous levels of global warming.如果能正确地创建新规则,就有机会获得巨大的回报:有一个更为环保的、不再向大气中排放那么多温室气体以及其他污染物的电力系统。不过德国的经验表明,转型的困难同样是巨大的;而且目前还远远不能确定该系统的转型速度是否能快到足以防止全球变暖达到危险的程度。“I am convinced that wind and sun will be the central sources of energy, not only in Germany but worldwide,” said Patrick Graichen, who heads a think tank in Berlin, Agora Energiewende, devoted to studying the shift. “The question is: How can we turn the energy transition into a success story?”“我相信,风和阳光将会成为主要的能量来源,不光在德国,在全世界都是如此。”致力于能源转型研究的柏林智库阿哥拉能源转型(Agora Energiewende)的负责人帕特里克·格赖兴(Patrick Graichen)说,“问题是:我们怎样才能让这场能源转型成为成功的范例。”Plummeting Prices暴跌的价格One recent day, under a brilliant California sun, saws buzzed as workers put the finishing touches on spacious new homes. They looked like many others going up in Orange County, south of Los Angeles, but with an extra feature: Lennar Corporation was putting solar panels on every house it built.不久前的一天,在加利福尼亚州明媚的阳光下,工人们手拿嗡嗡作响的电锯,给宽敞的新房加上最后的点缀。这些新房坐落在洛杉矶以南的奥兰治县,看起来跟当地的其他房屋没有太大差别,但它们都有一个附加特性:莱纳公司(Lennar Corporation)给自己盖的每一栋房子都安装了太阳能面板。The prices of the panels have plunged 70 percent in the past five years. That huge decline means solar power is starting to make more economic sense, especially in parts of the ed States with high electricity prices.过去五年,太阳能板的价格大跌了70%。这种暴跌意味着用太阳能供电开始变得更加经济了,尤其是在美国一部分电价较高的地区。At about 100 Lennar subdivisions in California, buyers who move into a new home automatically get solar panels on the roof. Lennar, the nation’s second-largest homebuilder, recently decided to expand that policy to several more states, starting with Colorado. The company typically retains ownership of the panels and signs 20-year deals to sell homeowners the power from their own roofs, at a 20 percent discount from the local utility’s prices.在加利福尼亚州约100个由莱纳公司兴建的住宅小区里,买家搬进新房时,就自动获得了屋顶的太阳能板。作为美国第二大住宅建筑商的莱纳公司,最近决定从科罗拉多州开始,在其他几个州推广这种做法。该公司通常会保留这些组件的所有权,并和房主签定为期20年的合同,让他们买下产自自家屋顶的电力,价格比当地公用事业公司的报价低20%。“It’s so simple when we tell a customer, ‘You’re guaranteed to save money,’ ” said David J. Kaiserman, president of Lennar Ventures, the division overseeing the solar plan.这个太阳能计划由莱纳事业部(Lennar Ventures)负责,其总裁大卫·J·凯泽曼(David J. Kaiserman)说,“当我们告诉客户‘包你省钱’时,事情就变得非常简单了。”The shifting economics can largely be traced to China, by way of Germany. Over the past decade, the Germans set out to lower the cost of going green by creating rapid growth in the once-tiny market for renewable power.在很大程度上,这种经济性变化是中国——在德国带动之下——发挥作用的结果。过去10年间,德国人让一度不成规模的可再生能源电力市场实现了快速增长,从而降低了走绿色之路的成本。Germany has spent more than 0 billion on its program, dangling guaranteed returns for farmers, homeowners, businesses and local cooperatives willing to install solar panels, wind turbines, biogas plants and other sources of renewable energy. The plan is paid for through surcharges on electricity bills that cost the typical German family roughly 0 a year, though some of that has been offset as renewables have pushed down wholesale electricity prices.德国已经在其能源转型方案上投入了1400多亿美元,并以固定收益诱惑有意安装太阳能板、风力涡轮机、沼气池等可再生能源设备的农民、屋主、企业以及当地的合作社。该方案的成本要通过征收可再生能源电价附加费来弥补,一个普通德国家庭每年大约要缴纳280美元,不过,由于可再生能源拉低了趸售电价,此项开被抵消了一部分。The program has expanded the renewables market and created huge economies of scale, with worldwide sales of solar panels doubling about every 21 months over the past decade, and prices falling roughly 20 percent with each doubling. “The Germans were not really buying power — they were buying price decline,” said Hal Harvey, who heads an energy think tank in San Francisco.德国的这一方案帮助扩大了可再生能源市场的规模,带来了巨大的规模效应——过去10年,太阳能板的全球销量每隔21个月就会翻倍,而销量每翻倍一次,价格就会降低20%左右。“德国人投入重金,买的不是电,而是价格的下降。”旧金山一家能源智库的负责人哈尔·哈维(Hal Harvey)说。The ripple effects drove some American panel manufacturers out of business, prompting complaints about Chinese government subsidies to the manufacturers who seized much of the market. But the decline also created an opportunity for American homeowners and for companies like Lennar.在这种连锁反应下,美国的一些生产商被迫关门歇业,中国政府向占据了很大一部分市场份额的本国厂商发放补贴之举,引人抱怨。不过,价格的下降也为美国的屋主以及莱纳这样的公司带来了机会。Wind power, too, has come down sharply in price in recent years, and it is now competitive with the cost of new coal-burning power plants in parts of the ed States.近年来,风电价格也大幅下降。目前,风电在成本上可以和美国部分地区新建的燃煤电厂匹敌。A Threat to Business企业面临的威胁The decline in the cost of renewable power spells potential trouble for companies that generate electricity. They make a lot of their money at times of day when demand for power, and therefore power prices, are high. Solar power, even a small amount, could be especially disruptive, shaving wholesale prices during those peak periods.可再生电力成本的下降,对电力生产企业构成了威胁。让这些企业大赚特赚的,是一天当中电力需求大、电价也随之升高的时段。而太阳能就算规模不大,也有可能给市场带来极大的冲击,把用电高峰期的趸售电价拉下来。Though growing rapidly, solar power still accounts for less than 1 percent of American power generation, so the disruption has not yet been seen on a large scale in the ed States. But some utilities, fearful of losing out as the power mix changes, have started attacking rules that encourage solar panels. Others are taking the opposite tack, jumping into the solar market themselves.尽管光电产业发展得很快,但光电产量在美国电力总产量中所占的比重还不到1%,因此美国市场尚未受到大规模的冲击。不过,有的公用事业公司担心自己因电源结构的变化而遭受损失,已经开始攻击那些鼓励使用太阳能面板的规则了。另外一些公司则采取了相反的策略,干脆投身到了光电市场之中。Nipping at the heels of those utilities are fast-growing start-up companies that are putting tens of thousands of panels on rooftops and leasing them to homeowners for no money down, with Wall Street banks providing the financing. The hot spot is California, which is aiming for 33 percent renewable power by 2020 and seems increasingly likely to get there.紧随这些公用事业公司之后的,是高速成长的初创公司,它们正把数以万计的太阳能板安在人们的屋顶上,并和屋主签下无需付押金的租约,为其提供资金持的是华尔街的机构。加利福尼亚州被卷入了这股热潮之中,该州计划在2020年之前把可再生能源电力上网比重提高到33%,现在看来,实现这一目标的可能性正逐步加大。In Germany, where solar panels supply 7 percent of power and wind turbines about 10 percent, wholesale power prices have crashed during what were once the most profitable times of day. “We were late entering into the renewables market — possibly too late,” Peter Terium, chief executive of the giant utility RWE, admitted this spring as he announced a .8 billion annual loss.在德国,太阳能面板和风力涡轮机的发电量分别占总发电量的7%和10%,一度最有利可图的用电高峰期的趸售电价已经大幅下降。公用事业巨头莱茵集团(RWE)的首席执行官彼得˙特里乌姆(Peter Terium)于今年春天宣布该集团亏损了38亿美元时承认:“我们进入可再生能源市场的时间有些晚——也许是太晚了。”The big German utilities are warning — or pleading, perhaps — that the revolution cannot be allowed to go forward without them. And outside experts say they may have a point.德国的这些大型公用事业公司提醒说——也许可以称之为恳求——这场革命要想进行下去,就得带上它们。外部专家称,他们的话或许有点道理。The Achilles’ heel of renewable power is that it is intermittent, so German utilities have had to dial their conventional power plants up and down rapidly to compensate. The plants are not necessarily profitable when operated this way, and the utilities have been threatening to shut down facilities that some analysts say the country needs as backup.可再生能源有一个致命的弱点,即供电的间歇性。因此,德国的公用事业公司不得不通过迅速调高或调低传统发电厂的发电量来保持供需平衡。以这种方式运营的传统发电厂未必有利可图,公用事业公司一直扬言要关闭这些电厂,但有分析人士认为德国需要用它们来应对不时之需。The situation is further complicated by the government’s determination to get rid of Germany’s nuclear power stations over the next decade, the culmination of a long battle that reached its peak after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan. As that plan unfolds, shutting down a source of low-emission power, Germany’s notable success in cutting greenhouse gases has stalled.由于德国政府决意放弃核能,情况变得越发复杂。2011年日本福岛核泄漏事故发生后,在德国存在已久的核电站存废之争终于有了结果:该国政府宣布将用10年时间关闭国内的核电站。随着这一计划的实施,清洁电能的一个来源将被切断,德国在温室气体减排方面取得的令人瞩目的成绩已经停滞不前。In fact, the problems with the energiewende (pronounced in-ur-GEE-vend-uh) have multiplied so rapidly in the past couple of years that the government is now trying to slow down the transition. “I think we need a little bit of time,” said Jochen Flasbarth, a deputy minister of the environment.事实上,能源转型带来的问题在过去几年里迅速增多,以致于德国政府正竭力放缓转型的脚步。“我认为我们还需要一点点时间,”德国环境部副部长约亨·弗拉斯巴斯(Jochen Flasbarth)说。Technological Innovation技术创新As renewable energy sources start to cause gyrations in power supplies and prices, experts contend that clever new market rules could keep the costs reasonable.可再生能源开始让电力供给和价格产生波动之际,有专家认为,如果新建立的市场规则足够明智,应该可以把成本控制在合理范围内。Some of the innovations they recommend are aly in use to some extent — pioneered in the ed States, with Germany avidly studying them. They include regular payments to persuade utilities to keep some fossil-fuel power plants on standby for times when renewable sources lag.他们所推荐的一些新制度,在某种程度上已经得到了应用——这些制度是由美国率先实施的,德国正在积极研究。其中包括定期付费给公用事业公司,令其保留一些化石燃料发电厂,在可再生能源短缺时作应急之用。“It’s like a retainer you pay your lawyer to keep her around in case you need her,” said Jay Apt, an electricity expert at Carnegie Mellon University.“就好比你向你的律师付聘金,以确保她在你需要的时候一定会出现,”卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)的电力专家杰伊·阿普特(Jay Apt)说。For Germans, the unpredictability of onshore renewable power explains the appeal of offshore wind. The stiff, steady breezes in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea mean that turbines built there will produce far more power than land turbines.对德国人而言,由于内陆地区可再生能源电力的产量存在不可预测性,海风的吸引力便显现了出来。北海和波罗的海上空的风力强大而稳定,意味着安装在那里的涡轮机在发电量上远远高于内陆地区的涡轮机。That is why three utilities have virtually seized control of the tiny resort island of Heligoland, renting out one hotel for 10 years straight. It is the most convenient body of land to use as an operations base for the huge wind farms they are installing, with long-range plans to go as far as 125 miles offshore.正因为如此,三家公用事业公司差不多算是把黑尔戈兰岛给占领了,直接与这个度假小岛上的一家酒店签下了10年的租约。它们正按照长期规划建设风电场,一直要建到距海岸125英里远的地方,而黑尔戈兰岛是最适合用来做行动基地的一片陆地。The streets of the island are thronged with well-paid workers. “Really, all areas on Heligoland are profiting,” declared Eike Walenda, the manager of a local outfitter and fueling station.小岛的街道上挤满了待遇优厚的工人。“真的,黑尔戈兰岛每个地块都在获益,”当地一家兼售户外用品的加油站的经理艾克瓦·伦达(Eike Walenda)说。The costs of building in the sea are far higher than on land, of course. The price tag of up to million per turbine is not just for the machine itself, but also for power cables, installation and many other items. To induce utilities to go forward, the government has had to guarantee them power prices of several times the market rate.当然了,海上风电场的建设费用远高于陆地上的费用。每台涡轮机高达3000万美元的身价不仅仅是机器本身的价格,还包含了电缆费、安装费等好多项费用。为了吸引公用事业公司参与这样的项目,德国政府不得不答应它们把电价提高到市价的好几倍。But, just as with earlier forms of renewable technology, the Germans expect the costs of harnessing offshore wind to drop sharply as the market grows over the coming decade. If that happens, the ed States could be a big beneficiary. Studies have shown that offshore wind could supply as much as 15 to 20 percent of the power needed by East Coast cities, and construction is about to start on a handful of American projects.不过,德国人预计在未来10年里,海风发电的成本可以随着市场规模的增长而大幅下降——就像早期的那些可再生能源发电技术那样。要是成本真降下来,美国也许会成为受益者。有研究表明,海风发电可为东海岸城市供应其所需电量的15%至20%;而且美国的几个项目很快就要开工建设了。For now, the German offshore farms are adding billions to the costs consumers are aly bearing for solar panels, onshore wind turbines, biogas plants and the rest of the transition to renewable energy. Polls suggest it is a burden they are willing to carry.德国消费者已经为太阳能板、内陆地区的风力涡轮机、沼气池,以及向可再生能源时代过渡所需的其他一切承担了高昂的成本,现在,他们又要因海风电场而多承担数十亿美元。民意调查显示,他们乐意担起这副担子。“Indeed, the German people are paying significant money,” said Markus Steigenberger, an analyst at Agora, the think tank. “But in Germany, we can afford this — we are a rich country. It’s a gift to the world.”“事实上,德国民众正付出高昂的代价,”能源智库阿哥拉能源转型的分析师马库斯·施泰根贝格尔(Markus Steigenberger)说,“但在德国,我们能够承担得起——我们是富裕国家。这是我们给世界的礼物。” /201410/337348。
  • Finnish music fans who are left disappointed by a sub-par live performance can now get a refund, it#39;s reported.据报道,芬兰乐迷若对现场表现欠佳的演唱会不满意,可获得退款。A landmark decision by the country#39;s Consumer Disputes Board means music fans can ask for their money back if an artist#39;s performance is well below what they reasonably expected, the national broadcaster Yle reports. It follows a complaint by a Chuck Berry fan, who saw the rock and roll pioneer perform inHelsinkiin 2013.Berry, who is now 88 years old, seemed unwell during the concert, and apologized to fans while on stage. The consumer body decided that the event#39;s organizer should refund 50% of the ticket price.芬兰广播公司报道,国家消费者争议委员会作出了一个重大决定:如果音乐迷们觉得某位艺术家的表演低于他们的预期,就可以要求退票。此前,一位粉丝在看过2013年摇滚先锋人物查克·贝里在芬兰首都赫尔辛基的表演后,表示非常不满并发起投诉。贝里现在88岁了,他当时在音乐会上似乎状态不佳,并且在台上向观众道歉。消费者争议委员会决定该活动的组织者应该退还票面价值50%的金额。But it isn#39;t as simple as just not enjoying a performance, according the board#39;s chairman, Paul Stahlberg. ;Anyone seeking a ruling like this is always spurred by a subjective opinion, but that#39;s not enough to get a refund,; he tells Yle. ;What is significant is a generally agreed view that the concert was a failure, as it was in the Chuck Berry case.;据该委员会主席保罗·斯坦伯格表示,申请退款并不仅仅是对表演的不满。“任何想要申请退款的人都或多或少会受主观思想的左右,个人的主观判断并不足以让委员会作出退款判决,”他对芬兰广播公司表示。“观众普遍认为一场演唱会很失败,这才是重要的据,就像查克·贝里那场一样。”While refunds are standard practice for cancelled concerts, it#39;s rare that fans can expect to be reimbursed when one goes ahead. In 2008, singer Neil Diamond offered refunds to 11,000 fans who attended a show inOhio, during which he sounded hoarse. Many ticket-holders walked out when it became apparent Diamond was unwell. The singer was subsequently diagnosed with acute laryngitis, and cancelled two concerts later that week.演唱会取消时会获得退款,这是标准的做法。不过,去现场看了演出还能获得退款就很少见了。2008年,歌手尼尔·戴蒙德在俄亥俄州的一场表演中,歌声嘶哑,完全不在状态,很多歌迷中途离场。后来戴蒙德给1.1万名到场粉丝退了款。该歌手随后被诊断出患有急性喉炎,那一周接下来的两场演唱会也被取消。 /201507/388080。
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